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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 23 February 2010, Vol.107(8), pp.3823-8
    Description: We tested healthy preterm (born near 28 +/- 2 weeks of gestational age) and full-term infants at various different ages. We compared the two populations on the development of a language acquisition landmark, namely, the ability to distinguish the native language from a rhythmically similar one. This ability is attained 4 months after birth in healthy full-term infants. We measured the induced gamma-band power associated with passive listening to (i) the infants' native language (Spanish), (ii) a rhythmically close language (Italian), and (iii) a rhythmically distant language (Japanese) as a marker of gains in language discrimination. Preterm and full-term infants were matched for neural maturation and duration of exposure to broadcast speech. We found that both full-term and preterm infants only display a response to native speech near 6 months after their term age. Neural maturation seems to constrain advances in speech discrimination at early stages of language acquisition.
    Keywords: Language Development ; Infant, Premature -- Psychology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2010, Vol.107(8), pp.3823-3828
    Description: We tested healthy preterm (born near 28 ± 2 weeks of gestational age) and full-term infants at various different ages. We compared the two populations on the development of a language acquisition landmark, namely, the ability to distinguish the native language from a rhythmically similar one. This ability is attained 4 months after birth in healthy full-term infants. We measured the induced gamma-band power associated with passive listening to (i) the infants' native language (Spanish), (ii) a rhythmically close language (Italian), and (iii) a rhythmically distant language (Japanese) as a marker of gains in language discrimination. Preterm and full-term infants were matched for neural maturation and duration of exposure to broadcast speech. We found that both full-term and preterm infants only display a response to native speech near 6 months after their term age. Neural maturation seems to constrain advances in speech discrimination at early stages of language acquisition. ; Includes references ; p. 3823-3828.
    Keywords: Language Acquisition -- Research ; Infant Development -- Research;
    ISSN: 0027-8424
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, September 2011, Vol.116(F3), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: In this paper, I investigate flow and suspended sediment transport in fluvial channels and develop an analytical theory to account for the effects of stratification on the flow field and on sediment concentration. The turbulence closure needed to account for density stratification is adapted from the model of Mellor and Yamada (1982). Solutions are found for both straight and constant curvature channels. In the latter case, in order to evaluate the secondary flow induced by curvature, I take advantage of the fact that the ratio of flow depth to radius of curvature is typically small in the field, which leads to a solution of the governing equations through an appropriate asymptotic expansion. Steady fully developed flow conditions in a bend of constant width are considered. Results show that buoyancy, besides affecting the vertical profiles of longitudinal velocity and concentration through a reduction of eddy viscosity and eddy diffusivity, enhances significantly the vertical distribution of lateral velocity. I then speculate that this stronger helical flow in river bends should lead to steeper lateral bed profiles with respect to the unstratified case. Such hypothesis is supported by an application of the Exner equation to the ideal case of a uniform and steady flow in constant curvature channels. It also appears that particle size crucially affects bed morphology as it affects the flux of suspended sediment under stratified conditions. The analytical model is validated by comparing predictions with laboratory investigations showing excellent agreement. It is shown that sediment‐laden flows experience an additional friction with respect to clear water flows. This can be accounted for by simply increasing the effective bed roughness. A relation for this additional contribution in terms of the near bed Richardson number is derived by fitting the results of the stratified model to experimental observations. The potential use of the present approach and further developments are finally discussed. Analytical theory able to account for the effects of stratification on the flow Influence of stratification on bed morphology Comparison with experimental data in straight channels
    Keywords: Meandering ; Stratification ; Suspended Sediment
    ISSN: 0148-0227
    E-ISSN: 2156-2202
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Energy & Buildings, Nov, 2013, Vol.66, p.49(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.07.028 Byline: Marco Pittaluga Abstract: acents Today buildings would have to be dynamic entities. acents Electrochromic (EC) materials change reversibly their transparency. acents A building has been simulated: with normal wall, with Trombe wall, with EC wall. acents EC wall behaves in winter as a Trombe wall and in summer as a ventilated facade. acents Electrochromic wall allows an energy saving for air conditioning. Author Affiliation: Civil Engineering, Environmental and Architecture Department, Cagliari University, Italy Article History: Received 9 October 2012; Revised 17 May 2013; Accepted 10 July 2013
    ISSN: 0378-7788
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, March 19, 2013, Vol.110(12), p.4804(6)
