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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, August 1, 2015, Vol.349, p.94(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.03.037 Byline: Patrick L. Pyttel, Merle Kohn, Jurgen Bauhus Abstract: * First study to quantify nutrient contents in aged coppice forests. * Detailed compartment wise nutrient concentrations for oak and hornbeam. * Site-specific allometric equations to calculate nutrient removal through harvesting. * Identification of sites types, where biomass harvesting would be not sustainable. Article History: Received 7 January 2015; Revised 7 March 2015; Accepted 22 March 2015
    Keywords: Forests – Analysis
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Feb 1, 2013, Vol.289, p.18(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.09.046 Byline: Patrick L. Pyttel (a), Ulrich F. Fischer (a), Christian Suchomel (b), Stefanie M. Gartner (a), Jurgen Bauhus (a) Keywords: Coppice; Sessile oak; Quercus petraea; Sprouting; Stump; Regeneration Abstract: a* Re-sprouting ability of old oak trees originating from coppice management is high. a* Two vegetation periods after harvesting the majority of all trees were found alive. a* Sprout growth was found to be unaffected by harvesting method. a* Browsing had the strongest influence on stump mortality and sprout growth. a* Seedlings of various tree species had established among coppiced trees. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Silviculture, Tennenbacherstr. 4, D-79085 Freiburg, Germany (b) Institute of Forest Utilization and Work Science, Werthmannstr. 6, D-79085 Freiburg, Germany Article History: Received 11 July 2012; Revised 28 September 2012; Accepted 29 September 2012
    Keywords: Mortality
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 August 2015, Vol.349, pp.94-105
    Description: Improved knowledge concerning nutrient removals through harvesting in former coppice forests is crucial for the sustainable management of these forests. This is especially true if the resumption of coppicing is being considered to serve increasing fuel wood demands. In this study the nutrient contents of various tree compartments of sessile oak ( (Mattuschka) Liebl.) and hornbeam ( L.) from two sites differing in soil fertility were determined using allometric equations to calculate nutrient removal associated with different harvesting intensities. Stand level nutrient contents in tree compartments were comparable between both study sites. The results for exchangeable base cations, plant available P, and total N indicate that coppicing is not a priori an unsustainable forest management system. On sites with large soil nutrient pools, even whole trees may be harvested without substantial reductions in ecosystem nutrient pools. However, on sites with a low nutrient capital, current harvesting practices would result in relatively high rates of nutrient export. In these stands, harvesting intensity should be based on careful selection of the tree compartments removed, e.g. stem only, to conserve nutrients on site. This study describes the impact of simulated tree harvesting on soil nutrient pools in aged coppice forest for the first time. Based on our findings, general assumptions related to soil sustainability of coppicing are replaced by clear recommendations regarding silvicultural nutrient management. Considering the large areas of aged coppice forests in Europe this study provides a methodological template which is needed to enhance their sustainable management.
    Keywords: Aged Coppice ; Oak ; Hornbeam ; Nutrient Content ; Nutrient Export ; Harvesting Intensity ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 February 2013, Vol.289, pp.18-27
    Description: ► Re-sprouting ability of old oak trees originating from coppice management is high. ► Two vegetation periods after harvesting the majority of all trees were found alive. ► Sprout growth was found to be unaffected by harvesting method. ► Browsing had the strongest influence on stump mortality and sprout growth. ► Seedlings of various tree species had established among coppiced trees. In Central Europe, traditional management of oak coppice forest was abandoned at the beginning of the last century, leaving large tracts of forest developing into aged coppice stands. Since the increasing importance and use of biomass as a renewable energy source, resumption of coppice management in these forests is being considered. However, there are uncertainties about the re-sprouting ability of large and old oak stumps. In this study we determined the re-sprouting ability of sessile oak ( (Mattuschka) Liebl.) stumps 80–100 years after the last coppice cut. Stump mortality and re-sprouting intensity were analyzed in relation to three different harvesting methods (harvester; conventional chainsaw cut; very low chainsaw cut), browsing intensity, vitality of parent trees and stump parameters. In addition, the extent to which stump mortality may be compensated by generative regeneration was quantified. On average, 16% of all sessile oak stools died within two vegetation periods after coppicing. Stump mortality was higher in unfenced areas compared to areas protected against browsing. No clear relationships were observed between stump mortality and harvesting method or parent tree characteristics. Two vegetation periods after coppicing, numerous new stump sprouts were recorded. In unfenced areas, average maximum sprout height was reduced by nearly 80%. Maximum sprout height (used as an indicator for re-sprouting intensity) was found to be unaffected by harvesting method and not related to stump height or parent tree characteristics. When stumps were cut close to the soil surface the majority of the most vigorous oak sprouts originated below ground. Our results indicate that the re-sprouting ability of 80–100 year old oak trees originating from former coppice management is still high and little influenced by harvesting methods.
