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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 November 2014, Vol.499, pp.560-573
    Description: Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize–wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1 m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were 〈 0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of amended plots, in spite of increased soil organic matter, factor of metal retention. Indeed, DOC, also increased by amendments, favours the mobility of Cu; whereas pH variations, depending on treatments, influence negatively the solubility of Zn. Generic adsorption functions of these variables partly explain the variations of trace metal concentrations and helped to unravel the numerous processes induced by regular amendments with organic waste products.
    Keywords: Heavy Metal ; Trace Element ; Organic Waste ; Organic Amendment ; Cultivated Soil ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, Nov 15, 2014, Vol.499, p.560(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.105 Byline: Philippe Cambier, Valerie Pot, Vincent Mercier, Aurelia Michaud, Pierre Benoit, Agathe Revallier, Sabine Houot Abstract: Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1m than at 45cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5[mu]g/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were 〈0.05[mu]g/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of amended plots, in spite of increased soil organic matter, factor of metal retention. Indeed, DOC, also increased by amendments, favours the mobility of Cu; whereas pH variations, depending on treatments, influence negatively the solubility of Zn. Generic adsorption functions of these variables partly explain the variations of trace metal concentrations and helped to unravel the numerous processes induced by regular amendments with organic waste products. Article History: Received 16 March 2014; Revised 20 June 2014; Accepted 23 June 2014
    Keywords: Fertilizers ; Recycling ; Soils ; Agriculture ; Soil Leaching
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 16 September 2016, Vol.232, pp.165-178
    Description: The objective was to develop a multi-criteria tool to compare fertilizing practices either based on mineral fertilizer (CONT + N) or repeated applications of exogenous organic matter (EOM) and considering the positive but also the negative impacts of these practices. Three urban composts (a municipal solid waste or MSW, a co-compost of sewage sludge and green waste (GWS), and biowaste (BIO)) and a farmyard manure (FYM) have been applied biennially over 14 years. Soils and crops were sampled repeatedly and 〉100 parameters measured. The development of different quality indices (QI) was used to provide a quantitative tool for assessing the overall effects of recycling different types of EOM. A minimum data set was determined and 7 indices of soil and crop quality were calculated using linear scoring functions: soil fertility, soil biodiversity, soil biological activities, soil physical properties, soil contamination (⿿available⿿ and ⿿total⿿) and crop productivity. All QI varied between 0 and 1, 1 being the best score. EOM amendments significantly increased soil biodiversity, biological activities and physical properties with intensity generally depending on their characteristics. FYM was the most efficient EOM to improve soil biological properties. EOM application lead to similar yields as mineral fertilizers but grain quality was slightly decreased. Thus, mineral fertilizers remained more efficient at improving crop productivity index (QI = 0.88) than EOM although BIO was not significantly different than CONT + N. All EOM improved soil fertility but only BIO was significantly higher (QI = 0.86). EOM added a range of nutrients but an excess of P (e.g. GWS) can negatively impact the soil fertility index. EOM negatively affected the soil contamination index when considering total concentrations but decreased available fractions and consequently the risks of transfer. BIO was the most efficient EOM for most indices including improving the index of ⿿available⿿ soil contamination. This study demonstrated the positive impact of repeated EOM applications on soil and crop quality in a loamy soil.
    Keywords: Compost ; Farmyard Manure ; Mineral Fertilizer ; Long Term Effect ; Quality Index ; Aggregated Method ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 01 December 2018, Vol.2
    Description: Urban compost application in agroecosystems enhances soil fertility but can also be a source of (micro) plastics, which are not completely removed during the composting process. Knowledge of the fate of these plastics in regularly-amended soils is thus an issue for the environmental management of these soils. The aims of this study were (1) to develop a method combining soil fractionation, microscopic observation and chemical characterization to follow the fate of plastics in soils and (2) to apply this method on a long-term experimental field, where municipal solid waste composts were applied every other year during 10 years. The presence of plastics was investigated within compost and soil fractions using morphological and analytical characterization by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM-EDX) and pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py/GC/MS). Specific features of plastics allowed us to distinguish these polymers from soil organic matter even in the 〈200 μm soil fractions. Ti and Ba detection associated with these features, as they are initially added during the polymer production, also constituted plastic tracers within organo-mineral fractions. Plastic fragments as detected by TEM were less abundant in the fine soil fractions compared to the coarsest ones. The abundance of styrene produced upon pyrolysis, used as a molecular tracer of plastics, also decreased relative to produced toluene according to the same particle size gradient. Our results evidenced that plastics and microplastics were present in the soil that was amended for 10 years with compost, while not in the control soil. MPs were mostly observed as individualized particles, present in the coarsest fractions as well as some of the fine soil fractions, but they were little associated with the soil matrix. They mostly did not show any degradation features such as microbial lysis. We thus suggest that their evolution in soil was mainly due to fragmentation. Our methodological approach provides tools to monitor the fate of microplastics over time and specify the contribution of such contaminants in soil amended with bio-based products.
