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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, June 15, 2012, Vol.427-428, p.319(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.011 Byline: Ursula S. McKnight, Jes J. Rasmussen, Brian Kronvang, Poul L. Bjerg, Philip J. Binning Keywords: Ecological status; EU Water Framework Directive; Benthic macroinvertebrates; Contaminated sites; SPEAR index; AQUATOX Abstract: The release of chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, pesticides and other xenobiotic organic compounds to streams, either from contaminated sites, accidental or direct application/release, is a significant threat to water resources. In this paper, different methods for evaluating the impacts of chemical stressors on stream ecosystems are evaluated for a stream in Denmark where the effects of major physical habitat degradation can be disregarded. The methods are: (i) the Danish Stream Fauna Index, (ii) Toxic Units (TU), (iii) SPEAR indices, (iv) Hazard Quotient (HQ) index and (v) AQUATOX, an ecological model. The results showed that the hydromorphology, nutrients, biological oxygen demand and contaminants (pesticides and trichloroethylene from a contaminated site) originating from groundwater do not affect the good ecological status in the stream. In contrast, the evaluation by the novel SPEAR.sub.pesticides index and TU indicated that the site is far from obtaining good ecological status - a direct contradiction to the ecological index currently in use in Denmark today - most likely due to stream sediment-bound pesticides arising from the spring spraying season. In order to generalise the findings of this case study, the HQ index and AQUATOX were extended for additional compounds, not only partly to identify potential compounds of concern, but also to determine thresholds where ecological impacts could be expected to occur. The results demonstrate that some commonly used methods for the assessment of ecological impact are not sufficient for capturing - and ideally separating - the effects of all anthropogenic stressors affecting ecosystems. Predictive modelling techniques can be especially useful in supporting early decisions on prioritising hot spots, serving to identify knowledge gaps and thereby direct future data collection. This case study presents a strong argument for combining bioassessment and modelling techniques to multi-stressor field sites, especially before cost-intensive studies are conducted. Article History: Received 4 December 2011; Revised 3 April 2012; Accepted 4 April 2012
    Keywords: Water Resources -- Environmental Aspects ; Water Resources -- Analysis ; Groundwater -- Environmental Aspects ; Groundwater -- Analysis ; Ecosystems -- Environmental Aspects ; Ecosystems -- Analysis ; Chlorinated Solvents -- Usage ; Chlorinated Solvents -- Environmental Aspects ; Chlorinated Solvents -- Analysis ; Water Resource Management -- Environmental Aspects ; Water Resource Management -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 June 2012, Vol.427-428, pp.319-331
    Description: The release of chemicals such as chlorinated solvents, pesticides and other xenobiotic organic compounds to streams, either from contaminated sites, accidental or direct application/release, is a significant threat to water resources. In this paper, different methods for evaluating the impacts of chemical stressors on stream ecosystems are evaluated for a stream in Denmark where the effects of major physical habitat degradation can be disregarded. The methods are: (i) the Danish Stream Fauna Index, (ii) Toxic Units (TU), (iii) SPEAR indices, (iv) Hazard Quotient (HQ) index and (v) AQUATOX, an ecological model. The results showed that the hydromorphology, nutrients, biological oxygen demand and contaminants (pesticides and trichloroethylene from a contaminated site) originating from groundwater do not affect the ecological status in the stream. In contrast, the evaluation by the novel SPEAR index and TU indicated that the site is far from obtaining ecological status – a direct contradiction to the ecological index currently in use in Denmark today – most likely due to stream sediment-bound pesticides arising from the spring spraying season. In order to generalise the findings of this case study, the HQ index and AQUATOX were extended for additional compounds, not only partly to identify potential compounds of concern, but also to determine thresholds where ecological impacts could be expected to occur. The results demonstrate that some commonly used methods for the assessment of ecological impact are not sufficient for capturing – and ideally separating – the effects of all anthropogenic stressors affecting ecosystems. Predictive modelling techniques can be especially useful in supporting early decisions on prioritising hot spots, serving to identify knowledge gaps and thereby direct future data collection. This case study presents a strong argument for combining bioassessment and modelling techniques to multi-stressor field sites, especially before cost-intensive studies are conducted. ► The Danish Stream Fauna Index failed to detect pesticide effects. ► Appropriate ecological assessment methods show poorer ecological status in streams. ► Baseflow from groundwater is an important source of pesticides entering streams. ► The ecologically toxic pesticides were detected in suspended sediment.
