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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 10 September 2013, Vol.110(37), pp.15019-24
    Description: Robust cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell response is important for immunity to intracellular pathogens. Here, we show that the transcription factor IFN Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is crucial for the protective CD8(+) T-cell response to the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. IRF4-deficient (Irf4(-/-)) mice could not clear L. monocytogenes infection and generated decreased numbers of L. monocytogenes-specific CD8(+) T cells with impaired effector phenotype and function. Transfer of wild-type CD8(+) T cells into Irf4(-/-) mice improved bacterial clearance, suggesting an intrinsic defect of CD8(+) T cells in Irf4(-/-) mice. Following transfer into wild-type recipients, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells became activated and showed initial proliferation upon L. monocytogenes infection. However, these cells could not sustain proliferation, produced reduced amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and failed to acquire cytotoxic function. Forced IRF4 expression in Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells rescued the defect. During acute infection, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells demonstrated diminished expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), inhibitor of DNA binding (Id)2, and T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), transcription factors programming effector-cell generation. IRF4 was essential for expression of Blimp-1, suggesting that altered regulation of Blimp-1 contributes to the defects of Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells. Despite increased levels of B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), Eomesodermin, and Id3, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells showed impaired memory-cell formation, indicating additional functions for IRF4 in this process. As IRF4 governs B-cell and CD4(+) T-cell differentiation, the identification of its decisive role in peripheral CD8(+) T-cell differentiation, suggests a common regulatory function for IRF4 in adaptive lymphocytes fate decision.
    Keywords: Interferon Regulatory Factors -- Immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(10), p.e110138
    Description: The majority of clinical studies requires extensive management of human specimen including e.g. overnight shipping of blood samples in order to convey the samples in a central laboratory or to simultaneously analyze large numbers of patients. Storage of blood samples for periods of time before in vitro/ex vivo testing is known to influence the antigen expression on the surface of lymphocytes. In this context, the present results show for the first time that the T cell antigen CD3 can be substantially detected on the surface of human B cells after ex vivo storage and that the degree of this phenomenon critically depends on temperature and duration after blood withdrawal. The appearance of CD3 on the B cell surface seems to be a result of contact-dependent antigen exchange between T and B lymphocytes and is not attributed to endogenous production by B cells. Since cellular subsets are often classified by phenotypic analyses, our results indicate that ex vivo cellular classification in peripheral blood might result in misleading interpretations. Therefore, in order to obtain results reflecting the in vivo situation, it is suggested to minimize times of ex vivo blood storage after isolation of PBMC. Moreover, to enable reproducibility of results between different research groups and multicenter studies, we would emphasize the necessity to specify and standardize the storage conditions, which might be the basis of particular findings.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, Oct 16, 2014, Vol.9(10)
    Description: The majority of clinical studies requires extensive management of human specimen including e.g. overnight shipping of blood samples in order to convey the samples in a central laboratory or to simultaneously analyze large numbers of patients. Storage of blood samples for periods of time before in vitro/ex vivo testing is known to influence the antigen expression on the surface of lymphocytes. In this context, the present results show for the first time that the T cell antigen CD3 can be substantially detected on the surface of human B cells after ex vivo storage and that the degree of this phenomenon critically depends on temperature and duration after blood withdrawal. The appearance of CD3 on the B cell surface seems to be a result of contact-dependent antigen exchange between T and B lymphocytes and is not attributed to endogenous production by B cells. Since cellular subsets are often classified by phenotypic analyses, our results indicate that ex vivo cellular classification in peripheral blood might result in misleading interpretations. Therefore, in order to obtain results reflecting the in vivo situation, it is suggested to minimize times of ex vivo blood storage after isolation of PBMC. Moreover, to enable reproducibility of results between different research groups and multicenter studies, we would emphasize the necessity to specify and standardize the storage conditions, which might be the basis of particular findings.
