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  • 1
    In: Phonology, 2010, Vol.27(1), pp.119-152
    Description: Abstract Despite differences in parsimony and philosophical orientation, physical and abstract theories of phonology often make similar empirical predictions. This study examines a case where they do not: gemination restrictions in Hungarian. While both types of theory correctly prohibit the lengthening of a consonant when flanked by another consonant, they make different predictions regarding both the relative duration changes within a target consonant and the applicability of restrictions to lengthening processes besides gemination. In two speech-production experiments, these predictions are evaluated by measuring stop and frication durations within affricates. Results show that relative duration changes occur, and that the restriction holds only for gemination, supporting an abstract theory. Yet results also indicate that gemination exhibits sensitivity to inherent durational differences between affricates, providing some support for a physical theory. Thus I argue that an adequate theory of phonology must include abstract constituents, alongside a limited, principled set of physical landmarks.
    Keywords: Hungarian (33150) ; Phonology Phonetics Relationship (65260) ; Sound Duration (Phonetics) (80400) ; Consonants (14900) ; Speech Production (82780) ; Stops (84300) ; Fricatives (26200) ; Synchronic Linguistics (86650) ; Phonology; Phonology-Phonetics Interaction ; Article;
    ISSN: 0952-6757
    E-ISSN: 1469-8188
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 10/2016, Vol.140(4), pp.3215-3215
    Description: We investigated whether listeners process suffixed words differently than prefixed words. We presented primes that combined a clear-speech root plus degraded-speech affix (such as kin-xx, where xx refers to degraded speech), and measured lexical decision RTs to subsequent clear targets ( kin-ship ). Degradation used low-pass filtering (〈 500 Hz), such that affixes were speech-like but incomprehensible. Thus, the prime kin-xx sounds like a complete suffixed word, yet it is compatible with the target kin-ship and should not compete with it for activation. The crucial comparison was between prefixed ( re-group ) versus suffixed ( kin-ship ) targets, which were matched for frequency, familiarity, probability of phonotactic transition across morpheme boundary, and affix type-parsing ratio (Hay & Baayen, 2002). On each trial, participants heard a prime, a 1000 ms ISI, then a target to which they made a speeded decision. Pilot results (n = 5) suggest that comparable speech input activated suffixed roots less strongly than prefixed roots . While xx-group reduced RTs to re-group by a large amount (-236.65 ms), kin-xx reduced RTs to kin-ship by a much smaller amount (-133.20 ms). Pseudo-affixed words ( resort, worship ) did not show a comparable difference, suggesting that the effect arises from morphological constituency.
    Keywords: 5th Joint Meeting Of The Acoustical Society Of America And The Acoustical Society Of Japan;
    ISSN: 0001-4966
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 05/2013, Vol.133(5), pp.3568-3568
    Description: Previous research has demonstrated that listeners remember low-frequency words (fob) through explicit recollection, but high-frequency words (money) through implicit familiarity [Joordens and Hockley (2000)]. We hypothesize that a similar asymmetry in remembering occurs in morphologically complex words (bleakish), where root frequency (bleak) is always low relative to affix frequency (ish). In our experiment, which modifies a technique developed by Goldinger et al . (1999), participants hear both complex and simple words at study. At test, they hear old words in which a portion of the stimulus is masked with soft or loud background noise. For complex words, the masked portion is either the root or the affix ( bleak ish, bleak ish ); for simple words, it is the corresponding pseudo-morpheme ( rel ish, rel ish ). Participants indicate whether they heard the word previously by making an old/new judgment, followed by a remember/know judgment [Tulving (1985)]. Preliminary results indicate that listeners are more likely to make “old” judgments when morphemes occur in soft (versus loud) background noise, but that this illusion effect is stronger for roots than affixes. Thus, clarity of perceptual input influences the memory of a complex word, but in an asymmetric fashion, suggesting that listeners remember roots and affixes via different mechanisms.
