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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 2012, Vol.2, pp.22
    Description: Several intercellular bacterial communication mechanisms have been identified in a broad range of bacterial species. These systems, collectively termed quorum-sensing systems, have been demonstrated to play significant roles in a variety of bacterial processes including motility, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes, and animal colonization. Campylobacter jejuni is known to possess a LuxS/ autoinducer-2 (AI-2) mediated system that have been partially characterized over the last decade. AI-2 is formed as a byproduct of the activated methyl recycling pathway, specifically by the LuxS enzyme. Previous work in our laboratory and that of others has demonstrated that this gene is involved in a variety of physiologic pathways of C. jejuni including motility, autoagglutination, cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) expression, flagellar expression, oxidative stress, and animal colonization. This review article will summarize the current research associated with LuxS in C. jejuni and will provide insights into the role of this system in the metabolism and intercellular communication of this organism. Additionally, the evidence for other quorum-sensing pathways in Campylobacter will be discussed.
    Keywords: AI-2 ; Campylobacter ; Hsl ; Quorum-Sensing ; Virulence ; Quorum Sensing ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Campylobacter Jejuni -- Physiology ; Carbon-Sulfur Lyases -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 2235-2988
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(11), p.e0141337
    Description: In an effort to reduce feed costs, many pork producers have increased their use of coproducts of biofuel production in commercial pig diets, including increased feeding of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The inclusion of DDGS increases the insoluble fiber content in the ration,...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, Nov 10, 2015, Vol.10(11)
    Description: In an effort to reduce feed costs, many pork producers have increased their use of coproducts of biofuel production in commercial pig diets, including increased feeding of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The inclusion of DDGS increases the insoluble fiber content in the ration, which has the potential to impact the colonic microbiota considerably as the large intestine contains a dynamic microenvironment with tremendous interplay between microorganisms. Any alteration to the physical or chemical properties of the colonic contents has the potential to impact the resident bacterial population and potentially favor or inhibit the establishment of pathogenic species. In the present study, colonic contents collected at necropsy from pigs fed either 30% or no DDGS were analyzed to examine the relative abundance of bacterial taxa associated with feeding this ingredient. No difference in alpha diversity (richness) was detected between diet groups. However, the beta diversity was significantly different between groups with feeding of DDGS being associated with a decreased Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes ratio (P = .004) and a significantly lower abundance of Lactobacillus spp. (P = .016). Predictive functional profiling of the microbiota revealed more predicted genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, protein digestion, and degradation of glycans in the microbiota of pigs fed DDGS. Taken together, these findings confirm that alterations in dietary insoluble fiber significantly alter the colonic microbial profile of pigs and suggest the resultant microbiome may predispose to the development of colitis.
    Keywords: Microbiota (Symbiotic Organisms) -- Identification And Classification ; Animal Feeding And Feeds -- Testing ; Host-Bacteria Relationships -- Research ; Medical Research
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Dairy Science, May 2016, Vol.99(5), pp.3718-3731
    Description: Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle in the United States, with prevalence estimates as high as 30%. Whereas clinical lesions have been well described, little is known about the morphologic changes that are associated with the early stages of lesion development from normal skin to clinical lesions. This study used the Iowa DD scoring system to evaluate the epidemiology of natural lesion development by digitally photographing the rear legs of a cohort of dairy cows over a 3-yr period. Sixty-one adult Holstein dairy cows were monitored for 1,032 cow foot-months. The incidence rate of lesion development was 4 lesions per 100 cow foot-months, with the average time for a lesion to develop being 133 d. Whereas 20% of the 1,678 foot observations exhibited clinical DD lesions, an additional 55% of all observations exhibited preclinical stage 1 and 2 lesions that were indicative of DD lesion development. Utilizing the dichotomous categorization of preclinical lesions in the Iowa DD scoring system, it was found that first-lactation heifers had a higher rate of the thickened and crusted “B” type lesions, whereas the ulcerative “A” type lesions were more likely to be identified in multiparous animals. For clinical DD lesions that received topical treatment, scoring of the post-treatment lesions using the Iowa DD scoring system was found to be useful in prognosticating both the risk of recrudescence and the time until recrudescence. Systemic disease, systemic antibiotic therapy, and periparturient stress were not associated with an increase or decrease in DD lesion scores. Treatment with a single topical tetracycline wrap was associated with a significant decrease (−1.17) in DD lesion score. The results of this study demonstrate that the complex morphologic changes associated with digital dermatitis can be readily classified using the Iowa DD scoring system and the scores can be used to predict and monitor the effects of treatment and prevention measures.