    Keywords: T Cells ; B Cells
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 29 May 2012, Vol.109(22), pp.8664-9
    Description: Follicular T-helper (T(FH)) cells cooperate with GL7(+)CD95(+) germinal center (GC) B cells to induce antibody maturation. Herein, we identify the transcription factor IRF4 as a T-cell intrinsic precondition for T(FH) cell differentiation and GC formation. After immunization with protein or infection with the protozoon Leishmania major, draining lymph nodes (LNs) of IFN-regulatory factor-4 (Irf4(-/-)) mice lacked GCs and GC B cells despite developing normal initial hyperplasia. GCs were also absent in Peyer's patches of naive Irf4(-/-) mice. Accordingly, CD4(+) T cells within the LNs and Peyer's patches failed to express the T(FH) key transcription factor B-cell lymphoma-6 and other T(FH)-related molecules. During chronic leishmaniasis, the draining Irf4(-/-) LNs disappeared because of massive cell death. Adoptive transfer of WT CD4(+) T cells or few L. major primed WT T(FH) cells reconstituted GC formation, GC B-cell differentiation, and LN cell survival. In support of a T-cell intrinsic IRF4 activity, Irf4(-/-) T(FH) cell differentiation was not rescued by close neighborhood to transferred WT T(FH) cells. Together with its known B lineage-specific roles during plasma cell maturation and class switch, our study places IRF4 in the center of antibody production toward T-cell-dependent antigens.
    Keywords: Cell Differentiation -- Immunology ; Germinal Center -- Immunology ; Interferon Regulatory Factors -- Immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 5
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(4)
    Description: The immunoproteasome subunit β5i has been shown to play an important role in Th1/Th17 driven models of colitis and arthritis. However, the function of β5i in Th2 dependent diseases remains enigmatic. To study the role of β5i in Th2-driven pathology, β5i knockout (KO) and control mice were tested in different models of experimental allergic asthma. β5i-deficient mice showed reduced OVA/Alum- and subcutaneous/OVA-induced acute asthma with decreased eosinophilia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), low OVA-specific IgG1 and reduced local and systemic Th2 cytokines. While Th2 cells in the lungs were reduced, Tregs and Th1 cells were not affected. Attenuated asthma in β5i KO mice could not be attributed to defects in OVA uptake or maturation of dendritic cells in the lung. Surprisingly, β5i deficient mice developed HDM asthma which was comparable to control mice. Here, we present novel evidence for the requirement of the β5i immunosubunit to generate a strong Th2 response during OVA- but not HDM-induced acute asthma. The unexpected role of β5i in OVA asthma remains to be clarified.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(8), p.e0135326
    Description: Heat shock proteins (Hsps) play an important role in the development and pathogenicity of malaria parasites. One of the most prominent functions of Hsps is to facilitate the folding of other proteins. Hsps are thought to play a crucial role when malaria parasites invade their host cells and during their subsequent development in hepatocytes and red blood cells. It is thought that Hsps maintain proteostasis under the unfavourable conditions that malaria parasites encounter in the host environment. Although heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is capable of independent folding of some proteins, its functional cooperation with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) facilitates folding of some proteins such as kinases and steroid hormone receptors into their fully functional forms. The cooperation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 occurs through an adaptor protein called Hsp70-Hsp90 organising protein (Hop). We previously characterised the Hop protein from Plasmodium falciparum (PfHop). We observed that the protein co-localised with the cytosol-localised chaperones, PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp90 at the blood stages of the malaria parasite. In the current study, we demonstrated that PfHop is a stress-inducible protein. We further explored the direct interaction between PfHop and PfHsp70-1 using far Western and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses. The interaction of the two proteins was further validated by co-immunoprecipitation studies. We observed that PfHop and PfHsp70-1 associate in the absence and presence of either ATP or ADP. However, ADP appears to promote the association of the two proteins better than ATP. In addition, we investigated the specific interaction between PfHop TPR subdomains and PfHsp70-1/ PfHsp90, using a split-GFP approach. This method allowed us to observe that TPR1 and TPR2B subdomains of PfHop bind preferentially to the C-terminus of PfHsp70-1 compared to PfHsp90. Conversely, the TPR2A motif preferentially interacted with the