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  • 1
    In: Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination, 2016, Vol.7(4)
    ISSN: Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination
    E-ISSN: 21577560
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2016, Vol.11(3), p.e0149916
    Description: BACKGROUND:Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is influenced by the antigenic similarity between vaccine- and circulating strains. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This paper presents data obtained by the Austrian sentinel surveillance system on the evolution of influenza viruses during the season 2014/15 and its impact on influenza vaccine effectiveness in primary care in Austria as estimated by a test-negative case control design. VE estimates were performed for each influenza virus type/subtype, stratified by underlying diseases and adjusted for age, sex and calendar week of infection. RESULTS:Detailed genetic and antigenic analyses showed that circulating A(H3N2) viruses were genetically distinct from the 2014/15 A(H3N2) vaccine component indicating a profound vaccine mismatch. The Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were antigenically conserved and matched the respective vaccine component. Influenza B viruses were lineage-matched B/Yamagata viruses with a clade-level variation. Consistent with substantial vaccine mismatch for the A(H3N2) viruses a crude overall VE of only 47% was estimated, whereas the VE estimates for A(H1N1)pdm09 were 84% and for influenza B viruses 70%. Increased VE estimates were obtained after stratification by underlying diseases and adjustment for the covariates sex and age, whereby the adjustment for the calendar week of infection was the covariate exerting the highest influence on adjusted VE estimates. CONCLUSION:In summary, VE data obtained in this study underscore the importance to perform VE estimates in the context of detailed characterization of the contributing viruses and also demonstrate that the calendar week of influenza virus infection is the most important confounder of VE estimates.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(12), p.e28089
    Description: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the QuickVue® Influenza A+B rapid test we conducted a prospective observational study in which this rapid test was compared with a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for pandemic influenza A H1N1 (2009) infection in Austrian adults. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the QuickVue test compared with the RT-PCR were 26% (95% CI 18–35), 98% (95% CI 92–100), 94% (95% CI 80–99) and 50% (95% CI 42–58), respectively. The prevalence of pandemic H1N1 (2009) virus infection among the 209 patients included in the study was 57%. Our data suggest that a positive QuickVue test provides considerable information for the diagnosis of pandemic influenza A H1N1 (2009) virus infection in young adults but that a negative QuickVue test result should, if relevant for patient management or public health measures, be verified using PCR.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Infectious Diseases ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36773
    Description: During the influenza pandemic of 2009/10, the whole-virion, Vero-cell-derived, inactivated, pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine Celvapan® (Baxter) was used in Austria. Celvapan® is adjuvant-free and was the only such vaccine at that time in Europe. The objective of this observational, non-interventional, prospective single-center study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and tolerability of two intramuscular doses of this novel vaccine in HIV-positive individuals. ; A standard hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay was used for evaluation of the seroconversion rate and seroprotection against the pandemic H1N1 strain. In addition, H1N1-specific IgG antibodies were measured using a recently developed ELISA and compared with the HAI results. Tolerability of vaccination was evaluated up to one month after the second dose. A total of 79 HIV-infected adults with an indication for H1N1 vaccination were evaluated. At baseline, 55 of the 79 participants had an HAI titer ≥1∶40 and two patients showed a positive IgG ELISA. The seroconversion rate was 31% after the first vaccination, increasing to 41% after the second; the corresponding seroprotection rates were 92% and 83% respectively. ELISA IgG levels were positive in 25% after the first vaccination and in 37% after the second. Among the participants with baseline HAI titers 60 years of age had a baseline HAI titer 〈1∶40 or seroconverted after vaccination. The vaccine was well tolerated. ; The non-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine was well tolerated and induced a measurable immune response in a sample of HIV-infected individuals.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Immunology ; Infectious Diseases
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 01 February 2010, Vol.201(3), pp.354-62
    Description: BACKGROUND. The nonstructural protein NS1 of influenza virus counteracts the interferon-mediated immune response of the host. By deleting the open reading frame of NS1, we have generated a novel type of influenza vaccine. We studied the safety and immunogenicity of an influenza strain lacking the NS1 gene (DeltaNS1-H1N1) in healthy volunteers. METHODS. Healthy seronegative adult volunteers were randomized to receive either a single intranasal dose of the DeltaNS1-H1N1 A/New Caledonia vaccine at 1 of 5 dose levels (6.4, 6.7, 7.0, 7.4, and 7.7 log(10) median tissue culture infective dose) (n = 36 recipients) or placebo (n = 12 recipients). RESULTS. Intranasal vaccination with the replication-deficient DeltaNS1-H1N1 vaccine was well tolerated. Rhinitis-like symptoms and headache were the most common adverse events identified during the 28-day observation period. Adverse events were similarly distributed between the treatment and placebo groups. Vaccine-specific local and serum antibodies were induced in a dose-dependent manner. In the highest dose group, vaccine-specific antibodies were detected in 10 of 12 volunteers. Importantly, the vaccine also induced neutralizing antibodies against heterologous drift variants. CONCLUSIONS. We show that vaccination with an influenza virus strain lacking the viral interferon antagonist NS1 induces statistically significant levels of strain-specific and cross-neutralizing antibodies despite the highly attenuated replication-deficient phenotype. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these results translate into protection from influenza virus infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00724997 .
