American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011, Vol.204(1), pp.41.e1-41.e9
Recent data suggest vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) during pregnancy. We hypothesized that VDD is a risk factor for BV in nonpregnant women. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, we conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses stratified by pregnancy. VDD was associated with BV only in pregnant women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–7.28). Among nonpregnant women, douching (AOR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.25–2.37), smoking (AOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.23–2.24), and black race (AOR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.67–3.47) were associated with BV; oral contraceptive use was inversely associated with BV (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40–0.90). VDD moderated the association between smoking and BV in nonpregnant women. Risk factors for BV differ by pregnancy status. VDD was a modifiable risk factor for BV among pregnant women; evaluation of vitamin D supplementation for prevention or adjunct therapy of BV in pregnancy is warranted.
Bacterial Vaginosis ; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ; Pregnancy ; Smoking ; Vitamin D ; Medicine
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