C-terminus of PfHsp90. Finally, we observed that recombinant PfHop occasionally eluted as a protein species of twice its predicted size, suggesting that it may occur as a dimer. We conducted SPR analysis which suggested that PfHop is capable of self-association in presence or absence of ATP/ADP. Overall, our findings suggest that PfHop is a stress-inducible protein that directly associates with PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp90. In addition, the protein is capable of self-association. The findings suggest that PfHop serves as a module that brings these two prominent chaperones (PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp90) into a functional complex. Since PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp90 are essential for parasite growth, findings from this study are important towards the development of possible antimalarial inhibitors targeting the cooperation of these two chaperones.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Allergo Journal, 2015, Vol.24(4), pp.31-31
    ISSN: 0941-8849
    E-ISSN: 2195-6405
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Allergo Journal International, 2015, Vol.24(4), pp.121-121
    Keywords: Medicine & Public Health ; General Practice / Family Medicine ; Allergology ; Immunology ; Environmental Health ; Dermatology;
    ISSN: 09418849
    E-ISSN: 2197-0378
    E-ISSN: 21956405
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, July 2016, Vol.170(1), pp.22-34
    Description: Background: Evidence regarding sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) efficacy and its good safety profile has been demonstrated with pollen and house dust mite (HDM) allergens in the treatment of airway allergies. In addition, the use of grass pollen presents a SLIT disease-modifying treatment for respiratory allergies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of HDM-based SLIT in mouse models of allergic airway inflammation and to gain insights into the involved local immunological mechanisms. Methods: Balb/c mice were sensitized/challenged with Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) extract and underwent Der f-SLIT in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. The SLIT efficacy was assessed using lung function measurements, analysis of local inflammatory responses by bronchoalveolar lavage cell differentiation and lung histology. Humoral and cellular responses were monitored by ELISA, cytokine bead array and flow cytometry analyses. Results: In a prophylactic setting, Der f-SLIT with 12 development units per dose reduced the eosinophil-dominated inflammatory response in the lung paralleled by a marked reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness. Local Th2 responses were prevented as demonstrated by significantly lower levels of IL-5 and IL-13. Additionally, SLIT-treated mice revealed a lower proportion of CD4-CD8- γδ cells and a higher frequency of CD8+CD25+IFNγ+ T cells in the lungs compared to sham-treated mice. In a therapeutic setting, Der f-SLIT also resulted in reduced inflammatory responses in the lung. Conclusion: The efficacy of Der f-SLIT was demonstrated in prophylactic and therapeutic conditions using experimental mouse models of HDM-induced airway inflammation. A potential role of a so far underestimated lymphocyte subpopulation was also indicated.
    Keywords: Original Paper ; House Dust Mite ; Sublingual ; Allergen Immunotherapy ; Dermatophagoides Farinae ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1018-2438
    E-ISSN: 1423-0097
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  • 10
    In: Nature Communications, 2015, Vol.6
    Description: Regulatory T-cells induced via IL-2 and TGFβ in vitro (iTreg) suppress immune cells and are potential therapeutics during autoimmunity. However, several reports described their re-differentiation into pathogenic cells in vivo and loss of their key functional transcription factor (TF) FOXP3 after T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-signalling in vitro. Here, we show that TCR-activation antagonizes two necessary TFs for foxp3 gene transcription, which are themselves regulated by phosphorylation. Although the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN2 is induced to restrain IL-2-mediated phosphorylation of the TF STAT5, expression of the TF FOXO1 is downregulated and miR-182, a suppressor of FOXO1 expression, is upregulated. TGFβ counteracts the FOXP3-depleting TCR-signal by reassuring FOXO1 expression and by re-licensing STAT5 phosphorylation. Overexpressed phosphorylation-independent active versions of FOXO1 and STAT5 or knockdown of PTPN2 restores FOXP3 expression despite TCR-signal and absence of TGFβ. This study suggests novel targets for stabilisation and less dangerous application of iTreg during devastating inflammation.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2041-1723
    E-ISSN: 2041-1723
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