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  • 1
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(4), p.e0122539
    Description: Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 September 2018, Vol.634, pp.305-315
    Description: The leaching of P from the upper 20 cm of forest topsoils influences nutrient (re-)cycling and the redistribution of available phosphate and organic P forms. However, the effective leaching of colloids and associated P forms from forest topsoils was so far sparsely investigated. We demonstrated through irrigation experiments with undisturbed mesocosm soil columns, that significant proportions of P leached from acidic forest topsoils were associated with natural colloids. These colloids had a maximum size of 400 nm. By means of Field-flow fractionation the leached soil colloids could be separated into three size fractions. The size and composition was comparable to colloids present in acidic forest streams known from literature. The composition of leached colloids of the three size classes was dominated by organic carbon. Furthermore, these colloids contained large concentrations of P which amounted between 12 and 91% of the totally leached P depending on the type of the forest soil. The fraction of other elements leached with colloids ranged between 1% and 25% (Fe: 1–25%; C : 3–17%; Al: 〈4%; Si, Ca, Mn: all 〈2%). The proportion of colloid–associated P decreased with increasing total P leaching. Leaching of total and colloid-associated P from the forest surface soil did not increase with increasing bulk soil P concentrations and were also not related to tree species. The present study highlighted that colloid-facilitated P leaching can be of higher relevance for the P leaching from forest surface soils than dissolved P and should not be neglected in soil water flux studies.
    Keywords: Colloids ; Forest Soil ; Leaching ; Mesocosm ; Nanoparticles ; Phosphorus ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Environmental monitoring and assessment, 2011, Vol.174(1), pp.65-89
    Description: This study evaluates the acidification status and trends in streams of forested mountain ranges in Germany in consequence of reduced anthropogenic deposition since the mid 1980s. The analysis is based on water quality data for 86 long-term monitored streams in the Ore Mountains, the Bavarian Forest, the Fichtelgebirge, the Harz Mountains, the Spessart, the Black Forest, the Thuringian Forest, and the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge of Germany and the Vosges of France. Within the observation period, which starts for the individual streams between 1980 and 2001 and ends between 1990 and 2009, trends in chemical water quality were calculated with the Seasonal Mann Kendall Test. About 87% of the streams show significant (p 〈 0.05) negative trends in sulfate. The general reduction in acid deposition resulted in increased pH values (significant for 66% of the streams) and subsequently decreased base cation concentrations in the stream water (for calcium significant in 58% and magnesium 49% of the streams). Reaction products of acidification such as aluminum (significant for 50%) or manganese (significant for 69%) also decreased. Nitrate (52% with significant decrease) and chloride (38% with significant increase) have less pronounced trends and more variable spatial patterns. For the quotient of acidification, which is the ratio of the sum of base cations and the sum of acid anions, no clear trend is observed: in 44% of the monitored streams values significantly decreased and in 23% values significantly increased. A notable observation is the increasing DOC concentration, which is significant for 55% of the observed streams. ; Includes references ; p. 65-89.
    Keywords: Water Quality ; Forested Watersheds ; Acidification ; Deposition
    ISSN: 0167-6369
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 October 2014, Vol.330, pp.283-293
    Description: Future climate projections for Central Europe indicate a decrease in summer precipitation which might range between 15% and 50%, and equally important, changes in the climate variability, resulting in consecutive years with drought periods. With respect to Central European forests, we asked to which degree realistic drought conditions are tolerated by the recruits of the dominant tree species L , and how the effects depend on biotic interactions. To test the combined effects of drought, competition and provenance of recruits we set up a rain shelter experiment at three sites in different regions of Germany. Transposable roof panels allowed a flexible precipitation reduction between 10% and 70% corresponding with a return period of 40 years. We planted saplings of three provenances, exposed them to drought and competition. We tested if understorey herbaceous competitors have a negative impact on saplings, and thus, exacerbate drought effects and that provenances from drier regions are adapted to drought conditions and cope better with drought conditions. Six months after the drought treatment started, we encountered significant drought effects, seen in a reduced leaf stomatal conductance, although there was not yet a response in growth rates. Overall, the site had the greatest impact on phytometer performance, while we found no indication of adaptation to drought of the different provenances. Furthermore, drought effects increased in interaction with site effects, being highest at the driest site. At the driest site, leaf stomatal conductance decreased in the presence of competition but increased in the control subplots, while the site of intermediate moisture conditions showed the opposite pattern and the wettest site displayed no differences. Our results highlight the fact that biotic interactions can mitigate or exacerbate drought effects, depending on regional site conditions.
    Keywords: Global Change ; Fagus Sylvatica ; Drought ; Forest Understory ; Competition ; Provenances ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, April 2012, Vol.175(2), pp.221-235
    Description: The hydraulic properties of soils, their ability to store and conduct water, mainly govern the availability of soil water for plants. Information on the hydraulic properties is needed, for the quantification of drought risk at a given site. Furthermore, knowledge of the water transport is the precondition for the estimation of element fluxes in the soil, when predicting element leaching from the root zone to the groundwater. For forest soils, only few systematic investigations of their hydraulic properties exist. Within the 2nd forest‐soil survey of Germany, soil samples were taken along a regular 8 km × 8 km grid in the forests of the State of Baden‐Württemberg and the hydraulic properties were estimated in the laboratory by multistep outflow experiments. Besides the soil‐hydraulic measurements, numerous additional soil chemical and physical analyses were carried out and comprehensive profile descriptions were compiled and integrated in a hydraulic database. Based on this database, multiple‐linear‐regression techniques were used to develop pedotransfer functions for the water‐retention curve and the unsaturated‐hydraulic‐conductivity curve using the parametric models of Mualem/van‐Genuchten. Our work fills a gap since to our knowledge, no pedotransfer functions for the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity for forest soils exist so far. The predictive accuracy of the established pedotransfer functions, both for the water‐retention curve and the hydraulic‐conductivity curve, is in the range of (and in some cases better than) other published pedotransfer functions that were mostly derived for agricultural soils.
