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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2013, Vol.185(11), pp.9419-9434
    Description: In numerous studies, spatial and spectral aggregations of pixel information using average values from imaging spectrometer data are suggested to derive spectral indices and the subsequent vegetation parameters that are derived from these. Currently, there are very few empirical studies that use hyperspectral data, to support the hypothesis for deriving land surface variables from different spectral and spatial scales. In the study at hand, for the first time ever, investigations were carried out on fundamental scaling issues using specific experimental test flights with a hyperspectral sensor to investigate how vegetation patterns change as an effect of (1) different spatial resolutions, (2) different spectral resolutions, (3) different spatial and spectral resolutions as well as (4) different spatial and spectral resolutions of originally recorded hyperspectral image data compared to spatial and spectral up- and downscaled image data. For these experiments, the hyperspectral sensor AISA-EAGLE/HAWK (DUAL) was mounted on an aircraft to collect spectral signatures over a very short time sequence of a particular day. In the first experiment, reflectance measurements were collected at three different spatial resolutions ranging from 1 to 3 m over a 2-h period in 1 day. In the second experiment, different spectral image data and different additional spatial data were collected over a 1-h period on a particular day from the same test area. The differently recorded hyperspectral data were then spatially and spectrally rescaled to synthesize different up- and down-rescaled images. The normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) was determined from all image data. The NDVI heterogeneity of all images was compared based on methods of variography. The results showed that (a) the spatial NDVI patterns of up- and downscaled data do not correspond with the un-scaled image data, (b) only small differences were found between NDVI patterns determined from data recorded and resampled at different spectral resolutions and (c) the overall conclusion from the tests carried out is that the spatial resolution is more important in determining heterogeneity by means of NDVI than the depth of the spectral data. The implications behind these findings are that we need to exercise caution when interpreting and combining spatial structures and spectral indices derived from satellite images with differently recorded geometric resolutions.
    Keywords: Monitoring ; Landscape heterogeneity ; Hyperspectral imagery ; Semivariogram ; Scale effects
    ISSN: 0167-6369
    E-ISSN: 1573-2959
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  • 2
    In: Transplant International, October 2013, Vol.26(10), pp.1038-1048
    Description: Survival after lung transplantation is mainly limited by the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (). The aim of this study was to investigate if platelet inhibition by clopidogrel has an influence on the formation of obliterative bronchiolitis, the histopathological correlate to bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, present in the majority of patients suffering from . C57/6(H2) donor tracheas were orthotopically transplanted into .J(H2). Mice received different doses of clopidogrel alone or in combination with tacrolimus or everolimus. Grafts were analyzed by histology and immunofluorescence method on postoperative days 15, 30 or 60. Cytokines were analyzed by real‐time polymerase chain reaction on postoperative day 21 and alloantibodies by . Mice treated with 20 mg/kg/day clopidogrel for 30 days showed reduced obliteration [34.40 ± 3.76% (20 mg/kg/day clopidogrel) vs. 49.92 ± 2.11% (control),  = 5,  〈 0.05]. Platelet inhibition resulted in significant lower infiltration of T cells and macrophages, and we also found significantly lower expression of ‐12, ‐4, ‐6, ‐α, ‐β, β, 1, P‐/E‐selectin, 1 and 40L after treatment with clopidogrel. Combination of 1 mg/kg/day clopidogrel and 0.05 mg/kg/day everolimus or 12 mg/kg/day tacrolimus revealed a synergistic effect. Humoral immunity as manifested by donor‐specific alloantibody secretion was also impaired after treatment with clopidogrel. Here, we can show that platelet inhibition by clopidogrel as a single treatment and in combination with tacrolimus or everolimus reduced the development of fibrosis and obliteration in tracheal allografts.
    Keywords: Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome ; Calcineurin Inhibitor ; Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction ; Clopidogrel ; Mtor Inhibitor ; Obliterative Bronchiolitis ; Platelets
    ISSN: 0934-0874
    E-ISSN: 1432-2277
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The journal of adhesive dentistry, 2016, Vol.18(1), pp.7-16
    Description: To investigate the influence of three cavity designs on the marginal seal of large Class II cavities restored with low-shrinkage resin composite limited to the enamel. One hundred twenty (120) intact human molars were randomly divided into 12 groups, with three different cavity designs: 1. undermined enamel, 2. box-shaped, and 3. proximal bevel. The teeth were restored with 1. an extra-low shrinkage (ELS) composite free of diluent monomers, 2. microhybrid composite (Herculite XRV), 3. nanohybrid composite (Filtek Supreme XTE), and 4. silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane). After artificial aging by thermocycling and storage in physiological saline, epoxy resin replicas were prepared. To determine the integrity of the restorations' approximal margins, two methods were sequentially employed: 1. replicas were made of the 120 specimens and examined using SEM, and 2. the same 120 specimens were immersed in AgNO3 solution, and the dye penetration depth was observed with a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn-Bonferroni tests. After bevel preparation, SEM observations showed that restorations did not exhibit a higher percentage of continuous margin (SEM-analysis; p〉0.05), but more leakage was found than with the other cavity designs (p〈0.05). The lowest percentage of continuous margin was observed in ELS restorations (p〈0.05). More fractured margins were observed in the undermined enamel cavity design groups (p〈0.05). Bevel preparation failed to improve margin quality in large Class II composite restorations and is no longer recommended. However, undermined enamel should be removed to prevent enamel fractures.
    Keywords: Dental Marginal Adaptation ; Composite Resins -- Chemistry ; Dental Bonding -- Standards ; Dental Cavity Preparation -- Classification ; Dental Materials -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 1461-5185
    E-ISSN: 17579988
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 4
    In: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 2015, Vol. 47(1), pp.180-187
    Description: It was previously shown that the combination of clopidogrel and everolimus reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether delayed onset of treatment, similar to the clinical situation after heart transplantation, inhibits progression of transplant arteriosclerosis. Fully allogeneic C57BL/6 (H2-b) donor aortas were transplanted into CBA.J (H2-k) recipients treated with clopidogrel and everolimus alone or in combination starting on Days 1, 7 or 14. Grafts were analysed by histology and alloantibodies were detected by fluorescence activated cell sorting after transplantation. Delayed platelet inhibition with clopidogrel reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis [neointima formation (Day 14): 50±4 vs 84±9% (control)]. The combination of clopidogrel and everolimus almost abolished formation of transplant arteriosclerosis when therapy was started on Day 1 [neointima formation (Day 1): 14±5 vs 84±9% (control)] and also showed a remarkable reduction in both delayed treatment groups [neointima formation (Day 7): 24±7 vs 84±9% (control); neointima formation (Day 14): 28±11 vs 84±9% (control)]. Platelet inhibition alone and in combination with everolimus resulted in reduced alloantibody production. These results demonstrate that delayed treatment with clopidogrel and everolimus-representative of a clinical setting-prevents the progression of transplant arteriosclerosis and impairs humoral immunity in this experimental model.
    Keywords: Platelets ; Transplant Arteriosclerosis ; Humoral Immunity ; Clopidogrel ; Mtor Inhibitor
    ISSN: 1010-7940
    E-ISSN: 1873-734X
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