    Keywords: Coppice ; Sessile Oak ; Quercus Petraea ; Sprouting ; Stump ; Regeneration ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: 2015
    Keywords: Forest Soils ; Aged Coppice ; Harvesting Intensity ; Nutrient Export ; Oak ; Ecosystems ; Allometry ; Forest Management ; Soil Nutrients ; Hornbeam ; Forests ; Quercus Petraea ; Soil Fertility ; Fuelwood ; Coppicing ; Equations ; Chemical Bases ; Nutrient Content ; Nutrients ; Nutrient Content ; Harvesting ; Carpinus Betulus ; Cations ; Trees ; Nutrient Management
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Trees, 2013, Vol.27(6), pp.1609-1619
    Description: Sorbus torminalis L. (Crantz) is a rare species in Central European forests with very limited quantitative information on its regeneration and growth dynamics. Since coppicing is no longer practiced in the most parts of Central Europe, it is unclear whether S. torminalis , which has usually a shorter end height than companion species, can persist in high forest systems. Here, we quantified species frequency on three 1 ha sample plots of former oak coppice forest. To determine whether S. torminalis regenerated continuously and how it might compete with oaks, the age of 80 trees was determined, and diameter and height growth were reconstructed for the 20 largest trees by stem analysis. To assess its shade tolerance, photosynthesis was measured for leaves located in high and low light conditions. Dendrochronological data demonstrated that, over the last 80 years, continuous recruitment of S. torminalis occurred. Growth patterns and photosynthesis measurements suggest that S. torminalis is a highly shade-tolerant species. We conclude that abandonment of coppicing in these forests does not threaten the status of S. torminalis , which can persist beneath the canopy of oaks.
    Keywords: Coppice ; Age structure ; Growth ; Light ecology ; Sorbus torminalis ; Wild Service Tree
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    E-ISSN: 1432-2285
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Forest products journal, 2011, Vol.61(4), pp.290-296
    Description: Coppice is a traditional forest management system used all over the world. It takes advantage of fast early growth and the vegetative reproduction of the respective trees. Coppice forests provide firewood and many other products and services, especially to rural communities. In Central Europe, regular periodic cutting and management of coppice forests was abandoned due to socioeconomic changes in recent decades, resulting in aged stands that have gradually lost their coppice characteristics. Today, coppice forests are recognized again not only for their growth potential but also for their benefits for biodiversity and nature conservation. Together with the rising demand for energy wood, this recognition could result in a renaissance of the traditional coppice management system. Several stands grow on relatively easily accessible terrain where fully mechanized systems (harvester, forwarder) could be used. However, there is no current information regarding the technical feasibility and productivity of modem harvester technology used in coppice forests. In this study, an HSM 405H 6WD harvester with an CTL 40HW processor head was investigated with time studies to determine technical feasibility and time consumption of harvesting aged oak coppice. The results show high productivity for harvesting hardwood. The multiple stem structure that is typical for coppice forests does not result in technical problems or significantly higher time consumption for the harvester, even though it is slightly more time-consuming to grab and fell multistem trees than a single tree. Compared with a forest worker with a chainsaw, the harvester left significantly (5 cm) higher stools. ; Includes references ; p. 290-296.