    Keywords: Water Retention ; Hydraulic Conductivity ; Forest Soils ; Pedotransfer Functions
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: SOIL Discussions, 06/04/2018, pp.1-20
    ISSN: SOIL Discussions
    E-ISSN: 2199-3998
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, April 1, 2016, Vol.20(3), p.1301
    Description: Climate change is expected to impact the water cycle and severely affect precipitation patterns across central Europe and in other parts of the world, leading to more frequent and severe droughts. Usually when projecting drought impacts on hydrological systems, it is assumed that system properties, like soil properties, remain stable and will not be affected by drought events. To study if this assumption is appropriate, we address the effects of drought on the infiltration behavior of forest soils using dye tracer experiments on six sites in three regions across Germany, which were forced into drought conditions. The sites cover clayey-, loamy- and sandy-textured soils. In each region, we compared a deciduous and a coniferous forest stand to address differences between the main tree species. The results of the dye tracer experiments show clear evidence for changes in infiltration behavior at the sites. The infiltration changed at the clayey plots from regular and homogeneous flow to fast preferential flow. Similar behavior was observed at the loamy plots, where large areas in the upper layers remained dry, displaying signs of strong water repellency. This was confirmed by water drop penetration time#xC2;#xA0;(WDPT) tests, which revealed, in all except one plot, moderate to severe water repellency. Water repellency was also accountable for the change of regular infiltration to fingered flow in the sandy soils. The results of this study suggest that the drought history or, more generally, the climatic conditions of a soil in the past are more important than the actual antecedent soil moisture status regarding hydrophobicity and infiltration behavior; furthermore, drought effects on infiltration need to be considered in hydrological models to obtain realistic predictions concerning water quality and quantity in runoff and groundwater recharge.
    Keywords: Soil Moisture ; Climate Change ; Droughts ; Coniferous Forests ; Forest Soils ; Water Cycle ; Tracers (Chemistry) ; Sandy Soils
    ISSN: 1027-5606
    ISSN: 16077938
    E-ISSN: 16077938
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2011, Vol.174(1), pp.65-89
    Description: This study evaluates the acidification status and trends in streams of forested mountain ranges in Germany in consequence of reduced anthropogenic deposition since the mid 1980s. The analysis is based on water quality data for 86 long-term monitored streams in the Ore Mountains, the Bavarian Forest, the Fichtelgebirge, the Harz Mountains, the Spessart, the Black Forest, the Thuringian Forest, and the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge of Germany and the Vosges of France. Within the observation period, which starts for the individual streams between 1980 and 2001 and ends between 1990 and 2009, trends in chemical water quality were calculated with the Seasonal Mann Kendall Test. About 87% of the streams show significant ( p 〈 0.05) negative trends in sulfate. The general reduction in acid deposition resulted in increased pH values (significant for 66% of the streams) and subsequently decreased base cation concentrations in the stream water (for calcium significant in 58% and magnesium 49% of the streams). Reaction products of acidification such as aluminum (significant for 50%) or manganese (significant for 69%) also decreased. Nitrate (52% with significant decrease) and chloride (38% with significant increase) have less pronounced trends and more variable spatial patterns. For the quotient of acidification, which is the ratio of the sum of base cations and the sum of acid anions, no clear trend is observed: in 44% of the monitored streams values significantly decreased and in 23% values significantly increased. A notable observation is the increasing DOC concentration, which is significant for 55% of the observed streams.
    Keywords: Water quality ; Acidification ; Forested catchments ; Deposition ; Germany
    ISSN: 0167-6369
    E-ISSN: 1573-2959
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Processes, 2014, Vol.3(1), pp.1-17
    Description: Abstract Introduction Conceptual hydrological models are useful tools to support catchment water management. However, the identifiability of parameters and structural uncertainties in conceptual rainfall-runoff modeling prove to be a difficult task. Here, we aim to evaluate the performance of a conceptual semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model, HBV-light, with emphasis on parameter identifiability, uncertainty, and model structural validity. Results The results of a regional sensitivity analysis (RSA) show that most of the model parameters are highly sensitive when runoff signatures or combinations of different objective functions are used. Results based on the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method further show that most of the model parameters are well constrained, showing higher parameter identifiability and lower model uncertainty when runoff signatures or combined objective functions are used. Finally, the dynamic identifiability analysis (DYNIA) shows different types of parameter behavior and reveals that model parameters have a higher identifiability in periods where they play a crucial role in representing the predicted runoff. Conclusions The HBV-light model is generally able to simulate the runoff in the Pailugou catchment with an acceptable accuracy. Model parameter sensitivity is largely dependent upon the objective function used for the model evaluation in the sensitivity analysis. More frequent runoff observations would substantially increase the knowledge on the rainfall-runoff transformation in the catchment and, specifically, improve the distinction of fast surface-near runoff and interflow components in their contribution to the total catchment runoff. Our results highlight the importance of identifying the periods when intensive monitoring is critical for deriving parameter values of reduced uncertainty.
    Keywords: Dynamic identifiability analysis ; HBV-light model ; Hydrological modeling ; Sensitivity analysis ; Uncertainty analysis
    E-ISSN: 2192-1709
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