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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(9)
    Description: The decomposition of plant litter in soil is a dynamic process during which substrate chemistry and microbial controls interact. We more clearly quantify these controls with a revised version of the Guild-based Decomposition Model (GDM) in which we used a reverse Michaelis-Menten approach to simulate short-term (112 days) decomposition of roots from four genotypes of Zea mays that differed primarily in lignin chemistry. A co-metabolic relationship between the degradation of lignin and holocellulose (cellulose+hemicellulose) fractions of litter showed that the reduction in decay rate with increasing lignin concentration (LCI) was related to the level of arabinan substitutions in arabinoxylan chains (i.e., arabinan to xylan or A∶X ratio) and the extent to which hemicellulose chains are cross-linked with lignin in plant cell walls. This pattern was consistent between genotypes and during progressive decomposition within each genotype. Moreover, decay rates were controlled by these cross-linkages from the start of decomposition. We also discovered it necessary to divide the Van Soest soluble (labile) fraction of litter C into two pools: one that rapidly decomposed and a second that was more persistent. Simulated microbial production was consistent with recent studies suggesting that more rapidly decomposing materials can generate greater amounts of potentially recalcitrant microbial products despite the rapid loss of litter mass. Sensitivity analyses failed to identify any model parameter that consistently explained a large proportion of model variation, suggesting that feedback controls between litter quality and microbial activity in the reverse Michaelis-Menten approach resulted in stable model behavior. Model extrapolations to an independent set of data, derived from the decomposition of 12 different genotypes of maize roots, averaged within 〈3% of observed respiration rates and total CO 2 efflux over 112 days.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Earth Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.367(1), pp.285-299
    Description: Issue Title: Pedogenesis, nutrient dynamics, and ecosystem development: the legacy of T.W. Walker and J.K. Syers The water storage properties of plant residues play an important role in the regulation of water retention and water transport in no-till agricultural soils. The objective of this work was to understand how the characteristics of crop residues determine their water absorption and retention properties. A range of eleven undecomposed crop residues and maize stem residue of different particle sizes at three stages of decomposition were characterized regarding their physical and chemical features. Water immersion for varying periods of time was used to determine the kinetics of water absorption and the maximal water storage for each type of residue. The immersion time required to reach an equilibrium moisture content varied greatly according to the residue type, ranging from 6 to 30 h at 20 °C. The maximal water content ranged from 1.28 to 3.81 g H2O g^sup -1^ dry residue for undecomposed residues and increased with increasing decomposition. The proportions of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the plant cell walls did not explain the water storage capacities. Differences in porosity, resulting from different tissue densities and the creation of pores during decomposition, were highly correlated with differences in water storage properties. The tissue density of plant residues, which can be inferred from simple characteristics of residue mass and volume, is a relevant criterion for explaining the maximal water storage capacity of plant residues.[PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: Chemical composition ; Decomposition ; Mulch ; Moisture content ; Porosity
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2011, Vol.338(1), pp.83-97
    Description: To predict the environmental benefits of energy crop production and use, the nature and fate of biomass residues in the soil need to be quantified. Our objective was to quantify Miscanthus x giganteus biomass recycling to soil and to assess how harvesting time and N fertilization affect their characteristics and subsequent biodegradability. The quantification of aerial and belowground biomass and their sampling were performed on 2- and 3-year-old Miscanthus stands, either fertilized with 120 kg N ha −1  year −1 or not fertilized, in autumn (maximal biomass production) and winter (maturity). Plant biomass was chemically characterized (total sugars, Klason lignin, C/N) and incubated in optimum decomposition conditions (15°C, −80 kPa) for 263 days, for C and N mineralization. Accumulation of carbon in rhizomes and roots was 7.5 to 10 t C ha −1 and represented about 50% of total plant biomass C. Senescent leaves represented about 1.5 t C ha −1  year −1 . All residues, especially the roots, had high lignin contents, while the rhizomes also had a high soluble content due to their nutrient storage function. The C mineralization rates were closely related to the chemical characteristics of the residue, higher sugar and lower lignin contents leading to faster decomposition, as observed for rhizomes.
