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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The open microbiology journal, 2011, Vol.5, pp.128-34
    Description: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogen causing severe lower respiratory tract infections in all age groups often requiring hospitalization. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of RSV infection significantly decreases the use of antibiotics, additional laboratory testing and is associated with shorter hospitalization periods. The specific diagnosis of RSV infection is based on the detection of virus or viral antigens or virus specific nucleic acid sequences in respiratory secretions. The kind and quality of the clinical specimen exerts a considerable influence on the results of all currently used viral detection assays. Antigen based tests are widely available, easy to perform and the results are available in a short time but their reduced sensitivity and specificity represent a considerable shortcoming. Among the methods available isolation in cell culture was considered the gold standard for the sensitive identification of RSV but is gradually replaced by highly sensitive and specific nucleic acid amplification assays that provide more rapid results. Of these reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was the first and is still the most frequently used nucleic acid-based assay. New methodologies, as for example the real-time PCR methods allow the quantification of viral nucleic acids in the clinical sample. Disadvantages of the nucleic acid based assays are their high costs and their limited standardization.Future research on new methodologies for the diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections should focus on the development of sensitive, rapid and cost effective test systems allowing the screening for all probable causative agents. In addition varying testing protocols for summer and winter months based on epidemiologic data are needed to direct their practical use.
    Keywords: Respiratory Syncytial Virus ; Cardiopulmonary ; Immunofluorescent. ; Sporadic
    E-ISSN: 1874-2858
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Pediatrics, November 2011, Vol.159(5), pp.859-861
    Description: To differentiate active human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) infection from inherited HHV-6 (iHHV-6), we analyzed dried blood spots from archived newborn screening cards in 3 patients with high HHV-6 DNA copy numbers. Two patients were positive for HHV-6 DNA as neonates suggesting iHHV-6. In 1 patient, the absence of HHV-6 DNA excluded iHHV-6.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3476
    E-ISSN: 1097-6833
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 February 2010, Vol.201(3), pp.354-62
    Description: BACKGROUND. The nonstructural protein NS1 of influenza virus counteracts the interferon-mediated immune response of the host. By deleting the open reading frame of NS1, we have generated a novel type of influenza vaccine. We studied the safety and immunogenicity of an influenza strain lacking the NS1 gene (DeltaNS1-H1N1) in healthy volunteers. METHODS. Healthy seronegative adult volunteers were randomized to receive either a single intranasal dose of the DeltaNS1-H1N1 A/New Caledonia vaccine at 1 of 5 dose levels (6.4, 6.7, 7.0, 7.4, and 7.7 log(10) median tissue culture infective dose) (n = 36 recipients) or placebo (n = 12 recipients). RESULTS. Intranasal vaccination with the replication-deficient DeltaNS1-H1N1 vaccine was well tolerated. Rhinitis-like symptoms and headache were the most common adverse events identified during the 28-day observation period. Adverse events were similarly distributed between the treatment and placebo groups. Vaccine-specific local and serum antibodies were induced in a dose-dependent manner. In the highest dose group, vaccine-specific antibodies were detected in 10 of 12 volunteers. Importantly, the vaccine also induced neutralizing antibodies against heterologous drift variants. CONCLUSIONS. We show that vaccination with an influenza virus strain lacking the viral interferon antagonist NS1 induces statistically significant levels of strain-specific and cross-neutralizing antibodies despite the highly attenuated replication-deficient phenotype. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these results translate into protection from influenza virus infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00724997 .