    Keywords: Influenza A Virus, H1n1 Subtype -- Immunology ; Influenza Vaccines -- Immunology ; Influenza, Human -- Prevention & Control ; Vaccines, Attenuated -- Immunology ; Viral Nonstructural Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: European journal of epidemiology, July 2012, Vol.27(7), pp.567-75
    Description: Influenza epidemics lead to an increase in hospitalizations and deaths. Up to now the overall impact of attributable deaths due to seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in Austria has not been investigated in detail. Therefore we compared the number and age distribution of influenza associated deaths during ten influenza epidemic seasons to those observed during the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 season. A Poisson model, relating age and daily deaths to week of influenza season using national mortality and viral surveillance data adjusted for the confounding effect of co-circulating Respiratory Syncytial Virus was used. We estimated an average of 316 influenza associated deaths per seasonal influenza epidemic (1999/2000-2008/2009) and 264 for the pandemic influenza season 2009/2010 in the area of Vienna, Austria. Comparing the mortality data for seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in different age groups revealed a statistically significant increase in mortality for pandemic A(H1N1)2009 influenza virus in the age groups below 34 years of age and a significant decrease in mortality in those above 55 years. Our data adjusted for co-circulating RSV confirm the different mortality pattern of seasonal and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus in different age groups.
    Keywords: Cause of Death ; Seasons ; Influenza, Human -- Mortality ; Pandemics -- Statistics & Numerical Data
    ISSN: 03932990
    E-ISSN: 1573-7284
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Medical Virology, June 2014, Vol.86(6), pp.1048-1055
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmv.23912/abstract Byline: Monika Redlberger-Fritz, Sonja Hirk, Dieter Buchinger, Renate Haberl, Markus Hell, Nicole Perkmann-Nagele, Michael Kundi, Therese Popow-Kraupp During the influenza pandemic 2009 children and adults differed in the clinical course of the influenza disease. In following the question arose, if the case definitions used within the national and international organizations are an adequate tool for the clinical diagnosis of influenza in children as well as in adults. Therefore medical charts from 146 children and 229 adults were retrospectively analyzed. In addition, the initial viral loads of all 375 patients and the duration of virus shedding of a subset of 79 patients were also investigated. Children show a wider clinical spectrum including gastro enteric symptoms and also a different spectrum of laboratory parameters like elevated CRP-levels, leucocytosis, and higher viral loads. Further, children show significantly more often complications, for example, myositis that may be underdiagnosed. In patients receiving antiviral-therapy complications occurred significantly less often and the presence of symptoms was significantly shorter compared to the untreated group (2.3 days vs. 6.0 days). In summary, the differences in the clinical picture between children and adults should be taken into consideration for the clinical diagnosis of influenza and also for a future discussion on age specific influenza case definitions. J. Med. Virol. 86:1048-1055, 2014. [c] 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Article Note: Conflict of interest: None declared.
