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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, February 2011, Vol.102(3), pp.2213-2218
    Description: This study investigated methane yield via anaerobic digestion of multi-component substrates based on mixtures of biodegradable single-component substrates with cow dung as main component. Bench and full-scale digestion experiments were carried out for both single and multi-component substrates to identify the relationship between methane yield and substrate composition. Results from both bench- and full-scale experiments corresponded well and showed that using multi-component substrates increases the methane yield much more than what would be expected from digestion of single substrates. Process stability as indicated by gas production, pH and concentration variations were also improved by using multi-component substrates compared to digestion of single-component substrates. The results, thus, suggest that assessment of methane yield for multi-component substrates cannot reliably be based on methane yields for corresponding single-component substrates but should instead be measured directly.
    Keywords: Agricultural Wastes ; Anaerobic Digestion ; Single-Component Substrates ; Multi-Component Substrates ; Methane Potential ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, January 2017, Vol.224, pp.174-182
    Description: Rice straw was pretreated by different combinations of physical (milling) and biological (incubation with fungus) treatment to improve its biodegradability and biogas production during solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). Effects of milling (⩽2 mm) and incubation time (10, 20 and 30 d), on lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose degradation during fungal pretreatment and methane yield during digestion were assessed by comparison with untreated rice straw. Both incubation time and milling had significant impacts on both lignin removal during fungal pre-treatment and methane yield during digestion. A combination of fungal pretreatment at 30 days followed by milling prior to anaerobic digestion resulted in 30.4% lignin removal, the highest selectivity value (the ratio between relative lignin removal and relative cellulose removal) of 4.22, and the highest methane yield of 258 L/kg VS. This was equivalent to a 165% increase in methane yield from SS-AD compared to untreated rice straw.
    Keywords: Rice Straw ; Fungal Pretreatment ; Milling ; Incubation Time ; Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion ; Methane Yield ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Waste Management & Research, October 2014, Vol.32(10), pp.937-938
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISSN: 0734-242X
    E-ISSN: 1096-3669
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, 2010, Vol.101(14), pp.5123-5130
    Description: Ash from thermally gasified piggery waste (GA) was treated with sulphuric acid (H SO ) using two extraction methods. First different loads (0.39–0.98 kg H SO /kg ash) and concentrations (0.2–2 M) were used in 3 h extraction. Second, titration of 1:25 (w/w) ash:water suspension was conducted with 4 M H SO to determine ash buffer capacity at nine pH steps from 12 to 0.1. Total P and zinc (Zn) dissolution was monitored. Optimal acid load and concentration to dissolve 94% P and 55% Zn from GA was 0.98 kg H SO /kg ash and 0.6 M, respectively, which corresponds to acid demand of 19.2 kg H SO /kg P recovered. High concentrations (2 M) did not improve P dissolution, but Zn was easier released. Ash buffer capacity was the highest at pH 4 and 0.1, first one due to dissolution of Ca, the second one due to autoprotolysis of water. Acid load had stronger effect on dissolution than concentration in the first method, however in the second; both factors had comparable effect.
    Keywords: Animal Manure Ash ; Phosphorus Recovery ; Sulphuric Acid Extraction ; Zinc Mobilization ; P Dissolution ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2013, Vol.64, pp.127-135
    Description: Oxidation of atmospheric methane by soil methanotrophs is a microbial process highly susceptible to physical and chemical disturbances. In this study, atmospheric methane oxidation activity in soil samples from beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) forest stands decreased significantly after physical disturbance and/or increased exposure to ambient air. This activity loss was oxygen dependent, but independent of the presence of atmospheric methane. However, methanotrophic activity in forest soil was stabilized by amendment with various sorbents including activated charcoal, aminopropylsilane, and gamma aluminum oxide (γ-Al₂O₃). γ-AlO₃ at a concentration 〉1% (g g⁻¹) was found to stabilize and sometimes stimulate oxidation of atmospheric methane in soil from both beech and spruce forest stands. γ-Al₂O₃ amendment also stimulated atmospheric methane oxidation in advective flow-based soil biofilters, and the filter efficiency was found to increase with time. In both soil samples and soil biofilters, elevated oxidation of atmospheric methane was sustained for 〉100 days. γ-Al₂O₃ likely immobilized potentially inhibitory soil constituents including inorganic nitrogen and soil organics. The results of the study indicated that: 1) decreases in atmospheric methane oxidation activity in topsoil after soil homogenization and/or increased air exposure was likely related to increased bioavailability of inhibitory substances; 2) indigenous inhibitory compounds are present in topsoil in both beech and spruce forest soil; and 3) oxidation of atmospheric methane in soil can be restored and sometimes stimulated by immobilizing inhibitory compounds using γ-Al₂O₃ as sorbent. ; p. 127-135.
