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  • 1
    In: Molecular Microbiology, December 2010, Vol.78(6), pp.1327-1331
    Description: Although most bacterial small RNAs act to repress target mRNAs, some also activate messengers. The predominant mode of activation has been seen in ‘anti‐antisense’ regulation whereby a small RNA prevents the formation of an inhibitory 5′ mRNA structure that otherwise impairs translational initiation and protein synthesis. The translational activation might also stabilize the target yet this was considered a secondary effect in the examples known thus far. Two recent papers in investigate post‐transcriptional activation of collagenase mRNA by VR‐RNA, and streptokinase mRNA by FasX RNA, to suggest that small RNAs exert positive regulation of virulence genes primarily at the level of mRNA stabilization.
    Keywords: Protein Synthesis ; Messenger Rna;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 March 2012, Vol.109(13), pp.E757-64
    Description: SgrS RNA is a model for the large class of Hfq-associated small RNAs that act to posttranscriptionally regulate bacterial mRNAs. The function of SgrS is well-characterized in nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, where it was originally shown to counteract glucose-phosphate stress by acting as a repressor of the ptsG mRNA, which encodes the major glucose transporter. We have discovered additional SgrS targets in Salmonella Typhimurium, a pathogen related to E. coli that recently acquired one-quarter of all genes by horizontal gene transfer. We show that the conserved short seed region of SgrS that recognizes ptsG was recruited to target the Salmonella-specific sopD mRNA of a secreted virulence protein. The SgrS-sopD interaction is exceptionally selective; we find that sopD2 mRNA, whose gene arose from sopD duplication during Salmonella evolution, is deaf to SgrS because of a nonproductive G-U pair in the potential SgrS-sopD2 RNA duplex vs. G-C in SgrS-sopD. In other words, SgrS discriminates the two virulence factor mRNAs at the level of a single hydrogen bond. Our study suggests that bacterial pathogens use their large suites of conserved Hfq-associated regulators to integrate horizontally acquired genes into existing posttranscriptional networks, just as conserved transcription factors are recruited to tame foreign genes at the DNA level. The results graphically illustrate the importance of the seed regions of bacterial small RNAs to select new targets with high fidelity and suggest that target predictions must consider all or none decisions by individual seed nucleotides.
    Keywords: Phylogeny ; Base Pairing -- Genetics ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal -- Genetics ; RNA, Bacterial -- Genetics ; Salmonella -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 3
    In: Molecular Microbiology, May 2012, Vol.84(3), pp.428-445
    Description: MicF is a textbook example of a small regulatory RNA (sRNA) that acts on a ‐encoded target mRNA through imperfect base pairing. Discovery of MicF as a post‐transcriptional repressor of the major porin OmpF established the paradigm for a meanwhile common mechanism of translational inhibition, through antisense sequestration of a ribosome binding site. However, whether MicF regulates additional genes has remained unknown for almost three decades. Here, we have harnessed the new superfolder variant of GFP for reporter–gene fusions to validate newly predicted targets of MicF in . We show that the conserved 5′ end of MicF acts by seed pairing to repress the mRNAs of global transcriptional regulator Lrp, and periplasmic protein YahO, while a second targeting region is also required to regulate the mRNA of the lipid A‐modifying enzyme LpxR. Interestingly, MicF targets at both the ribosome binding site and deep within the coding sequence. MicF binding in the coding sequence of decreases mRNA stability through exacerbating the use of a native RNase E site proximal to the short MicF‐ duplex. Altogether, this study assigns the classic MicF sRNA to the growing class of Hfq‐associated regulators that use diverse mechanisms to impact multiple loci.
    Keywords: E Coli ; Binding Sites ; Protein Folding ; Genetics ; RNA-Protein Interactions;
    ISSN: 0950-382X
    E-ISSN: 1365-2958
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2012, Vol.905, pp.177-200
    Description: Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are short, generally noncoding RNAs that act posttranscriptionally to control target gene expression. Over the past 10 years there has been a rapid expansion in the discovery and characterization of sRNAs in a diverse range of bacteria. Paradigm shifts in our understanding of the breadth of posttranscriptional control by sRNAs were achieved in a number of pioneering studies that involved immunoprecipitation of a known RNA chaperone, the near-ubiquitous Hfq, followed by sequencing to identify novel putative regulators and targets. To perform the converse experiment, we previously developed a method which uses an aptamer-tagged sRNA to allow purification of in vivo assembled RNA-protein complexes and subsequent identification of bound proteins. We successfully implemented this protocol using the Hfq-associated sRNA, InvR, tagged with a tandem repeat of the commonly used MS2-aptamer. Incorporation of the aptamer had no effect on sRNA stability or activity. InvR-MS2 could be effectively purified along with associated proteins, such as Hfq, using maltose binding protein fused to the MS2 coat protein (MBP-MS2) immobilized on an amylose column. Mass-spectroscopy was also used to identify previously uncharacterized protein partners. These results have been described previously (Said et al., Nucleic Acids Res 37:e133, 2009) and thus the figures presented here are intended solely as an illustrative guide to complement this detailed step-by-step protocol.
    Keywords: Aptamers, Nucleotide -- Metabolism ; RNA, Small Untranslated -- Metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins -- Metabolism
    ISBN: 9781617799488
    ISSN: 10643745
    E-ISSN: 1940-6029
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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