    Keywords: Ica 2013 Montréal;
    ISSN: 0001-4966
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, 01 December 2011, Vol.11(12), pp.1863-1870
    Description: Bladder cancer (BC) is a disease of the elderly, with a peak incidence at 85 years. If life expectancy continues to increase in such a way that it is, in 20 years nearly half of the population will be considered elderly. The incidence of BC will also dramatically increase in proportion to this and, subsequently, a cure is needed. Currently, only 4-11% of elderly individuals with muscle-invasive BC undergo radical extirpative surgery; a number that is evidently too low when we consider that the cancer-specific mortality rate is highest in the octo- and nona-genarian groups. Advanced age should not in itself be a reason for avoiding radical surgery. Comorbidity is much more important and incisive on complication and mortality rate than age alone. Nevertheless, a complication rate of 24-60% is a realistic expectation, as is a 90-day mortality rate of approximately 10%. Due to the restricted physiological reserve, there is little place for surgical mistakes. This review evaluates all aspects of radical cystectomy in the elderly and gives an overview of upcoming challenges.
    Keywords: Bladder Cancer ; Complications ; Cystectomy ; Elderly ; Incidence ; Physiology ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1473-7140
    E-ISSN: 1744-8328
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: General Hospital Psychiatry, 2011, Vol.33(6), pp.604-611
    Description: The multietiological nature of delusional infestation (DI) implies that therapy needs to be customized according to the various forms of DI (primary/secondary). Usually, treatment of DI is difficult to achieve in psychiatric settings because of the patients' nonpsychiatric concept of the illness. We analyzed the data of all consecutive DI patients seen in the Psychiatric Outpatient Department of the General Hospital Bruneck/Italy from 1998 to 2010, including structural brain imaging findings. Standardized reporting criteria are applied for the presentation of the cases in a naturalistic setting. Our sample consisted of 17 patients. Notably, 15 out of these 17 patients (88%) could be engaged in an antipsychotic treatment trial. With different, mainly second-generation antipsychotics, all but one patient profited from antipsychotics, at least after substances were changed: 12 (71%) of the cases reached full remission, and another 2 (12%) had partial remission. The average duration of treatment was remarkably long: 3.8 years. Eight cases were classified as secondary to a brain disorder or medical condition, four cases were classified as secondary to psychiatric disorders and five cases fulfilled the criteria for primary DI (i.e., delusional disorder somatic type). All cases secondary to a brain disorder/medical condition showed macroscopic brain lesions mainly in the basal ganglia. Our study confirmed previous experience that an excellent clinical outcome can be achieved in unselected patients with different DI forms provided that patients can be engaged in antipsychotic treatment. Although studies in DI are difficult to conduct, randomized controlled trials would be desirable to evaluate specific antipsychotic medication in DI in general and in the different forms of DI. More sophisticated investigations (single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography) than structural brain imaging (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography) are needed to better elucidate underlying brain dysfunction in DI.
    Keywords: Delusional Infestation ; Classification ; Treatment, Antipsychotics ; Neuroimaging
    ISSN: 0163-8343
    E-ISSN: 1873-7714
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Lingua, May 2015, Vol.159, pp.47-69
    Description: Cross-linguistically, prefixes and suffixes differ in both frequency and in phonological behavior. These differences could plausibly have their source in listeners’ subjective perceptual experiences of prefixes and suffixes, an idea that we pursued using a noise-rating task in Spanish. Participants heard minimally-different Spanish words such as ‘s/he kicks me’ versus ‘kick me’, where the clitic pronoun behaves phonologically like a prefix versus a suffix, and rated the loudness of white noise overlaid on either the pronoun or the verb stem. Results demonstrated that participants assigned significantly different ratings to noise occurring on prefixes versus suffixes, and on prefixed versus suffixed stems, even when the signal-to-noise ratio remained constant across conditions. That is, listeners’ subjective perceptual experience of the noise differed according to what morpheme type the noise occurred on, suggesting that morphological structure can act as a cognitive variable affecting perceptual clarity.