    Keywords: Ecological Status ; Eu Water Framework Directive ; Benthic Macroinvertebrates ; Contaminated Sites ; Spear Index ; Aquatox ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2015, Vol.198, p.54(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.12.016 Byline: Alessio Ippolito, Mira Kattwinkel, Jes J. Rasmussen, Ralf B. Schafer, Riccardo Fornaroli, Matthias Liess Abstract: Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. Author Affiliation: (a) International Centre for Pesticides and Health Risk Prevention, L. Sacco University - Hospital, Via G.B. Grassi, 74, 20157 Milan, Italy (b) Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DISAT), University of Milano - Bicocca, Piazza dellaScienza 1, 20126 Milan, Italy (c) UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. System-Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany (d) Department of System Analysis, Integrated Assessment and Modelling, Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland (e) Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsovej 25, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark (f) Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Campus Landau, Fortstrasse 7, 76829 Landau, Germany (g) RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany Article History: Received 31 August 2014; Revised 1 December 2014; Accepted 5 December 2014
    Keywords: Insecticides – International Marketing
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2017, Vol.793(1), pp.213-224
    Description: Small water bodies (SWB) are freshwater ecosystems of high ecological relevance. However, they receive considerably higher inputs of pesticides compared to larger water bodies owing to their close connection to adjacent agricultural fields in combination with their low water volume or discharge. Monitoring of the pesticide contamination of lentic and lotic SWB is a challenging task as various spatial and temporal factors affect pesticide’s maximum peak concentrations in the water bodies. We present an overview of the major challenges that can complicate the detection of exceedances of regulatory acceptable concentrations. Pesticide data from streams encompassed by the Danish pesticide monitoring program show that the highest pesticide concentrations are found in SWB. A ditch monitoring in a German orchard reveals that event-driven sampling following spray application outperforms the widely used automatic water sampling at fixed intervals, and we therefore suggest that the latter should replace the former in SWB. Furthermore, we suggest that gathering of quantitative data on pesticide pollution of lentic SWB should be given priority in future research.
    Keywords: Chemical and ecological status ; Pesticide monitoring ; Regulatory acceptable concentration ; Risk assessment
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 December 2017, Vol.599-600, pp.1517-1523
    Description: Worldwide, lowland stream ecosystems are exposed to multiple anthropogenic stress due to the combination of water scarcity, eutrophication, and fine sedimentation. The understanding of the effects of such multiple stress on stream benthic macroinvertebrates has been growing in recent years. However, the interdependence of multiple stress and stream habitat characteristics has received little attention, although single stressor studies indicate that habitat characteristics may be decisive in shaping the macroinvertebrate response. We conducted an experiment in large outdoor flumes to assess the effects of low flow, fine sedimentation, and nutrient enrichment on the structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in riffle and run habitats of lowland streams. For most taxa, we found a negative effect of low flow on macroinvertebrate abundance in the riffle habitat, an effect which was mitigated by fine sedimentation for overall community composition and the dominant shredder species ( ) and by nutrient enrichment for the dominant grazer species ( ). In contrast, fine sediment in combination with low flow rapidly affected macroinvertebrate composition in the run habitat, with decreasing abundances of many species. We conclude that the effects of typical multiple stressor scenarios on lowland stream benthic macroinvertebrates are highly dependent on habitat conditions and that high habitat diversity needs to be given priority by stream managers to maximize the resilience of stream macroinvertebrate communities to multiple stress.
    Keywords: Low Flow ; Riffle ; Run ; Nutrients ; Fine Sediment ; Principal Response Curves ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2018, Vol.642, pp.1153-1162
    Description: Freshwaters are among the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, due predominantly to excessive anthropogenic practices compromising the future provisioning of ecosystem services. Despite increased awareness of the role of multiple stressors in accounting for ecological degradation in mixed land-use stream systems, risk assessment approaches applicable in field settings are still required. This study provides a first indication for ecological consequences of the interaction of organic and inorganic chemical stressors, not typically evaluated together, which may provide a missing link enabling the reconnection of chemical and ecological findings. Specifically, impaired ecological conditions – represented by lower abundance of meiobenthic individuals – were observed in the hyporheic zone where a contaminant groundwater plume discharged to the stream. These zones were characterized by high xenobiotic organic concentrations, and strongly reduced groundwater (e.g. elevated dissolved iron and arsenic) linked to the dissolution of iron hydroxides (iron reduction) caused by the degradation of xenobiotic compounds in the plume. Further research is still needed to separate whether impact is driven by a combined effect of organic and inorganic stressors impacting the ecological communities, or whether the conditions – when present simultaneously – are responsible for enabling a specific chemical stressor's availability (e.g. trace metals), and thus toxicity, along the study stream. Regardless, these findings suggest that benthic meioinvertebrates are promising indicators for supporting biological assessments of stream systems to sufficiently represent impacts resulting from the co-occurrence of stressors in different stream compartments. Importantly, identification of the governing circumstances is crucial for revealing key patterns and impact drivers that may be needed in correctly prioritizing stressor impacts in these systems. This study further highlights the importance of stream-aquifer interfaces for investigating chemical stressor effects in multiple stressor systems. This will require holistic approaches for linking contaminant hydrogeology and eco(toxico)logy in order to positively influence the sustainable management of water resources globally.
