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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, October 2011, Vol.128(4), pp.e779-85
    Description: Childhood lifestyle interventions usually involve the families. However, knowledge of family characteristics that promote or constrain a child's weight-reduction outcome is limited. Candidates for such factors might be family characteristics that have proven to be associated with social adjustment (development) in childhood. Thus, we analyzed whether family adversity, maternal depression, and attachment insecurity predict long-term success in children's weight reduction. Participants in the study were 111 parent-child dyads with overweight and obese children/adolescents (BMI mean: 29.07 [SD: 4.7] [range: 21.4-44.9]; BMI SD score mean: 2.43 [SD: 0.44] [range: 1.31-3.54]) aged between 7 and 15 years. The families took part in a best-practice lifestyle intervention of 1 year's duration. A longitudinal analysis with 3 assessment waves (baseline, conclusion, 1-year follow-up) was conducted. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that long-term success (at least 5% weight reduction by the 1-year follow-up) versus failure (dropping out or less weight reduction) was significantly predicted by the set of psychosocial variables (family adversity, maternal depression, and attachment insecurity) when we controlled for familial obesity, preintervention overweight, age, and gender of the index child and parental educational level. Maternal depression proved to be the best predictor. Maintenance of weight reduction between the conclusion of the program and the 1-year-follow-up was also predicted by the set of psychosocial variables. Maternal insecure-anxious attachment attitudes best predicted this criterion. Although cross-validation is required, our results are the first evidence for proximal and distal family characteristics linked to long-term weight-reduction outcomes. The results suggest a need to create tailored intervention modules that address the difficulties of these families.
    Keywords: Family Relations ; Life Style ; Weight Loss ; Overweight -- Psychology
    ISSN: 00314005
    E-ISSN: 1098-4275
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Child Abuse & Neglect, November 2017, Vol.73, pp.24-29
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.09.011 Byline: Robbin Pott Abstract: This article discusses the need to improve the quality of helping relationships between families and social workers in the child protection system and the growing body of evidence that teams of social workers and lawyers are effective at improving outcomes in child protection legal proceedings. The author presents an alternative structure of delivering social work services within the child protection systems once a court gets involved with a family, proposing that social workers should focus on individual clients in collaboration with their legal representation, rather than the traditional model of a governmental agency social worker serving the family as a unit as it also determines placement of the children. Pairing the social worker to an individual client in tandem with their legal representative would help resolve the widely observed relationship problems between service users and governmental agency social workers that include the power imbalance created by the agency's authority to determine placement of children, the conflicts of interest that agency workers face when required to manage differing family members' needs, and the lack of protection of the due process right of confidentiality for parties involved in legal proceedings. This alternative structure also impacts the need to use resources more efficiently and has been demonstrated to result in substantial returns on investment. This article concludes that when a family becomes involved in child abuse and neglect legal proceedings, the child welfare agency should shift the delivery of social work services to the individual parties, away from the governmental agency and in conjunction with their legal representation. Article History: Received 12 November 2016; Revised 12 July 2017; Accepted 10 September 2017 Article Note: (footnote) [star] This research was supported by the Children's Bureau, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Department of Administration for Children and Families, cooperative agreement no. 90CO1047.
    Keywords: Multidisciplinary Team ; Social Workers ; Lawyers ; Ethics ; Evaluation ; Return on Investment ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0145-2134
    E-ISSN: 1873-7757
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, March 2013, Vol.46(2), pp.156-163
    Description: Among overweight and obese youths, rates of depression, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are elevated. We analyze whether these emotional and behavioral problems are associated with specifically disordered eating pattern. Participants in the study were 128 overweight and obese children/adolescents (BMI: m = 29.3, s = 4.5; BMI-SDS: m = 2.5, s = 0.4) between 8 and 15 years. Structured psychiatric assessments were conducted adopting a multimethod, multiinformant approach. Children/adolescents with ODD symptoms showed increased eating in response to external cues and binge eating. ADHD symptoms were not associated with disordered eating behaviors. Children/adolescents with symptoms of depression and anxiety showed emotional and binge eating. In particular, overweight girls with symptoms of depression showed restrained eating. Our results point to specific eating problems in overweight/obese children with ODD and depression/anxiety symptoms. The findings could help to tailor interventions to optimally meet the specific needs of overweight children with emotional and behavioral problems.
    Keywords: Obesity ; Adhd ; Odd ; Depression ; Anxiety ; Binge Eating
    ISSN: 0276-3478
    E-ISSN: 1098-108X
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: BMJ: British Medical Journal, 25 June 2011, Vol.342(7812), pp.1380-1380
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Medical research
    ISSN: 09598138
    E-ISSN: 17561833
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 10 May 2011, Vol.108(19), pp.7944-9
    Description: Type I and type III IFNs bind to different cell-surface receptors but induce identical signal transduction pathways, leading to the expression of antiviral host effector molecules. Despite the fact that type III IFN (IFN-λ) has been shown to predominantly act on mucosal organs, in vivo infection studies have failed to attribute a specific, nonredundant function. Instead, a predominant role of type I IFN was observed, which was explained by the ubiquitous expression of the type I IFN receptor. Here we comparatively analyzed the role of functional IFN-λ and type I IFN receptor signaling in the innate immune response to intestinal rotavirus infection in vivo, and determined viral replication and antiviral gene expression on the cellular level. We observed that both suckling and adult mice lacking functional receptors for IFN-λ were impaired in the control of oral rotavirus infection, whereas animals lacking functional receptors for type I IFN were similar to wild-type mice. Using Mx1 protein accumulation as marker for IFN responsiveness of individual cells, we demonstrate that intestinal epithelial cells, which are the prime target cells of rotavirus, strongly responded to IFN-λ but only marginally to type I IFN in vivo. Systemic treatment of suckling mice with IFN-λ repressed rotavirus replication in the gut, whereas treatment with type I IFN was not effective. These results are unique in identifying a critical role of IFN-λ in the epithelial antiviral host defense.