    Keywords: Influenza A Virus, H1n1 Subtype -- Immunology ; Influenza Vaccines -- Immunology ; Influenza, Human -- Prevention & Control ; Vaccines, Attenuated -- Immunology ; Viral Nonstructural Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European journal of epidemiology, July 2012, Vol.27(7), pp.567-75
    Description: Influenza epidemics lead to an increase in hospitalizations and deaths. Up to now the overall impact of attributable deaths due to seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in Austria has not been investigated in detail. Therefore we compared the number and age distribution of influenza associated deaths during ten influenza epidemic seasons to those observed during the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 season. A Poisson model, relating age and daily deaths to week of influenza season using national mortality and viral surveillance data adjusted for the confounding effect of co-circulating Respiratory Syncytial Virus was used. We estimated an average of 316 influenza associated deaths per seasonal influenza epidemic (1999/2000-2008/2009) and 264 for the pandemic influenza season 2009/2010 in the area of Vienna, Austria. Comparing the mortality data for seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in different age groups revealed a statistically significant increase in mortality for pandemic A(H1N1)2009 influenza virus in the age groups below 34 years of age and a significant decrease in mortality in those above 55 years. Our data adjusted for co-circulating RSV confirm the different mortality pattern of seasonal and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus in different age groups.
    Keywords: Cause of Death ; Seasons ; Influenza, Human -- Mortality ; Pandemics -- Statistics & Numerical Data
    ISSN: 03932990
    E-ISSN: 1573-7284
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 15 January 2003, Vol.187(2), pp.311-4
    Description: Serum samples from 68 immunocompetent infants (mean age, 12.6 months) with an acute adenovirus infection of the respiratory tract (39 experiencing their first adenovirus infection) were tested for the presence of adenovirus DNA, to investigate whether viral dissemination via the blood is usually present in the immunocompetent patient. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction assay, adenovirus DNA could be detected in acute-phase serum samples from 28 (41%) children. Adenovirus DNA was never found in follow-up serum samples, indicating a short period ( approximately 1 week) of viral dissemination. In children experiencing their first adenovirus infection, viral DNA could be detected in 72% of the acute-phase serum samples collected within the first week after onset of symptoms. Adenovirus DNA could also be detected in 25% of the acute-phase serum samples from patients with reinfection.
    Keywords: Adenoviridae -- Genetics ; Adenovirus Infections, Human -- Virology ; DNA, Viral -- Blood ; Respiratory Tract Infections -- Virology
    ISSN: 0022-1899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Epidemiology, 2012, Vol.27(7), pp.567-575
    Description: Influenza epidemics lead to an increase in hospitalizations and deaths. Up to now the overall impact of attributable deaths due to seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in Austria has not been investigated in detail. Therefore we compared the number and age distribution of influenza associated deaths during ten influenza epidemic seasons to those observed during the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 season. A Poisson model, relating age and daily deaths to week of influenza season using national mortality and viral surveillance data adjusted for the confounding effect of co-circulating Respiratory Syncytial Virus was used. We estimated an average of 316 influenza associated deaths per seasonal influenza epidemic (1999/2000–2008/2009) and 264 for the pandemic influenza season 2009/2010 in the area of Vienna, Austria. Comparing the mortality data for seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in different age groups revealed a statistically significant increase in mortality for pandemic A(H1N1)2009 influenza virus in the age groups below 34 years of age and a significant decrease in mortality in those above 55 years. Our data adjusted for co-circulating RSV confirm the different mortality pattern of seasonal and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus in different age groups.
    Keywords: Influenza mortality ; Pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 ; Influenza attributable deaths ; Influenza in Austria
    ISSN: 0393-2990
    E-ISSN: 1573-7284
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 2007, Vol.25(32), pp.6061-6069
    Description: Human influenza viruses are subject to continuous antigenic drift and this phenomenon poses great problems for the annual production of vaccines which should ideally be manufactured from strains closely matching the predominant strains of the coming influenza season. We have investigated the dynamics of antigenic and genetic changes in the hemagglutinins of circulating influenza A/H3N2 strains in three consecutive seasons (2002/2003 to 2004/2005) in Austria by sequence analysis of the HA1 domain and by antigenic characterization using a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Each of the three seasons was dominated by a single and different H3N2 variant, but in all cases sequencing revealed the co-circulation of a drift variant which would have been missed by conventional antigenic analysis. These emerging strains always showed already a close genetic relationship to the dominating strain of the following season. Our results underscore the value of monitoring seasonal influenza strain dynamics by sequence analysis as an instrument that can provide important and timely information on the appearance of strains with epidemiologic significance.