    Keywords: Bovine Digital Dermatitis ; Lameness ; Epidemiology ; Lesion Scoring ; Dairy Cattle ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0022-0302
    E-ISSN: 1525-3198
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, July 2017, Vol.33(2), pp.165-181
    Description: Digital dermatitis is a polybacterial disease process of dairy and beef cattle. Lesions are most commonly identified on the plantar aspect of the interdigital cleft of the hind limbs. spp are routinely present in large numbers of active lesions. Lesions are painful to the touch and can result in clinical lameness. The infectious nature generally results in endemic infection of cattle herds and management requires a comprehensive and integrated multipronged approach. This article provides current perspectives regarding management and treatment of digital dermatitis on dairy and beef cattle operations and provides a review for clinicians dealing with a clinical outbreak.
    Keywords: Digital Dermatitis ; Treponema ; Bovine ; Lameness ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0749-0720
    E-ISSN: 1558-4240
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Statistics, 01 February 2014, Vol.41(2), pp.423-438
    Description: This work examines the problem of locating changes in the distribution of a Compound Poisson Process where the variables being summed are iid normal and the number of variable follows the Poisson distribution. A Bayesian approach is developed to identify the location of significant changes...
    Keywords: Bayesian Inference ; Change Point ; Compound Poisson Process ; Non-Informative Priors ; DNA Copy Numbers ; Cnv'S ; Acgh Data ; Statistics ; Mathematics
    ISSN: 0266-4763
    E-ISSN: 1360-0532
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, August 2014, Vol.82(8), pp.3359-73
    Description: Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle throughout the world. Despite 35 years of research, the definitive etiologic agent associated with the disease process is still unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that multiple bacterial species are associated with lesions, with spirochetes being the most reliably identified organism. This study details the deep sequencing-based metagenomic evaluation of 48 staged DD biopsy specimens collected during a 3-year longitudinal study of disease progression. Over 175 million sequences were evaluated by utilizing both shotgun and 16S metagenomic techniques. Based on the shotgun sequencing results, there was no evidence of a fungal or DNA viral etiology. The bacterial microbiota of biopsy specimens progresses through a systematic series of changes that correlate with the novel morphological lesion scoring system developed as part of this project. This scoring system was validated, as the microbiota of each stage was statistically significantly different from those of other stages (P 〈 0.001). The microbiota of control biopsy specimens were the most diverse and became less diverse as lesions developed. Although Treponema spp. predominated in the advanced lesions, they were in relatively low abundance in the newly described early lesions that are associated with the initiation of the disease process. The consortium of Treponema spp. identified at the onset of disease changes considerably as the lesions progress through the morphological stages identified. The results of this study support the hypothesis that DD is a polybacterial disease process and provide unique insights into the temporal changes in bacterial populations throughout lesion development.
    Keywords: Microbiota ; Digital Dermatitis -- Microbiology
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS One, San Francisco: Public Library of Science
    Description: Article discussing a study that was conducted to understand the basis of a bacterial infection that is common among dairy cows.
    Keywords: Dairy ; Cows ; Pyrosequencing ; Amplicons ; Bacteria ; Microbiology
    ISSN: 19326203
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2016, Vol.11(4), p.e0154481
    Description: Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    In: Molecular Microbiology, September 2016, Vol.101(6), pp.909-923
    Description: Toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are widely distributed in bacteria and play an important role in maintaining plasmid stability. The leading foodborne pathogen, , can carry multiple plasmids associated with antibiotic resistance or virulence. Previously a virulence plasmid named pVir was identified in 81‐176 and IA3902, but determining the role of pVir in pathogenesis has been hampered because the plasmid cannot be cured. In this study, we report the identification of two TA systems that are located on the pVir plasmid in 81‐176 and IA3902, respectively. The (proteic antitoxin)/ (proteic toxin) pair in IA3902 belongs to a Type II TA system, while the (RNA antitoxin)/ (proteic toxin) pair in 81‐176 belongs to a Type I TA system. Notably, (antitoxin) represents the first noncoding small RNA demonstrated to play a functional role in physiology to date. By inactivating the TA systems, pVir was readily cured from , indicating their functionality in . Using pVir‐cured IA3902, we demonstrated that pVir is not required for abortion induction in the guinea pig model. These findings establish the key role of the TA systems in maintaining plasmid stability and provide a means to evaluate the function of pVir in pathobiology. is a major zoonotic pathogen. Here we present the first identification of toxin‐antitoxin (TA) systems in this organism, which play an important role in maintaining the stability of virulence plasmid pVir. Both toxins are proteic and inhibit cell growth by degrading cellular mRNA. Antitoxin VirA neutralizes toxin VirT by protein‐protein interaction, while antitoxin detoxifies toxin CjpT by binding to its mRNA.
    Keywords: Virulence ; Antitoxins ; Food ; Abortion ; Pathogens ; Plasmids ; Protein Interaction ; Antibiotic Resistance ; Toxins ; Mrna ; Campylobacter Jejuni ; Animal Diseases;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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