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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Translational Medicine, June 8, 2011, Vol.9, p.86
    Description: Background Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with a size of 40-100 nm that are released by different cell types from a late endosomal cellular compartment. They can be found in various body fluids including plasma, malignant ascites, urine, amniotic fluid and saliva. Exosomes contain proteins, miRNAs and mRNAs (exosome shuttle RNA, esRNA) that could serve as novel platform for diagnosis. Method We isolated exosomes from amniotic fluid, saliva and urine by differential centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Marker proteins were identified by Western blot and FACS analysis after adsorption of exosomes to latex beads. We extracted esRNA from exosomes, carried out RT-PCR, and analyzed amplified products by restriction length polymorphism. Results Exosomes were positive for the marker proteins CD24, CD9, Annexin-1 and Hsp70 and displayed the correct buoyant density and orientation of antigens. In sucrose gradients the exosomal fractions contained esRNA that could be isolated with sufficient quantity for further analysis. EsRNAs were protected in exosomes from enzymatic degradation. Amniotic fluid esRNA served as template for the typing of the CD24 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs52812045). It also allowed sex determination of the fetus based on the detection of the male specific ZFY gene product. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that exosomes from body fluids carry esRNAs which can be analyzed and offers access to the transcriptome of the host organism. The exosomal lipid bilayer protects the genetic information from degradation. As the isolation of exosomes is a minimally invasive procedure, this technique opens new possibilities for diagnostics.
    Keywords: Proteins -- Physiological Aspects ; Proteins -- Research ; Body Fluids -- Physiological Aspects ; Body Fluids -- Research ; Diagnostic Equipment (Medical) -- Usage
    ISSN: 1479-5876
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Translational Medicine, June 8, 2011, Vol.9, p.86
    Description: Background Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with a size of 40-100 nm that are released by different cell types from a late endosomal cellular compartment. They can be found in various body fluids including plasma, malignant ascites, urine, amniotic fluid and saliva. Exosomes contain proteins, miRNAs and mRNAs (exosome shuttle RNA, esRNA) that could serve as novel platform for diagnosis. Method We isolated exosomes from amniotic fluid, saliva and urine by differential centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Marker proteins were identified by Western blot and FACS analysis after adsorption of exosomes to latex beads. We extracted esRNA from exosomes, carried out RT-PCR, and analyzed amplified products by restriction length polymorphism. Results Exosomes were positive for the marker proteins CD24, CD9, Annexin-1 and Hsp70 and displayed the correct buoyant density and orientation of antigens. In sucrose gradients the exosomal fractions contained esRNA that could be isolated with sufficient quantity for further analysis. EsRNAs were protected in exosomes from enzymatic degradation. Amniotic fluid esRNA served as template for the typing of the CD24 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs52812045). It also allowed sex determination of the fetus based on the detection of the male specific ZFY gene product. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that exosomes from body fluids carry esRNAs which can be analyzed and offers access to the transcriptome of the host organism. The exosomal lipid bilayer protects the genetic information from degradation. As the isolation of exosomes is a minimally invasive procedure, this technique opens new possibilities for diagnostics.
    Keywords: Proteins -- Physiological Aspects ; Proteins -- Research ; Body Fluids -- Physiological Aspects ; Body Fluids -- Research ; Diagnostic Equipment (Medical) -- Usage
    ISSN: 1479-5876
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of translational medicine, 08 June 2011, Vol.9, pp.86
    Description: Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with a size of 40-100 nm that are released by different cell types from a late endosomal cellular compartment. They can be found in various body fluids including plasma, malignant ascites, urine, amniotic fluid and saliva. Exosomes contain proteins, miRNAs and mRNAs (exosome shuttle RNA, esRNA) that could serve as novel platform for diagnosis. We isolated exosomes from amniotic fluid, saliva and urine by differential centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Marker proteins were identified by Western blot and FACS analysis after adsorption of exosomes to latex beads. We extracted esRNA from exosomes, carried out RT-PCR, and analyzed amplified products by restriction length polymorphism. Exosomes were positive for the marker proteins CD24, CD9, Annexin-1 and Hsp70 and displayed the correct buoyant density and orientation of antigens. In sucrose gradients the exosomal fractions contained esRNA that could be isolated with sufficient quantity for further analysis. EsRNAs were protected in exosomes from enzymatic degradation. Amniotic fluid esRNA served as template for the typing of the CD24 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs52812045). It also allowed sex determination of the fetus based on the detection of the male specific ZFY gene product. Our data demonstrate that exosomes from body fluids carry esRNAs which can be analyzed and offers access to the transcriptome of the host organism. The exosomal lipid bilayer protects the genetic information from degradation. As the isolation of exosomes is a minimally invasive procedure, this technique opens new possibilities for diagnostics.