    Keywords: Mixed Land-Use Stream Systems ; Ecological Assessment ; Benthic Invertebrate Communities ; Multiple Chemical Stressors ; Biogeochemistry ; Groundwater-Stream Water Interaction ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 February 2018, Vol.613-614, pp.1048-1054
    Description: Headwater streams are important contributors to aquatic biodiversity and may counteract negative impacts of anthropogenic stress on downstream reaches. In Denmark, the first river basin management plan (RBMP) included streams of all size categories, most being 〈 2.5 m wide (headwater streams). Currently, however, it is intensely debated whether the small size and low slopes, typical of Danish streams, in combination with degraded habitat conditions obstruct their ability to fulfill the ecological quality objectives required by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The purpose of this study was to provide an analytically based framework for guiding the selection of headwater streams for RBMP. Specifically, the following hypotheses were addressed: i) stream slope, width, planform, and general physical habitat quality can act as criteria for selecting streams for the next generation of RBMPs, and ii) probability-based thresholds for reaching good ecological status can be established for some or all of these criteria, thus creating a sound, scientifically based, and clear selection process. The hypotheses were tested using monitoring data on Danish streams from the period 2004–2015. Significant linear relationships were obtained between the ecological quality ratio assessed by applying the Danish Stream Fauna Index (DSFI ) and stream slope, width, sinuosity, and DHI. The obtained models were used to produce pressure-response curves describing the probability of achieving good ecological status along gradients in these parameters. Next, threshold values for slope, width, sinuosity, and DHI were identified for selected probabilities of achieving minimum good ecological status. The obtained results can support managers and policy makers in prioritizing headwater streams for the 3rd RBMP. The approach applied is broadly applicable and can, for instance, help prioritization of restoration and conservation efforts in different types of ecosystems where the biota can be significantly linked to separate and quantifiable environmental characteristics.
    Keywords: Water Framework Directive ; Headwater Streams ; River Basin Management Plans ; Decision Support ; Macroinvertebrates ; Hydromorphology ; Protection ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, May 2015, Vol.200, pp.64-76
    Description: We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable to pesticides. Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity. Our results support recent studies indicating that highly sorbing chemicals contribute and even drive impacts on aquatic ecosystems. They further indicate that groundwater contaminated by legacy and contemporary pesticides may impact adjoining streams. Stream observations of soluble and sediment-bound pesticides are valuable for understanding the long-term fate of pesticides in aquifers, and should be included in stream monitoring programs. Legacy pesticides, particularly sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity impacting benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams.
    Keywords: Legacy Pesticides ; Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction ; Sediment-Bound Residues ; Benthic Macroinvertebrates ; Ecotoxicity ; Aquatic Systems ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, March 2015, Vol.198, pp.54-60
    Description: Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. We provide the first global map on insecticide runoff to surface water predicting that water bodies in 40% of global land surface may be at risk of adverse effects.
    Keywords: Insecticide Runoff ; Exposure Models ; Risk Assessment ; Global Map ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, 2015, Vol.200, p.64(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.02.015 Byline: Ursula S. McKnight, Jes J. Rasmussen, Brian Kronvang, Philip J. Binning, Poul L. Bjerg Abstract: We couple current findings of pesticides in surface and groundwater to the history of pesticide usage, focusing on the potential contribution of legacy pesticides to the predicted ecotoxicological impact on benthic macroinvertebrates in headwater streams. Results suggest that groundwater, in addition to precipitation and surface runoff, is an important source of pesticides (particularly legacy herbicides) entering surface water. In addition to current-use active ingredients, legacy pesticides, metabolites and impurities are important for explaining the estimated total toxicity attributable to pesticides. Sediment-bound insecticides were identified as the primary source for predicted ecotoxicity. Our results support recent studies indicating that highly sorbing chemicals contribute and even drive impacts on aquatic ecosystems. They further indicate that groundwater contaminated by legacy and contemporary pesticides may impact adjoining streams. Stream observations of soluble and sediment-bound pesticides are valuable for understanding the long-term fate of pesticides in aquifers, and should be included in stream monitoring programs. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (b) Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsoevej 25, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark Article History: Received 30 October 2014; Revised 5 February 2015; Accepted 6 February 2015
    Keywords: Metabolites ; Herbicides ; Groundwater ; Aquatic Ecosystems ; Insecticides ; Precipitation (Meteorology) ; Sediments (Geology) ; Aquifers ; Water Resources
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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