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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 15 June 2010, Vol.201(12), pp.1839-48
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease. Among human volunteers, the majority of experimentally infected individuals fail to clear the infection and form pustules. Here, we investigated the role played by CD4(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells in the formation of pustules. In pustules, there was a significant enrichment of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T cells, compared with that in peripheral blood. The majority of lesional FOXP3(+) T cells were CD4(+), CD25(+), CD127(lo/-), and CTLA-4(+). FOXP3(+) T cells were found throughout pustules but were most abundant at their base. Significantly fewer lesional CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T cells expressed interferon gamma, compared with lesional CD4(+)FOXP3(-) effector T cells. Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from the peripheral blood of infected and uninfected volunteers significantly enhanced proliferation of H. ducreyi-reactive CD4(+) T cells. Our results indicate that the population of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(lo/-)FOXP3(+) T(reg) cells are expanded at H. ducreyi-infected sites and that these cells may play a role in suppressing the host immune response to the bacterium.
    Keywords: Immune Tolerance ; Cd4-Positive T-Lymphocytes -- Immunology ; Forkhead Transcription Factors -- Analysis ; Haemophilus Infections -- Immunology ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(5)
    Description: Background Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most important hantavirus species in Central Europe. Nephropathia epidemica (NE), caused by PUUV, is characterized by acute renal injury (AKI) with thrombocytopenia and frequently gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods 456 patients with serologically and clinically confirmed NE were investigated at time of follow-up in a single clinic. The course of the NE was investigated using medical reports. We identified patients who had endoscopy with intestinal biopsy during acute phase of NE. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of the biopsies were performed. Results Thirteen patients underwent colonoscopy or gastroscopy for abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting during acute phase of NE. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in 11 biopsies from 8 patients; 14 biopsies from 5 patients were negative for PUUV nucleocapsid antigen. IHC localized PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in endothelial cells of capillaries or larger vessels in the lamina propria. Rate of AKI was not higher and severity of AKI was not different in the PUUV-positive compared to the PUUV-negative group. All IHC positive biopsies were positive for PUUV RNA using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed clustering of all PUUV strains from this study with viruses previously detected from the South-West of Germany. Long-term outcome was favorable in both groups. Conclusions In patients with NE, PUUV nucleocapsid antigen and PUUV RNA was detected frequently in the intestine. This finding could explain frequent GI-symptoms in NE patients, thus demonstration of a more generalized PUUV infection. The RT-PCR was an effective and sensitive method to detect PUUV RNA in FFPE tissues. Therefore, it can be used as a diagnostic and phylogenetic approach also for archival materials. AKI was not more often present in patients with PUUV-positive IHC. This last finding should be investigated in larger numbers of patients with PUUV infection.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, May 23, 2014, Vol.9(5)
    Description: Background Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most important hantavirus species in Central Europe. Nephropathia epidemica (NE), caused by PUUV, is characterized by acute renal injury (AKI) with thrombocytopenia and frequently gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods 456 patients with serologically and clinically confirmed NE were investigated at time of follow-up in a single clinic. The course of the NE was investigated using medical reports. We identified patients who had endoscopy with intestinal biopsy during acute phase of NE. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of the biopsies were performed. Results Thirteen patients underwent colonoscopy or gastroscopy for abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting during acute phase of NE. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in 11 biopsies from 8 patients; 14 biopsies from 5 patients were negative for PUUV nucleocapsid antigen. IHC localized PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in endothelial cells of capillaries or larger vessels in the lamina propria. Rate of AKI was not higher and severity of AKI was not different in the PUUV-positive compared to the PUUV-negative group. All IHC positive biopsies were positive for PUUV RNA using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed clustering of all PUUV strains from this study with viruses previously detected from the South-West of Germany. Long-term outcome was favorable in both groups. Conclusions In patients with NE, PUUV nucleocapsid antigen and PUUV RNA was detected frequently in the intestine. This finding could explain frequent GI-symptoms in NE patients, thus demonstration of a more generalized PUUV infection. The RT-PCR was an effective and sensitive method to detect PUUV RNA in FFPE tissues. Therefore, it can be used as a diagnostic and phylogenetic approach also for archival materials. AKI was not more often present in patients with PUUV-positive IHC. This last finding should be investigated in larger numbers of patients with PUUV infection.