    Keywords: Carbon ; Energy crop ; Litter quality ; Miscanthus ; Mineralization ; Nitrogen
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, Sept 29, 2014, Vol.9(9)
    Description: The decomposition of plant litter in soil is a dynamic process during which substrate chemistry and microbial controls interact. We more clearly quantify these controls with a revised version of the Guild-based Decomposition Model (GDM) in which we used a reverse Michaelis-Menten approach to simulate short-term (112 days) decomposition of roots from four genotypes of Zea mays that differed primarily in lignin chemistry. A co-metabolic relationship between the degradation of lignin and holocellulose (cellulose+hemicellulose) fractions of litter showed that the reduction in decay rate with increasing lignin concentration (LCI) was related to the level of arabinan substitutions in arabinoxylan chains (i.e., arabinan to xylan or A:X ratio) and the extent to which hemicellulose chains are cross-linked with lignin in plant cell walls. This pattern was consistent between genotypes and during progressive decomposition within each genotype. Moreover, decay rates were controlled by these cross-linkages from the start of decomposition. We also discovered it necessary to divide the Van Soest soluble (labile) fraction of litter C into two pools: one that rapidly decomposed and a second that was more persistent. Simulated microbial production was consistent with recent studies suggesting that more rapidly decomposing materials can generate greater amounts of potentially recalcitrant microbial products despite the rapid loss of litter mass. Sensitivity analyses failed to identify any model parameter that consistently explained a large proportion of model variation, suggesting that feedback controls between litter quality and microbial activity in the reverse Michaelis-Menten approach resulted in stable model behavior. Model extrapolations to an independent set of data, derived from the decomposition of 12 different genotypes of maize roots, averaged within 3% of observed respiration rates and total CO.sub.2 efflux over 112 days.
    Keywords: Quality Control – Analysis ; Lignin – Analysis ; Cellulose – Analysis
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, July 2011, Vol.43(7), pp.1544-1552
    Description: Residue quality is a key factor governing biodegradation and the fate of C in soil. Most investigations of relationships existing between crop residue quality and soil decomposition have been based on determining the relative proportions of soluble, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components. However, cell wall cohesion is increased by tight interconnections between polysaccharides and lignin that involve cross-linking agents (phenolic acids). The aim of this study was to determine the role of lignin composition and phenolic acids on short- to medium-term decomposition of maize roots in soil. Sixteen maize genotypes, presenting a range of chemical characteristics related to root lignin and phenolic acids, were used. The main components were characterized by Van Soest (VS) extraction and cell wall acid hydrolysis, and the non-condensed Syringyl and Guaicyl lignin monomers, esterified phenolic acids and etherified phenolic acids were determined. Maize roots were then incubated in soil under controlled conditions (15 °C, −80 kPa moisture) for 796 days. Results showed that VS extraction over-estimated the structural hemicellulose content and that VS lignin was more recalcitrant than Klason lignin. The tremendous effect of cell wall chemical characteristics was shown by marked variations (almost two-fold differences in C mineralization), between the 16 maize roots. Decomposition was controlled by soluble residue components in the short term whereas lignin and the interconnections between cell wall polymers were important in the long-term. Notably the cell wall domain rich in non-condensed lignin and esterified phenolic acids was prone to decomposition whereas the presence of etherified ferulic acids seemed to hamper cell wall decomposition. ► Phenolic acids are cross-linking agents between polysaccharides and lignin. ► Soil incubation of sixteen maize root genotypes differing in their phenolic composition. ► Cell wall characteristics resulted in almost two-fold differences in C mineralization. ► Lignin and phenolic acids controlled roots decomposition on the long-term. ► Van Soest lignin was more recalcitrant than Klason lignin.