    Keywords: Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures ; Body Fluids -- Metabolism ; Exosomes -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1479-5876
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Seminars in Cancer Biology, Oct, 2014, Vol.28, p.51(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2014.04.008 Byline: Peter Altevogt, Niko P. Bretz, Johannes Ridinger, Jochen Utikal, Viktor Umansky Abstract: The immune system of cancer patients is often suppressed. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes released from tumor cells may play an essential role in this process but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we review recent papers showing that exosomes trigger the release of cytokines/chemokines from immune cells. We suggest that this process will either result in the stimulation of anti-tumor immune reactions or in a systemic immunosuppression. The direction appears to be largely dependent on the duration of interactions between immune cells and exosomes leading to the accumulation of inflammatory factors, i.e. on the length of the exposure to these factors. We propose that a long-term interaction of the immune system with elevated levels of tumor exosomes contributes to the development of immunosuppression in cancer patients. Author Affiliation: (a) Translational Immunology, D015, German Cancer Research Center, DKFZ, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany (b) Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany (c) Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Keywords: Tumors -- Development And Progression ; Immunotherapy
    ISSN: 1044-579X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Seminars in Cancer Biology, October 2014, Vol.28, pp.51-57
    Description: The immune system of cancer patients is often suppressed. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes released from tumor cells may play an essential role in this process but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we review recent papers showing that exosomes trigger the release of cytokines/chemokines from immune cells. We suggest that this process will either result in the stimulation of anti-tumor immune reactions or in a systemic immunosuppression. The direction appears to be largely dependent on the duration of interactions between immune cells and exosomes leading to the accumulation of inflammatory factors, on the length of the exposure to these factors. We propose that a long-term interaction of the immune system with elevated levels of tumor exosomes contributes to the development of immunosuppression in cancer patients.
    Keywords: Exosome Signaling ; Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells ; Cytokines ; Chemokines ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 1044-579X
    E-ISSN: 1096-3650
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Cell Adhesion & Migration, 24 July 2012, Vol.6(4), pp.374-384
    Description: The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) plays a major role in the development of the nervous system and in the malignancy of human tumors. In terms of biological function, L1CAM comes along in two different flavors: (1) a static function as a cell adhesion molecule that acts as a glue between...
    Keywords: Adam10 ; Adam17 ; Emt ; Erm Proteins ; Nfκb ; Cell Adhesion ; Integrins ; Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis ; Signaling ; Biology
    ISSN: 1933-6918
    E-ISSN: 1933-6926
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  • 7
  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Toxicology, 2018, Vol.92(8), pp.2649-2664
    Description: High histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 and HDAC10 expression levels have been identified as predictors of exceptionally poor outcomes in neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. HDAC8 inhibition synergizes with retinoic acid treatment to induce neuroblast maturation in vitro and to inhibit neuroblastoma xenograft growth in vivo. HDAC10 inhibition increases intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutics through interference with lysosomal homeostasis, ultimately leading to cell death in cultured neuroblastoma cells. So far, no HDAC inhibitor covering HDAC8 and HDAC10 at micromolar concentrations without inhibiting HDACs 1, 2 and 3 has been described. Here, we introduce TH34 (3-( N -benzylamino)-4-methylbenzhydroxamic acid), a novel HDAC6/8/10 inhibitor for neuroblastoma therapy. TH34 is well-tolerated by non-transformed human skin fibroblasts at concentrations up to 25 µM and modestly impairs colony growth in medulloblastoma cell lines, but specifically induces caspase-dependent programmed cell death in a concentration-dependent manner in several human neuroblastoma cell lines. In addition to the induction of DNA double-strand breaks, HDAC6/8/10 inhibition also leads to mitotic aberrations and cell-cycle arrest. Neuroblastoma cells display elevated levels of neuronal differentiation markers, mirrored by formation of neurite-like outgrowths under maintained TH34 treatment. Eventually, after long-term treatment, all neuroblastoma cells undergo cell death. The combination of TH34 with plasma-achievable concentrations of retinoic acid, a drug applied in neuroblastoma therapy, synergistically inhibits colony growth (combination index (CI) 〈 0.1 for 10 µM of each). In summary, our study supports using selective HDAC inhibitors as targeted antineoplastic agents and underlines the therapeutic potential of selective HDAC6/8/10 inhibition in high-grade neuroblastoma.