    Keywords: Phylogeny – Health Aspects ; RNA – Health Aspects ; Nausea – Health Aspects ; Antigens – Health Aspects ; Colonoscopy – Health Aspects ; Diarrhea – Health Aspects ; Immunohistochemistry – Health Aspects
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, March 2013, Vol.19(3), pp.507-8
    Description: To the Editor: Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonotic disease with an incremental number of reported human infections caused by larval stages (nymphs) of pentastomes (1–3). The vermiform parasites are in their own phylum and are related to branchiuran crustaceans (2). Most human infections with these parasites are caused by Armillifer armillatus (2), a parasite endemic to western and central Africa. Most cases are reported from the Congo region and Nigeria, and occasionally infections in African immigrants to Europe and North America have been reported (4,5). Imported cases to Germany have not been reported. A. grandis, a related parasite from central Africa, has been rarely found (6), but A. moniliformis, a pentastome species from Asia, has recently reemerged and caused a human infection after ≈40 years in Malaysia (1).
    Keywords: Liver Diseases, Parasitic -- Diagnosis ; Parasitic Diseases -- Diagnosis ; Pentastomida -- Genetics
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Parasitology Research, 2011, Vol.108(6), pp.1347-1354
    Description: Dirofilaria repens and other Dirofilaria species are widely distributed parasitic nematodes of carnivores, which occasionally are transmitted to men, causing subcutaneous nodules. In humans, it usually occurs only as single male or female filariae without production of microfilariae. The non-productive living or dead Dirofilaria worms in subcutaneous biopsies from 15 human patients permitted us to study the role of the pleiotropic and immunoregulatory cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) independent from the influence of microfilariae. Antiserum against latent TGF-beta 1 was used for an immunohistological examination. In the infiltrates around female and male filariae, there occurred strongly TGF-beta-positive macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibrocytes, and giant cells adjacent to dead worms. In one nodule, secondary lymph follicles were observed with clearly TGF-beta-positive B cells in the mantle zone and weakly positive macrophages and B cells in the germinal centre. A network of CD35-positive follicular dendritic cells was observed in the germinal centre. All Dirofilaria contained Wolbachia endobacteria, which probably had attracted the numerous TGF-beta-negative neutrophils near to the worm. Wolbachia were phagocytosed by neutrophils adjacent to dead filariae. Macrophages and lymphocytes expressed the MHC class II molecule HLA-DR in small accumulations of immune cells in the outer zone of the infiltrate and the mantle zone and germinal centre of secondary lymph follicles. It is concluded that single non-productive Dirofilaria worms elicit a strong expression of TGF-beta. This result is in accordance with observations on Onchocerca volvulus from patients with the hyporeactive (generalised) form.
    Keywords: Bone Morphogenetic Proteins ; Dendritic Cells ; Macrophages ; Roundworms;
    ISSN: 0932-0113
    E-ISSN: 1432-1955
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(2), p.e32604
    Description: This study aimed to identify the causative agent of mass mortality in wild and captive birds in southwest Germany and to gather insights into the phylogenetic relationship and spatial distribution of the pathogen. Since June 2011, 223 dead birds were collected and tested for the presence of viral pathogens. Usutu virus (USUV) RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR in 86 birds representing 6 species. The virus was isolated in cell culture from the heart of 18 Blackbirds ( Turdus merula ). USUV-specific antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in brain, heart, liver, and lung of infected Blackbirds. The complete polyprotein coding sequence was obtained by deep sequencing of liver and spleen samples of a dead Blackbird from Mannheim (BH65/11-02-03). Phylogenetic analysis of the German USUV strain BH65/11-02-03 revealed a close relationship with strain Vienna that caused mass mortality among birds in Austria in 2001. Wild birds from lowland river valleys in southwest Germany were mainly affected by USUV, but also birds kept in aviaries. Our data suggest that after the initial detection of USUV in German mosquitoes in 2010, the virus spread in 2011 and caused epizootics among wild and captive birds in southwest Germany. The data also indicate an increased risk of USUV infections in humans in Germany.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Veterinary Science ; Immunology ; Infectious Diseases ; Evolutionary Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of clinical microbiology, January 2016, Vol.54(1), pp.172-4
    Description: Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs.