    Keywords: Cytokines -- Immunology ; Intestinal Mucosa -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Psychology Review, 2011, Vol.31(4), pp.626-637
    Description: Widely accepted neuropsychological theories on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assume that the complex symptoms of the disease arise from developmentally preceding neuropsychological basic deficits. These deficits in executive functions and delay aversion are presumed to emerge in the preschool period. The corresponding normative developmental processes include phases of relative stability and rapid change. These non-linear developmental processes might have implications for concurrent and predictive associations between basic deficits and ADHD symptoms. To derive a description of the nature and strength of these associations, a meta-analysis was conducted. It is assumed that weighted mean effect sizes differ between basic deficits and depend on age. The meta-analysis included 25 articles (n = 3005 children) in which associations between assessments of basic deficits (i.e. response inhibition, interference control, delay aversion, working memory, flexibility, and vigilance/arousal) in the preschool period and concurrent or subsequent ADHD symptoms or diagnosis of ADHD had been analyzed. For response inhibition and delay aversion, mean effect sizes were of medium to large magnitude while the mean effect size for working memory was small. Meta-regression analyses revealed that effect sizes of delay aversion tasks significantly decreased with increasing age while effect sizes of interference control tasks and Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs) significantly increased. Depending on the normative maturational course of each skill, time windows might exist that allow for a more or less valid assessment of a specific deficit. In future research these time windows might help to describe early developing forms of ADHD and to identify children at risk. ► We conducted a meta-analysis on the association between basic deficits and ADHD symptoms in preschoolers. ► We found medium to large effect sizes of response inhibition, interference control, delay aversion, and vigilance/arousal. ► Effect sizes of delay aversion was larger in younger than in older preschoolers. ► Effect sizes of interference control was larger in older than in younger preschoolers. ► We concluded time windows most suitable for a valid assessment of these ADHD basic deficits.
    Keywords: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ; Developmental Psychopathology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0272-7358
    E-ISSN: 1873-7811
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: BMJ: British Medical Journal, 25 June 2011, Vol.342(7812), pp.1380-1380
    Keywords: OPENING UP DATA AT THE EMA
    ISSN: 09598138
    E-ISSN: 17561833
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 20 June 2011, Vol.342, pp.d3838
    Description: Full clinical trial reports of these studies can be released on request, in line with the agency's new access to documents policy. At the end of 2010, the agency responded to requests from its stakeholders by introducing a new tabular format for the presentation of relevant results from clinical studies...
    Keywords: Clinical Trials, Phase III As Topic ; Information Storage and Retrieval ; Registries ; Documentation -- Standards
    ISSN: 09598138
    E-ISSN: 1756-1833
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2015, Vol.55, p.165(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.04.011 Byline: Ursula Pauli-Pott, Katja Becker Abstract: * The links between neuropsychological basic deficits and ADHD may depend on age. * We review the normative development of inhibitory control (IC) and delay aversion (DA). * Complex IC shows a transition period in preschool ages, DA around puberty. * We review meta-analyses on IC and conduct a meta-regression analysis on DA. * Effects sizes were significantly larger outside the identified transition periods. Author Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University Marburg, Hans-Sachs-Str. 6, D-35039, Marburg, Germany Article History: Received 27 October 2014; Revised 24 March 2015; Accepted 25 April 2015
    Keywords: Regression Analysis – Analysis ; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – Analysis ; Psychotherapy – Analysis
    ISSN: 0149-7634
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, Feb, 2013, Vol.130, p.725(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.126 Byline: Robert W.M. Pott (a), Christopher J. Howe (b), John S. Dennis (a) Keywords: Biohydrogen; Photofermentation; Biodiesel-derived glycerol; Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Crude glycerol treatment Abstract: a* Growth and H.sub.2 production by R. palustris on various carbon sources investigated. a* Saponified fatty acids identified as the inhibitory component of crude glycerol. a* Investigations into inhibition by glycerol, alcohols and salts conducted. a* Normal growth and H.sub.2 production on crude glycerol after treatment shown. a* Significant results in photofermenting crude glycerol to high purity H.sub.2. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA, UK (b) Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Downing Site, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QW, UK Article History: Received 24 July 2012; Revised 16 October 2012; Accepted 28 November 2012
    Keywords: Museums -- Analysis ; Biodiesel Fuels -- Analysis ; Fatty Acids -- Analysis ; Glycerol -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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