    Description: Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and are unique potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The acetylating agent L-acetylcarnitine (LAC), a well-tolerated drug, behaves as an antidepressant by the epigenetic regulation of type 2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors. It caused a rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effect in Flinders Sensitive Line rats and in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable stress, which, respectively, model genetic and environmentally induced depression. In both models, LAC increased levels of acetylated H3K27 bound to the Grm2 promoter and also increased acetylation of NF-KB-p65 subunit, thereby enhancing the transcription of Grm2 gene encoding for the mGlu2 receptor in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Importantly, LAC reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test and increased sucrose preference as early as 3 d of treatment, whereas 14 d of treatment were needed for the antidepressant effect of chlorimipramine. Moreover, there was no tolerance to the action of LAC, and the antidepressant effect was still seen 2 wk after drug withdrawal. Conversely, NF-kB inhibition prevented the increase in mGlu2 expression induced by LAC, whereas the use of a histone deacetylase inhibitor supported the epigenetic control of mGlu2 expression. Finally, LAC had no effect on mGlu2 knockout mice exposed to chronic unpredictable stress, and a single injection of the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 partially blocked LAC action. The rapid and long-lasting antidepressant action of LAC strongly suggests a unique approach to examine the epigenetic hypothesis of depressive disorders in humans, paving the way for more efficient antidepressants with faster onset of action. doi/10.1073/pnas.1216100110
    Keywords: Antidepressants -- Research ; Antidepressants -- Analysis ; Depression (Mood disorder) -- Research ; Depression (Mood disorder) -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Information Technologies & International Development, Winter, 2012, Vol.8(4), p.145(30)
    Description: This article analyzes the changes experienced in the digital divide as a result of the implementation of a one-laptop-per-child national policy. The program has been implemented in Uruguay since 2007, and it is known as the "Plan CEIBAL." It is an adaptation of the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) project devised by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Two sources of information have been used: The annual household survey called Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH), prepared by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (INE) of Uruguay, and interviews conducted among relevant local officers and adult persons from households equipped with Plan CEIBAL laptops. It was concluded that Plan CEIBAL has helped to narrow the digital divide in terms of access to computers and Internet connectivity from education centers. Furthermore, additional changes have been verified regarding other aspects of the digital divide relating to the acquisition and use of computers for human development purposes typical of one-laptop-per-child schemes. El presente articulo analiza los cambios producidos en la brecha digital a partir de la implementacion de una politica nacional de modalidad 1 a 1.Se trata del Plan CEIBAL, en Uruguay, constituido por una adaptacion del proyecto One Laptop per Child (OLPC) del Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT) e iniciado en el ano 2007. Se utilizaron dos fuentes de informacion: la Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH) anual, elaborada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (INE) de Uruguay, y entrevistas realizadas a adultos de hogares equipados con la computadora del Plan CEIBAL y a actores locales relevantes. Se arribo a la conclusion de que el Plan CEIBAL ha contribuido a la reduccion de la brecha digital en terminos del acceso y la conectividad desde el centro escolar. A su vez, se han verificado cambios adicionales que refieren a las otras dimensiones de la brecha digital relativas a la apropiacion y el aprovechamiento con fines de desarrollo humano caracteristicos de la modalidad 1 a 1.
    Keywords: Digital Divide -- Research ; Laptop Computers -- Usage ; Educational Technology -- Research ; Internet Access -- Research ; Technology And Society
    ISSN: 1544-7529
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, 2017, Vol.100, pp.9-17
    Keywords: Energy Consumption – Analysis ; Air Pollution Control – Planning
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, January 2017, Vol.100, pp.9-17
    Description: The Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP), promoted by the Covenant of Mayor, is a key tool for policies aimed at reducing fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in accordance with the Kyoto protocol and its updates. To achieve an actual implementation of the SEAP and to obtain its expected targets, monitoring is a crucial component. SEAP monitoring has to look at both the progress of each single action and its global environmental effect, which requires more than one level of development. In the present paper, an integrated strategy for surveying, controlling and managing the SEAP through a “Monitoring and Evaluation” (M&E) process is introduced. The implementation in the city of Genoa, Italy, was used to test the efficacy of this approach and to assess its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, cost benefit analysis, bankability, peer review and participatory level were identified as key elements for obtaining an operative SEAP monitoring and for then fostering an effective environmental energy policy. Some recommendations were proposed to better outline the “Monitoring and Evaluation” methodology and to help other cities to define a strategy for SEAP monitoring and fulfilment.
    Keywords: Sustainable Energy Planning ; Covenant of Mayors ; Monitoring and Evaluation ; Ghg Emissions Monitoring ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, 2017, Vol.100, pp.9-17
    Keywords: Energy Consumption – Analysis ; Air Pollution Control – Planning
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Tetrahedron Letters, 10 October 2012, Vol.53(41), pp.5488-5491
    Description: An efficient and regioselective procedure for the synthesis of a series of alkyl(aryl/heteroaryl) substituted 3-trifluoromethyl-1 -1-phenylpyrazoles and alkyl 3-carboxylate analogs, from the cyclocondensation reactions of 4-alkoxy-1,1,1-trihaloalk-3-en-2-ones [CX C(O)CR =CR (OMe/OEt), where R = H, Me, Ph, 2-Furyl; R = H; R -R = -C H - and X = F, Cl] and 1-phenylsemicarbazide in an acidified alcoholic medium (R OH/H SO ), where R = Me, Et, Pr was successfully applied and is described here in detail.
    Keywords: Phenylpyrazoles ; 3-Trifluoromethylpyrazoles ; Esterification Reactions ; Cyclization Reactions ; Phenylsemicarbazides ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    E-ISSN: 1873-3581
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