    Keywords: Selective histone deacetylase inhibitor ; HDAC8 ; HDAC10 ; DNA repair ; Differentiation ; Targeted therapy
    ISSN: 0340-5761
    E-ISSN: 1432-0738
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 03 July 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.10039
    Description: Drug resistance is a leading cause for treatment failure in many cancers, including neuroblastoma, the most common solid extracranial childhood malignancy. Previous studies from our lab indicate that histone deacetylase 10 (HDAC10) is important for the homeostasis of lysosomes, i.e. acidic vesicular organelles involved in the degradation of various biomolecules. Here, we show that depleting or inhibiting HDAC10 results in accumulation of lysosomes in chemotherapy-resistant neuroblastoma cell lines, as well as in the intracellular accumulation of the weakly basic chemotherapeutic doxorubicin within lysosomes. Interference with HDAC10 does not block doxorubicin efflux from cells via P-glycoprotein inhibition, but rather via inhibition of lysosomal exocytosis. In particular, intracellular doxorubicin does not remain trapped in lysosomes but also accumulates in the nucleus, where it promotes neuroblastoma cell death. Our data suggest that lysosomal exocytosis under doxorubicin treatment is important for cell survival and that inhibition of HDAC10 further induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), providing additional mechanisms that sensitize neuroblastoma cells to doxorubicin. Taken together, we demonstrate that HDAC10 inhibition in combination with doxorubicin kills neuroblastoma, but not non-malignant cells, both by impeding drug efflux and enhancing DNA damage, providing a novel opportunity to target chemotherapy resistance.
    Keywords: Biology;
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 10
    In: Cell Death and Disease, 2017, Vol.8(8), p.e3013
    Description: Current preclinical models in tumor biology are limited in their ability to recapitulate relevant (patho-) physiological processes, including autophagy. Three-dimensional (3D) growth cultures have frequently been proposed to overcome the lack of correlation between two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell cultures and human tumors in preclinical drug testing. Besides 3D growth, it is also advantageous to simulate shear stress, compound flux and removal of metabolites, e.g., via bioreactor systems, through which culture medium is constantly pumped at a flow rate reflecting physiological conditions. Here we show that both static 3D growth and 3D growth within a bioreactor system modulate key hallmarks of cancer cells, including proliferation and cell death as well as macroautophagy, a recycling pathway often activated by highly proliferative tumors to cope with metabolic stress. The autophagy-related gene expression profiles of 2D-grown cells are substantially different from those of 3D-grown cells and tumor tissue. Autophagy-controlling transcription factors, such as TFEB and FOXO3, are upregulated in tumors, and 3D-grown cells have increased expression compared with cells grown in 2D conditions. Three-dimensional cultures depleted of the autophagy mediators BECN1, ATG5 or ATG7 or the transcription factor FOXO3, are more sensitive to cytotoxic treatment. Accordingly, combining cytotoxic treatment with compounds affecting late autophagic flux, such as chloroquine, renders the 3D-grown cells more susceptible to therapy. Altogether, 3D cultures are a valuable tool to study drug response of tumor cells, as these models more closely mimic tumor (patho-)physiology, including the upregulation of tumor relevant pathways, such as autophagy.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2041-4889
    E-ISSN: 2041-4889
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