    Keywords: Spanish ; Morphology ; Prefix ; Suffix ; Perception ; Typology ; Languages & Literatures
    ISSN: 0024-3841
    E-ISSN: 1872-6135
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: European Psychiatry, 2010, Vol.25, pp.1372-1372
    Description: ObjectiveThe aims of the two pieces of work are to study wheter any differences exist in the rates and characteristics of suicide by ethnicity, sex and alcohol abuse in South Tyrol, Italy.MethodsPsychological autopsy interviews were conducted for suicides who died between March 1997 and July 2006.Results332 individuals belonging to the three major South Tyrolean ethnic groups (Germans, Italians and Ladins, who speak a Rhaeto-Romance language) died by suicide.Germans were 1,37 times more at risk to commit suicide than Italians (95% CI 1.04/1.80; z=2.26, p〈 .05). 69% of the suicides had attended school for less than 8 years, and Germans (OR 4,62; 955 CI:2.52/8.47; p〈 .001) were more likely to have lower education than Italians. A further comparison of 267 male victims with and without alcohol abuse in their history evidenced that alcohol abusers were 3,5 times more likely to have low educational attainment, 4,22 times more likely to have been unemployed or have employment instability and 2.29 times more likely to have job security than male suicides without alcohol use disorders.ConclusionsThe study indicates that suicide, an alarming health problem in South Tyrol, may require different preventive interventions for men and women, for those of different ethnicities and for people with and without alcohol use disorder.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0924-9338
    E-ISSN: 1778-3585
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Language and Speech, September 2016, Vol.59(3), pp.364-386
    Description: We hypothesized that speakers adjust co-articulation in vowel–consonant (VC) sequences in order to provide listeners with enhanced perceptual cues to C, and that they do so specifically in those situations where primary cues to C place of articulation tend to be diminished. We tested this hypothesis in a speech production study of American English, measuring the duration and extent of VC formant transitions in five conditioning environments – consonant voicing, phrasal position, sentence accent, vowel quality, and consonant place – that modulate primary cues to C place in different ways. Results partially support our hypothesis. Although speakers did not exhibit greater temporal co-articulation in contexts that tend to diminish place cues, they did exhibit greater spatial co-articulation. This finding suggests that co-articulation serves specific communicative goals.
    Keywords: Co-Articulation ; Formant Transitions ; Perceptual Cues ; Place of Articulation ; Stop Releases ; Medicine ; Languages & Literatures
    ISSN: 0023-8309
    E-ISSN: 1756-6053
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 07 February 2017, Vol.32(2), pp.205-220
    Description: Certain types of variation are licenced by phonotactics. For example, the American English phoneme /t/ varies word-finally (ba[t] ∼ ba[ʔ]), but not word-initially. We used a Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm to pursue the hypothesis that, given comparable information in the speech...
    Keywords: Variation ; Reduction ; False Memory ; Lexical Activation ; Languages & Literatures
    ISSN: 2327-3798
    E-ISSN: 2327-3801
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Glossa, 01 September 2017, Vol.2(1)
    Description: We used a Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm to compare Spanish words in which the phonetic realization of /s/ can vary (word-medial positions: 'bu'[s]'to '~ 'bu'[h]'to '‘chest’, word-final positions: 'remo'[s] ~ 'remo'[h] ‘oars’) to words in which it cannot (word-initial positions: [s]'opa '~ *[h]'opa '‘soup’). At study, participants listened to lists of nine words that were phonological neighbors of an unheard critical item (e.g., 'popa, sepa, soja, 'etc. for the critical item 'sopa'). At test, participants performed free recall and yes/no recognition tasks. Replicating previous work in this paradigm, results showed robust false memory effects: that is, participants were more likely to (falsely) remember a critical item than a random intrusion. When the realization of /s/ was consistent across conditions (Experiment 1), false memory rates for varying versus non-varying words did not significantly differ. However, when the realization of /s/ varied between [s] and [h] in those positions which allow it (Experiment 2), false recognition rates for varying words like 'busto 'were significantly higher than those for non-varying words like 'sopa'. Assuming that higher false memory rates are indicative of greater lexical activation, we interpret these results to support the predictions of exemplar theory, which claims that words with heterogeneous versus homogeneous acoustic realizations should exhibit distinct patterns of activation.
    Keywords: Spanish ; False Memory ; Variation ; Exemplar Theory ; Languages & Literatures
    E-ISSN: 2397-1835
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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