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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics A, 2016, Vol.122(11), pp.1-9
    Description: Building stones are frequently subjected to very intense degradation due to salt crystallization, often responsible for strong modifications of their pore network. These effects have a great influence on the mechanical properties and durability of the materials, and on the penetration of water. Therefore, the quantification and visualization of water absorption into the pore network of degraded stones could provide useful information to better understand the weathering process. In this study, neutron radiography has been used (1) to monitor and visualize in two dimensions the capillary water uptake in a Sicilian calcarenite widely used as building and replace stone (namely Sabucina stone) and (2) to quantify the water content distribution, as a function of time and weathering degree. Additionally, traditional experiments based on gravimetric methods have been performed, following the standard recommendations. Results demonstrated a change in the physical properties of Sabucina stones with the intensification of the degradation process, with severe effects on the capillary imbibition dynamics. The water penetration depth at the end of the experiment was substantially higher in the fresh than in the weathered stones. The water absorption kinetics was faster in the weathered samples, and the amount of water absorbed increased with the number of weathering cycles. Good agreement between classical and neutron imaging data has also been evidenced. However, neutron radiography has allowed retrieving additional spatial information on the water absorption process, and to better understand how salt weathering affects the petrophysical properties of the studied stone and how it influences then the stone response against water.
    Keywords: Green Buildings ; Diagnostic Imaging;
    ISSN: 0947-8396
    E-ISSN: 1432-0630
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Powder Metallurgy & Mining, 2017, Vol.06(03)
    ISSN: Journal of Powder Metallurgy & Mining
    E-ISSN: 21689806
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: X-Ray Spectrometry, March-April, 2014, Vol.43(2), p.83(10)
    Description: Byline: Germana Barone, Vincenza Crupi, Francesca Longo, Domenico Majolino, Paolo Mazzoleni, Simona Raneri, Valentina Venuti In this paper, a multi-technique approach, at different scale of observation, is used to characterize a group of decorative stones and to permit to distinguish rocks with similar aspect but coming from different areas. In particular, the samples under study are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, widely used as building blocks of modern and historical constructions and sculptures. The petrographic and mineralogical features of such rocks were performed by optical microscopy and Raman and Fourier transform infrared absorbance spectroscopies. These techniques permitted to obtain a complete structural, textural, and mineralogical characterization. At elemental level, the investigation was carried out by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). In particular, XRF and Raman measurements were collected using portable instrumentations, whose advantages for the in situ analysis have been pointed out. The obtained results evidenced the high discriminant capability of the portable XRF for the decorative stones especially when this method is coupled with mineralogical and petrographic information. In this context, we propose to create a database for precious ornamental stones, which could be a starting point for a non-destructive characterization, even useful for provenance study and/or certification of origin. Copyright [c] 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Metamorphic Rocks -- Methods ; Metamorphic Rocks -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0049-8246
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Open Archaeology, 01 September 2017, Vol.3(1), pp.194-201
    Description: Origin of gemstones is a key aspect not only in gemological field but also in Cultural Heritage studies, for the correct evaluation of precious artifacts. The studies on gems require the application of non-invasive and non-destructive methods; among them, portable spectroscopic techniques has...
    Keywords: Gems ; P-Xrf ; Corundum ; Natural ; Synthetic
    E-ISSN: 2300-6560
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Heritage Science, 2015, Vol.3(1), pp.1-9
    Description: Abstract Background This work is part of a wide scientific project finalized to characterize the Sicilian pottery productions from Greek to Roman Age. In this prospective, local reference groups have been analysed in order to create a database of the circulation and production centres in Sicily during this period. In this framework, a set of 28 waste pottery fragments (III-II century B.C.) from a pit found during excavations at the fortification of Adrano (Sicily) have been studied. Characterization of the samples has been obtained by macroscopic, petrographic (OM), mineralogical (XRD) and chemical (XRF) analyses. Results Macroscopic analysis of the studied potteries has allowed to distinguish four groups on the basis of grain size, porosity and clay paste color. Petrographic and mineralogical analysis, carried out on a selection of representative samples have allowed us to obtain useful information on the production technology of the studied samples. Moreover, information about raw materials and provenance of clay sediments has been obtained by comparing chemical data of the analysed samples with locally outcropping clay sediments reference data. Finally, chemical results on Adrano potteries have been compared with kiln wastes from Siracusa and Gela. Conclusions The aim of the present work is to obtain fabric characterizations and technological information on a local reference group of ceramic specimens manufactured in Adrano (Sicily). Petrographic and mineralogical results allow us to esteem high firing temperature suggesting a good technological level of local production; in addition, chemical data suggest a local provenance of raw materials used in the production of the studied samples. The comparison with local production from Siracusa and Gela highlights several differences in the use of raw material and in the technological levels achieved in the different sites, over time. Therefore, this work provides a valuable contribution in defining the local scenario of ceramic production in South-Eastern Sicily during the Hellenistic Age and in producing local reference groups in the petro-archaeometric studies of archaeological potteries.