    Keywords: Roots ; Cell Wall ; Cross-Linking Agents ; Lignin ; C Kinetics ; Soil ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2015, Vol.393(1), pp.319-334
    Description: Aims The role of precipitation on the decomposition of residue mulches is of primary importance for the adequate management of nutrients in no-tilled agrosystems. The objective of this work was to understand the interactions between water dynamics and crop residue quality and their effect on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization. Methods The decomposition of two residue mixtures (wheat + alfalfa and maize + lablab) left at the surface of repacked soil columns, was studied under controlled conditions, at 20 #176;C over 84 days. Simulated rain pulses were either light and frequent or heavy and infrequent. A loamy soil (Luvisol) and a sandy soil (Ferralsol) were used. Results The maize/lablab mulch remained wetter between rain pulses which induced greater decomposition than the wheat/alfalfa mulch. Frequent/light rain pulses maintained the mulches wetter between pulses than infrequent/heavy rain pulses, and therefore these mulches decomposed faster. The loamy soil favored the moistening of the mulch layer in contact with the soil which enhanced its decomposition, compared to the sandy soil. Conclusions The water dynamics (water content of the mulches and soil, evaporation, and drainage) was highly modified by residue quality, rain regime and soil type, which in turn significantly affected the mineralization of C and N. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11104-015-2501-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Conservation agriculture ; Crop residue ; Decomposition ; Drought ; Mulching ; Rain pulses
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2014, Vol.378(1), pp.205-214
    Description: Background and aims Our objective was to relate chemical composition of roots of a wide range of annual crops to root decomposition, so as to assess roots potential contribution to soil carbon (C). Methods Roots from 20 different crops and 4 botanical families, collected under field conditions were incubated in soil for 120 days at 25[degrees]C. The initial chemical composition of roots was determined. The C mineralization was assessed by the continuous measurement of C[O.sub.2] release and using single exponential model. PCA analysis was used to explore qualitative pattern in root quality and decomposition. Results PCA analysis showed that chemical characteristics (traits) differentiated plant families. The mineralization of root C varied greatly in terms of kinetics and in the total amount of C mineralized (36 % to 59 % of added C). Mineralization constant (k value) was negatively correlated with hemicelluloses and positively with N content. Poaceae roots that combined high hemicelluloses, low cellulose and low total N, showed low degradation rate and cumulative C mineralization. Conclusions The chemical composition of roots, as for the above-ground parts of plants, can correctly predict their rate of decomposition in soils. The taxonomic affiliation enhances the understanding of the chemical determinants of quality of roots. Keywords Carbon mineralization * Chemical composition * Decomposition rate * Litter quality * Root * Trait
    Keywords: Carbon mineralization ; Chemical composition ; Decomposition rate ; Litter quality ; Root ; Trait
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, August 2018, Vol.123, pp.64-73
    Description: Increasing the accumulation of organic carbon (C) in soils is a crucial challenge both for soil fertility and for climate change mitigation. Heterotrophic microbial communities are key drivers of C cycling in the soil and are influenced by cultural practices, among other factors. However, whether changes in microbial communities in turn affect their C degradation functions is not well understood. Here, we studied the effects of prior soil management on the microbial taxonomic composition and activity of soils amended with wheat litter. Prior soil management was either conventional (CONV) (i.e., full inversion ploughing) or reduced tillage (RT) during a 5-year period in the same loamy soil in northern France. Soil samples taken from the top 5 cm of field plots were incubated with C-labelled litter of either flowering wheat or mature wheat for 29 days at 15 °C. We measured the C-CO and C-CO , microbial biomass C (MBC) and C, and hydrolytic enzyme activities during decomposition. The initial bacterial and fungal community diversity was studied via high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal genes. The results showed that the MBC in the RT soil was initially 1.5-fold greater than that in the CONV soil; contrasting taxonomic compositions were also recorded. The soil biotic legacy impacted the degradation functions when the soils were amended with wheat litter. Compared with that in the CONV soil, the enzymatic efficiency of microorganisms in the RT soil increased by 49% and 61% in the presence of mature and flowering wheat litter, respectively. Enzyme efficiency was positively correlated with microbial litter C use efficiency (CUE) (r = 0.92, P-Value 〈 0.001) but negatively associated with the priming effect (PE) (r = −0.85, P-value 〈 0.001) across all soils and litter treatments. These findings demonstrated that the RT soil benefited both from an increase in litter C incorporated in the microbial biomass and from a reduction in soil C loss due to the PE, regardless of the quality of the decomposed litter. Our study indicated that agricultural practices such as RT, which enriches the amount of soil organic C (SOC) in the topsoil layer, can lead to positive feedback against C stabilization functions.
    Keywords: Soil ; Decomposition ; Litter ; Cue ; Enzymes ; Priming Effect ; 13c ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 9
    Language: French
    In: Cahiers Agricultures, 2016, Vol.25(4)
    Description: The accurate quantification of crop residue biomass left on the soil after harvesting is important, due to theagricultural and environmental issues associated with the management of soil organic matter in croplands.This quantification is difficult in farmers’ fields due to a high variability...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Résidus de Culture ; Estimation de La Biomasse Végétale ; Mesure Au Champ ; Moisson ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1166-7699
    E-ISSN: 1777-5949
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2017, Vol.243, pp.123-131
    Description: Sugarcane is a worldwide crop that leaves a considerable amount of crop residues (called trash) on the soil surface each year after green cane harvesting. However, the recent industrial valorization of these residues raises the question of how much trash to leave as mulch after harvest....
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Degradation ; Carbon ; Nitrogen ; Soil-Residue Contact ; Sub-Tropical Conditions ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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