    Keywords: Influenza Surveillance ; Genetic and Antigenic Influenza Characterization ; Influenza Hemagglutinins ; Influenza A/H3n2 Viruses ; Medicine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Medical Virology, June 2014, Vol.86(6), pp.1048-1055
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmv.23912/abstract Byline: Monika Redlberger-Fritz, Sonja Hirk, Dieter Buchinger, Renate Haberl, Markus Hell, Nicole Perkmann-Nagele, Michael Kundi, Therese Popow-Kraupp During the influenza pandemic 2009 children and adults differed in the clinical course of the influenza disease. In following the question arose, if the case definitions used within the national and international organizations are an adequate tool for the clinical diagnosis of influenza in children as well as in adults. Therefore medical charts from 146 children and 229 adults were retrospectively analyzed. In addition, the initial viral loads of all 375 patients and the duration of virus shedding of a subset of 79 patients were also investigated. Children show a wider clinical spectrum including gastro enteric symptoms and also a different spectrum of laboratory parameters like elevated CRP-levels, leucocytosis, and higher viral loads. Further, children show significantly more often complications, for example, myositis that may be underdiagnosed. In patients receiving antiviral-therapy complications occurred significantly less often and the presence of symptoms was significantly shorter compared to the untreated group (2.3 days vs. 6.0 days). In summary, the differences in the clinical picture between children and adults should be taken into consideration for the clinical diagnosis of influenza and also for a future discussion on age specific influenza case definitions. J. Med. Virol. 86:1048-1055, 2014. [c] 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Article Note: Conflict of interest: None declared.
    Keywords: Influenza AH1n1Pdm09 Virus ; Clinical Manifestations ; Viral Laboratory Parameters ; Comparative Analysis ; Differences Between Children And Adults ; Antiviral Therapy
    ISSN: 0146-6615
    E-ISSN: 1096-9071
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  • 9
    In: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 2010, Vol.29(11), pp.1016-1018
    Description: BACKGROUND:: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major cause of respiratory tract illness in young children and causes annual outbreaks in winter and spring seasons. We evaluated the subgroups of HMPV that caused annual outbreaks and its seasonal occurrence during a 21-year period. METHODS:: Real-time PCR was used for detection of HMPV in 3576 nasopharyngeal aspirates that had been continuously collected year-round for the years 1987 to 2008 from infants hospitalized with acute respiratory tract illness. Phylogenetic analysis was used to assess HMPV subgroups. RESULTS:: Of the 3576 samples obtained, 202 (5.6%) tested positive for HMPV. All known HMPV subgroups (A1, A2a, A2b, B1, B2) could be identified as important respiratory tract pathogens in infants. We found that one HMPV subgroup predominated each year, and it was displaced by another subgroup every 1 to 3 years. Besides the frequent change in predominant HMPV subgroups, we observed a yearly shift in the seasonal occurrence, with a strong peak of HMPV activity in late spring-summer months every second year. CONCLUSION:: HMPV activity is characterized by a periodic change in the predominant subgroup and it shows a stable seasonal rhythm of alternating winter and spring activity.
    Keywords: Austria–Epidemiology ; Disease Outbreaks–Classification ; Humans–Genetics ; Infant–Isolation & Purification ; Metapneumovirus–Microbiology ; Nasopharynx–Epidemiology ; Paramyxoviridae Infections–Microbiology ; Retrospective Studies–Microbiology ; Seasons–Microbiology;
    ISSN: 0891-3668
    E-ISSN: 15320987
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 04/1995, Vol.345(8957), p.1124
    Description: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare slowly progressive disease of the central nervous system in children and young adults caused by defective measles virus; it has been observed in many ethnic groups with an incidence of about 1 case per million children. First signs and symptoms of SSPE are usually recognized several years after initial contact with the virus with a mean age of onset of 7 to 8 years. One of the risk factors for SSPE so far recognized is measles virus infection below 1 year of age. We report a case of onset of SSPE in early infancy as a consequence of intrauterine measles virus infection acquired shortly before delivery.
    Keywords: Measles Virus ; Congenital Infection ; Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis ; Infants ; Symptomatology, Pathology & Etiology;
    ISSN: 01406736
    ISSN: 00995355
    E-ISSN: 1474547X
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