    Keywords: Kiln wastes ; Adrano (Sicily) ; Petro-archeometric analysis ; Hellenistic pottery production
    E-ISSN: 2050-7445
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Measurement, October 2018, Vol.126, pp.322-331
    Description: The present work is focused on the study of forty-two mortars used in the construction of both Roman buildings, old Pisa’s Cathedral and Modern structures in the Miracles Square (Italy). This area, included since 1987 in the World Heritage List of the UNESCO, is famous for the presence of an important historical complex built in the Middle Ages (the Cathedral, the Baptistery, the Leaning Tower and the Monumental Cemetery). The archaeologists discovered some structures related to more ancient periods: the Roman (1st–5th centuries) and the older cathedral with its foundations and crypt (10th century). Based on OM, XRF, XRPD, TG-DSC and SEM-EDS analyses, the main characteristics of binder and aggregate of the mortars have been determined, and some raw materials used for the production of the analysed binding materials have been identified.
    Keywords: Mortar ; Binder ; Aggregate ; Applied Petrography ; Building Phase ; Raw Materials ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0263-2241
    E-ISSN: 1873-412X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Applied Sciences, 01 September 2018, Vol.8(9), p.1694
    Description: Protective coatings, in recent years also from nanocomposite formulations, are commonly applied onto architectural stone and stone artefacts, mainly to prevent absorption of condensed water and dissolved atmospheric pollutants into the porous stone structure. While standard protocols to assess...
    Keywords: Natural Stones ; Alkylalkoxysilane ; Nanocomposite Coatings ; Surface Modification ; Zeta Potential ; Streaming Current ; Engineering ; Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 2076-3417
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  • 8
    In: (2018\) Archaeometric study of mortars from the Pisa’s Cathedral Square (Italy\). Measurement
    Description: The present work is focused on the study of forty-two mortars used in the construction of both Roman buildings, old Pisa’s Cathedral and Modern structures in the Miracles Square (Italy). This area, included since 1987 in the World Heritage List of the UNESCO, is famous for the presence of an important...
    ISSN: 0263-2241
    Source: White Rose Research Online
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, June 2018, Vol.19, pp.575-587
    Description: The development of post-medieval archaeology has been uneven in the Mediterranean. While major advances have been made in areas, such as the Aegean and Italy, others have garnered little sustained archaeological interest. In Malta, one of the principal barriers to the development of post-medieval archaeology has been the lack of knowledge and published findings regarding one of the most important find-types: pottery. The present study presents the results of the first archaeometric (chemical and minero-petrographic) analysis of post-medieval pottery in Malta, which sheds light on the changing ceramic relationships between Malta and Sicily during the 17 to early 20 centuries. The results demonstrate that, on the one hand, locally-made Maltese pottery remained important throughout the post-medieval period, as did pottery from the Messina Straits area. While, on the other hand, pottery from the Syracuse area can be shown to be linked to the activities of the navy of the Knights of St John.
    Keywords: Post-Medieval Pottery ; Petrography ; Xrf ; Mediterranean Archaeology ; Historical Archaeology ; History & Archaeology
    ISSN: 2352-409X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Applied Spectroscopy, August 2016, Vol.70(8), pp.1346-1355
    Description: 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and µ-Raman spectroscopy were applied to characterize Sicilian amber samples. The main goal of this work was to supply a complete study of simetite, highlighting discriminating criteria useful to distinguish Sicilian amber from fossil resins from other regions and laying the foundations for building a spectroscopic database of Sicilian amber. With this aim, a private collection of unrefined simetite samples and fossil resins from the Baltic region and Dominican Republic was analyzed. Overall, the obtained spectra permitted simetite to be distinguished from the other resins. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the spectroscopic data, allowing the clustering of simetite samples with respect to the Baltic and Dominican samples and to group the simetite samples in two sets, depending on their maturity. Finally, the analysis of loadings allowed for a better understanding of the spectral features that mainly influenced the discriminating characteristics of the investigated ambers.
    Keywords: Amber ; Simetite ; Fossil Resins ; 13c Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) ; Μ-Raman Spectroscopy ; Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0003-7028
    E-ISSN: 1943-3530
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