    Keywords: Cysticercosis -- Diagnosis ; Molecular Diagnostic Techniques -- Methods ; Parasitology -- Methods ; Taenia -- Isolation & Purification ; Zoonoses -- Diagnosis
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098-660X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, July 2013, Vol.19(7), pp.1152-4
    Description: To the Editor: Cysticercosis-like human infections with the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps, which infects foxes as terminal hosts, have been reported (1,2). We report a case of a cysticercosis-like eye infection caused by the tapeworm T. martis (marten tapeworm) in a woman.
    Keywords: Taenia Martis ; Cestode ; Cysticercosis ; Helminth ; Human ; Marten ; Parasites ; Taenia ; Tapeworm ; Cysticercosis -- Diagnosis ; Taenia -- Genetics
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1 November 1996, Vol.23(5), pp.979-982
    Description: Intrasplenic lesions can cause diagnostic difficulties because malignant diseases can be excluded only by histologic examination. We present the cases of two patients with splenic manifestations of loiasis. Both patients had visited central Africa. Several years later, intrasplenic lesions were found during routine examinations (for chest trauma and employment, respectively). Both patients underwent splenectomies because malignant lymphoma was suspected. In both cases, histologic examination of the spleen showed eosinophilic granulomata with multiple Loa loa microfilariae.
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Developmental biology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Physiology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases ; Health sciences -- Medical treatment -- Medical procedures ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Disorders ; Health sciences -- Medical specialties -- Tropical medicine ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Physical trauma ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases
    ISSN: 10584838
    E-ISSN: 15376591
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Pathogens, 2012, Vol.8(2), p.e1002506
    Description: Mucosal mononuclear (MMC) CCR5+CD4+ T cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are selectively infected and depleted during acute HIV-1 infection. Despite early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) CD4+ T cell depletion and activation persist in the majority of HIV-1 positive individuals studied. This may result from ongoing HIV-1 replication and T-cell activation despite effective cART. We hypothesized that ongoing viral replication in the GI tract during cART would result in measurable viral evolution, with divergent populations emerging over time. Subjects treated during early HIV-1 infection underwent phlebotomy and flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsies prior to and 15–24 months post initiation of cART. At the 2 nd biopsy, three GALT phenotypes were noted, characterized by high, intermediate and low levels of immune activation. A representative case from each phenotype was analyzed. Each subject had plasma HIV-1 RNA levels 〈50 copies/ml at 2 nd GI biopsy and CD4+ T cell reconstitution in the peripheral blood. Single genome amplification of full-length HIV-1 envelope was performed for each subject pre- and post-initiation of cART in GALT and PBMC. A total of 280 confirmed single genome sequences (SGS) were analyzed for experimental cases. For each subject, maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees derived from molecular sequence data showed no evidence of evolved forms in the GALT over the study period. During treatment, HIV-1 envelope diversity in GALT-derived SGS did not increase and post-treatment GALT-derived SGS showed no substantial genetic divergence from pre-treatment sequences within transmitted groups. Similar results were obtained from PBMC-derived SGS. Our results reveal that initiation of cART during acute/early HIV-1 infection can result in the interruption of measurable viral evolution in the GALT, suggesting the absence of de-novo rounds of HIV-1 replication in this compartment during suppressive cART. ; This study was undertaken to determine if the gastrointestinal tract is a site of ongoing viral replication during suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (defined by plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below 50 copies/ml). We found no evidence of substantial viral evolution in HIV-1 envelope sequences derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or cells of the gastrointestinal tract lymphoid tissue in participants initiating cART during early HIV-1 infection. To our knowledge, this is the first application of the single genome amplification technique to the comparative analysis of HIV-1 quasi-species derived from the gastrointestinal tract, demonstrating that in these individuals, cART has the ability to halt measurable evolution of HIV-1 envelope in this compartment. These findings suggest the absence of rounds of HIV-1 replication during suppressive cART and by extension, that experimentally observed, persistently elevated levels of immune activation in the gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue seen after the early initiation and uninterrupted use of cART (despite relative immune reconstitution in the blood) is likely due to factors other than ongoing viral replication. This implies that in this virally suppressed population, cART intensification is unlikely to significantly impact persistent CD4+ T cell depletion or increased levels of immune activation in the gastrointestinal tract.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Genetics And Genomics ; Infectious Diseases ; Gastroenterology And Hepatology
    ISSN: 1553-7366
    E-ISSN: 1553-7374
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