    Keywords: Plastic Indicators ; Soil Microaggregates ; Soil Fractionation ; Contaminants ; Styrene
    ISSN: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
    E-ISSN: 2571-581X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Acta Horticulturae, 2016, Vol.1146, pp.87-96
    Description: Soil application of organic waste products (OWP) favors the increase of soil organic matter (SOM) and biological activity, the recycling of nutrients and crop production, but it may also lead to soil contamination. All these effects may occur...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Organic Waste Product ; Long Field Experimental Site ; Minimum Data Set ; Organic Matter Quality and Property ; Agriculture
    ISBN: 9789462611351
    ISSN: 0567-7572
    E-ISSN: 24066168
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 February 2019, Vol.651, pp.2961-2974
    Description: Recycling organic residues in agrosystems presents several benefits but faces the question of contaminants, among them a few trace metals which eventually accumulate in soils following regular applications of organic waste products (OWP) and represent an ecological risk. The increase of total trace metal contents in amended topsoils can be predicted by a mass balance approach, but the evolution of their available fractions is a more intricate issue. We aimed at modelling this evolution by using the dataset of a long-term field experiment of OWP applications (manure and three urban waste composts). Two operationally-defined fractions of 6 trace metals have been quantified in the OWP and amended topsoils between 2002 and 2015: the soluble and potentially available metals, extracted in 0.01 M CaCl and 0.05 M EDTA solutions, respectively. The potentially available metals have progressively increased in amended topsoils, at rates depending on elements and types of OWP. For Zn, these increases corresponded in average to inputs of potentially available Zn from OWP. But the soil stocks of potentially available Cu increased faster than from the inputs of EDTA-extractable Cu, showing linear regression slopes between 1.4 and 2.5, depending on OWP type. The influence of OWP has been provisionally interpreted in the light of their efficiency to increase soil organic matter and their inputs of reactive oxides. Soluble copper has increased with repeated amendments. But soluble cadmium, nickel and zinc have generally decreased, as they are influenced by changing soil variables such as pH and organic matter. Statistic models were used to unravel the relationships between soluble and EDTA-extractable metals and other soil variables. For Cu, the most satisfactory models just relate soluble and potentially available Cu. Developing such models could contribute to predict the long-term effects of a precise scenario of agricultural OWP recycling upon available trace metals in soils.
    Keywords: Organic Amendment ; Soil Quality ; Heavy Metal ; Diffuse Contamination ; Soluble Metal ; Long-Term Field Experiment ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    Description: Soil application of organic waste products (OWP) favors the increase of soil organic matter (SOM) and biological activity, the recycling of nutrients and crop production, but it may also lead to soil contamination. All these effects may occur simultaneously and must be considered in the evaluation...
    Keywords: Life Sciences
    ISBN: 9789462611351
    ISBN: 9462611351
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: 2015; European Geosciences Union, Vienne, AUT, 2015-04-12-2015-04-17, 2 p., 2015
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: European Geosciences Union, 2015, Vol.17
    Description: The soil application of organic waste products (OWP) favours the recycling of nutrients, the crop production, the increase of soil biological activity and biodiversity. It may also lead to soil contamination. All these effects occurred simultaneously...
    Keywords: Life Sciences
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: 17ème International Ramiran Conference, 2017
    Description: Microplastic detection in soil amended with municipal solid waste composts as revealed by microscopy and pyrolysis/GC/MS. 17ème International Ramiran Conference
    Keywords: Life Sciences
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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