    Keywords: Soil Stabilization ; Forest Soils ; Activated Carbon ; Topsoil ; Methane ; Oxygen ; Biofilters ; Oxidation ; Homogenization ; Fagus Sylvatica ; Bioavailability ; Soil Sampling ; Nitrogen ; Forest Stands ; Methanotrophs ; Air ; Picea Abies ; Aluminum Oxide
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, September 2013, Vol.64, pp.127-135
    Description: Oxidation of atmospheric methane by soil methanotrophs is a microbial process highly susceptible to physical and chemical disturbances. In this study, atmospheric methane oxidation activity in soil samples from beech ( ) and spruce ( ) forest stands decreased significantly after physical disturbance and/or increased exposure to ambient air. This activity loss was oxygen dependent, but independent of the presence of atmospheric methane. However, methanotrophic activity in forest soil was stabilized by amendment with various sorbents including activated charcoal, aminopropylsilane, and gamma aluminum oxide (γ-Al O ). γ-AlO at a concentration 〉1% (g g ) was found to stabilize and sometimes stimulate oxidation of atmospheric methane in soil from both beech and spruce forest stands. γ-Al O amendment also stimulated atmospheric methane oxidation in advective flow-based soil biofilters, and the filter efficiency was found to increase with time. In both soil samples and soil biofilters, elevated oxidation of atmospheric methane was sustained for 〉100 days. γ-Al O likely immobilized potentially inhibitory soil constituents including inorganic nitrogen and soil organics. The results of the study indicated that: 1) decreases in atmospheric methane oxidation activity in topsoil after soil homogenization and/or increased air exposure was likely related to increased bioavailability of inhibitory substances; 2) indigenous inhibitory compounds are present in topsoil in both beech and spruce forest soil; and 3) oxidation of atmospheric methane in soil can be restored and sometimes stimulated by immobilizing inhibitory compounds using γ-Al O as sorbent.
    Keywords: Atmospheric Methane ; Soil Methane Oxidation ; High Affinity Methanotrophs ; Inhibition ; Al2o3 ; Stabilization and Stimulation ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Compost science and utilization, 2011, Vol.19(1), pp.25-32
    Description: Distributions of O2 and CO2 concentrations across a cross section of a full-scale passively aerated, mechanically turned, compost piles were measured as a function of time over an 11 day long period covering two pile turnings. The compost pile had a triangular cross section, was 1.8 m high, 4.4 m wide, 80 m long and consisted of sewage sludge, yard/park waste and screening residue from previously composted materials. The measurements were conducted in one cross section of the pile. The O2 and CO2 concentration measurements were used in combination with earlier published measurements of air permeability and air pressure inside the compost pile to calculate O2 and CO2 fluxes across the pile surface as functions of time and location as well as estimation of total specific oxygen consumption rates in the compost. Distributions of O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the pile were relatively constant with time and exhibited high O2 concentrations near the surface and high CO2 concentrations near the center of the pile. Maximum O2 fluxes in the compost occurred along the lower edges of the pile and equalled up to 15 kg/m-2 h-1 while maximum CO fluxes occurred at the center top of the pile and equalled up to 700 g m-2 h-1. Average daily CO2 emissions from the compost were up to 3.4 kg m d-1 while the corresponding O2 flux into the compost pile was up to 53 kg m3 d . Average O2 consumption was 1.4 kg m-3 d-1 while average CO2 production was 1.5 kg m-3 d-1 at the measurement location over the 11 day experimental period. ; p. 25-32.
    Keywords: Sewage Sludge ; Emissions ; Oxygen ; Atmospheric Pressure ; Composts ; Air ; Oxygen Consumption ; Permeability ; Carbon Dioxide
    ISSN: 1065-657X
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Waste Management and Research, 2014, Vol.32(3), p.177(2)
    Keywords: Sanitary Landfills – History ; Sanitary Landfills – Forecasts and Trends ; Sanitary Landfills – Environmental Aspects
    ISSN: 0734-242X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Waste Management & Research, March 2014, Vol.32(3), pp.177-178
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISSN: 0734-242X
    E-ISSN: 1096-3669
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Compost Science & Utilization, 01 January 2011, Vol.19(1), pp.25-32
    Description: Distributions of O 2 and CO 2 concentrations across a cross section of a full-scale passively aerated, mechanically turned, compost piles were measured as a function...
    Keywords: Agriculture ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1065-657X
    E-ISSN: 2326-2397
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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