    Keywords: Influenza AH1n1Pdm09 Virus ; Clinical Manifestations ; Viral Laboratory Parameters ; Comparative Analysis ; Differences Between Children And Adults ; Antiviral Therapy
    ISSN: 0146-6615
    E-ISSN: 1096-9071
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Epidemiology, 2012, Vol.27(7), pp.567-575
    Description: Influenza epidemics lead to an increase in hospitalizations and deaths. Up to now the overall impact of attributable deaths due to seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in Austria has not been investigated in detail. Therefore we compared the number and age distribution of influenza associated deaths during ten influenza epidemic seasons to those observed during the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 season. A Poisson model, relating age and daily deaths to week of influenza season using national mortality and viral surveillance data adjusted for the confounding effect of co-circulating Respiratory Syncytial Virus was used. We estimated an average of 316 influenza associated deaths per seasonal influenza epidemic (1999/2000–2008/2009) and 264 for the pandemic influenza season 2009/2010 in the area of Vienna, Austria. Comparing the mortality data for seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in different age groups revealed a statistically significant increase in mortality for pandemic A(H1N1)2009 influenza virus in the age groups below 34 years of age and a significant decrease in mortality in those above 55 years. Our data adjusted for co-circulating RSV confirm the different mortality pattern of seasonal and pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus in different age groups.
    Keywords: Influenza mortality ; Pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 ; Influenza attributable deaths ; Influenza in Austria
    ISSN: 0393-2990
    E-ISSN: 1573-7284
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Virology, 2010, Vol.48(2), pp.100-103
    Description: Immunocompetent individuals can harbor multiple human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genotypes. However, little is known about the genotype populations acquired during primary HCMV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the HCMV genotype populations present in the blood of non-immunocompromised patients experiencing primary HCMV infection. HCMV glycoprotein B (gB), glycoprotein H (gH), and UL10 genotyping was performed on HCMV-positive serum samples of 36 immunocompetent patients during primary infection by sensitive gB- and gH-genotype-specific real-time-PCR assays and by UL10 sequencing. In all cases only one gB–gH–UL10 genotype was detected. In contrast, mixed-genotype infections were found in 4 of 14 immunocompetent patients experiencing HCMV reactivation/reinfection ( = 0.004). Thus, the data support the presumption that multiple HCMV genotypes in immunocompetent individuals are often a result of serial reinfection rather than primary coinfection with different strains.
    Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus ; Genotyping ; Primary Infection ; Dnaemia ; Biology
    ISSN: 1386-6532
    E-ISSN: 1873-5967
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 21 December 2018
    Description: The aim of this single-center study was the comparative analysis of the GeneXpert (Cepheid Inc.) and the LIAT (Roche) system for the rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of influenza A (IA) and influenza B (IB) viruses. During the 2017-2018 flu season, 651 prospectively collected samples (throat and nasal swabs) of patients with symptoms of influenza-like illness or acute respiratory infection were tested for the presence of IA and IB viruses using the GeneXpert and LIAT systems. To evaluate the usefulness for near-patient testing, a LIAT system was installed at the Department of Emergency Medicine, and sample testing was performed on site. Reference testing of all samples was performed with the Xpert Flu assay and for 313 samples in addition with the Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV assay at the central laboratory. Analysis of all samples was carried out within 24 hours after collection. Overall, 267 of the 651 samples analyzed were positive for influenza viruses in at least one of the three assays investigated (IA: 88, IB: 179). The overall rates of agreement between the LIAT assay and the Xpert Flu assay was 96.0% for the detection of IA and IB viruses. The sensitivity and specificity of the LIAT assay compared to the Xpert Flu assay for the detection of IA was 98.80% (95% confidence interval (CI), 93.47% to 99.97%) and 99.12% (95% CI, 97.96% to 99.71%) and for the detection of IB 98.76% (95% CI, 95.58% to 99.85%) and 96.33% (95% CI, 94.26% to 97.81%), respectively. The LIAT assay showed a statistically significant higher detection rate of IB virus compared to the Xpert Flu assay (P〈0.01). No significant difference was found between the detection rate of the LIAT assay and the Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV assay. The mean time to the availability of a definite test result was significantly shorter with the on-site LIAT system compared to the GeneXpert system (mean 59 min saving time; P〈0.01). The LIAT system represents a robust and highly sensitive point-of care device for the rapid PCR-based detection of influenza A and influenza B viruses.
    Keywords: Genexpert ; Influenza ; Liat ; Method Comparison ; Poct
    ISSN: 1198743X
    E-ISSN: 1469-0691
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