    Keywords: Forests ; Biodiversity ; Hardwood ; Asexual Reproduction ; Fuelwood ; Coppicing ; Rural Communities ; Vegetative Growth ; Cutting ; Chainsaws ; Forest Management ; Mechanical Harvesting ; Trees ; Mechanization ; Natural Resources Conservation ; Energy
    ISSN: 0015-7473
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Biomass and Bioenergy, Nov, 2012, Vol.46, p.722(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.06.021 Byline: Christian Suchomel (a), Patrick Pyttel (b), Gero Becker (c), Jurgen Bauhus (d) Abstract: Over-aged coppice forests (older than 40 years) occur all over Europe as a result of the abandonment of traditional harvesting practices during the last 60-100 years. With the increasing demand for bioenergy, there is renewed interest in coppicing, which typically aims at maximizing biomass production. For the sustainable management of these forests, accurate estimates of their biomass potential are needed. Therefore biomass equations for the two most common tree species traditionally managed in Central European coppice systems were developed in this study. In total, 24 oak (Quercus petraea) and 24 hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) trees from two different, aged coppice stands in Rhineland-Palatinate (southwest Germany) were felled and separated into various biomass compartments which were directly weighed in the field. From every compartment, samples were taken to the laboratory to determine wood density and water content. Based on dendrometric parameters (diameter at breast height (dbh)) and compartment dry mass, allometric equations were developed. Power functions provided the best fits for relationships between dbh and biomass in tree compartments and whole trees (R.sup.2 = 0.97 and 0.92 for oak and hornbeam, respectively). These allometric equations for oak differ considerably from those developed for trees grown in high forests, pointing to the need to use equations that are specific to silvicultural systems, in this case for aged coppice forests. Author Affiliation: (a) University of Freiburg, Institute of Forest Utilization and Work Science, Werthmannstr. 6, 79085 Freiburg, Germany (b) University of Freiburg, Institute of Silviculture, Tennenbacherstr. 4, 79085 Freiburg, Germany (c) University of Freiburg, Institute of Forest Utilization and Work Science, Werthmannstr. 6, 79085 Freiburg, Germany (d) University of Freiburg, Institute of Silviculture, Tennenbacherstr. 4, 79085 Freiburg, Germany Article History: Received 2 October 2011; Revised 7 June 2012; Accepted 12 June 2012
    Keywords: Biomass Energy ; Forests
    ISSN: 0961-9534
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 February 2018, Vol.9(3), p.104
    Description: Tree-related microhabitats are an important determinant of forest biodiversity. Habitat trees, which typically provide many microhabitats such as hollows, crown dead wood, etc., are therefore selected to maintain those structural attributes within managed forests. To what extent the occurrence of microhabitats on potential habitat trees may be predicted from common tree attributes is a question of high practical relevance. Until now, most studies have attempted to predict the quantity of microhabitats at the tree or forest stand level. In our study, we aimed at explaining microhabitat occurrence from a qualitative perspective by considering their diversity. Tree diameter at breast height (dbh), tree species, and canopy class were useful predictors of microhabitat diversity. Microhabitat diversity on broadleaved trees was on average higher than in conifers of the same diameter. In contrast to microhabitat quantity, microhabitat diversity saturated towards higher dbh levels. Microhabitat diversity in beech trees of lower tree canopy classes was found to be surprisingly high. Habitat trees support not only more, but also more diverse, microhabitats in comparison to crop trees. Considering these findings on microhabitat distribution, the selection of habitat trees within Central European mixed mountain forests can be significantly improved.
    Keywords: Tree Microhabitats ; Structural Diversity ; Mixed Mountain Forest ; Habitat Tree ; Retention Tree ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Biomass and Bioenergy, November 2012, Vol.46, pp.722-730
    Description: Over-aged coppice forests (older than 40 years) occur all over Europe as a result of the abandonment of traditional harvesting practices during the last 60–100 years. With the increasing demand for bioenergy, there is renewed interest in coppicing, which typically aims at maximizing biomass production. For the sustainable management of these forests, accurate estimates of their biomass potential are needed. Therefore biomass equations for the two most common tree species traditionally managed in Central European coppice systems were developed in this study. In total, 24 oak ( ) and 24 hornbeam ( ) trees from two different, aged coppice stands in Rhineland-Palatinate (southwest Germany) were felled and separated into various biomass compartments which were directly weighed in the field. From every compartment, samples were taken to the laboratory to determine wood density and water content. Based on dendrometric parameters (diameter at breast height (dbh)) and compartment dry mass, allometric equations were developed. Power functions provided the best fits for relationships between dbh and biomass in tree compartments and whole trees (  = 0.97 and 0.92 for oak and hornbeam, respectively). These allometric equations for oak differ considerably from those developed for trees grown in high forests, pointing to the need to use equations that are specific to silvicultural systems, in this case for aged coppice forests. ► Biomass equations for , from coppice were developed. ► Power functions were used to estimate total aboveground woody biomass. ► Simplicity of biomass equations facilitate a wide-spread application. ► For accurate biomass estimations coppice specific equations are needed. ► Comparative calculations show that coppice functions can be used site independent.
    Keywords: Coppice ; Oak ; Hornbeam ; Allometric Equations ; Biomass ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0961-9534
    E-ISSN: 1873-2909
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