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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, July 2017, Vol.179, pp.265-278
    Description: Knowledge on the redox geochemistry of Ni is behind in comparison to other heavy metals. Hence, this article reviews the direct and indirect impact of redox potential (E ) on mobilization and release dynamics of Ni in soils and sediments across the world. Nickel can show a different behavior in response to E . Mobilization of Ni increased at low E in various soils; however, oxic conditions can lead to an increased mobilization of Ni in other soils. Those differences occur because the mobilization of Ni is often indirectly affected by E , e.g. through E -dependent pH changes, co-precipitation with iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) (hydr)oxides, complexation with soil organic carbon, similar position of Ni and magnesium (Mg) in the soil solid phase, and/or precipitation as sulphides. Dissolved concentrations of Ni showed a similar pattern like Fe and increased at low E in many soils, which might be explained by the reductive dissolution of Fe (hydr)oxides and the release of the co-precipitated/sorbed Ni. Few other studies indicated that Ni might be associated with Mn oxides rather than with Fe oxides. Additionally, the formation of soluble complexes with dissolved organic carbon may contribute to a mobilization of Ni at low E . Nickel and Mg are similarly affected by redox changes especially in serpentine soils. This review summarizes the recent knowledge about the redox chemistry of Ni and contributes thus to a better understanding of the potential mobilization, hazard, and eco-toxicity of Ni in frequently flooded soils and sediments as agricultural ecosystems.
    Keywords: Trace Elements ; Redox Potential (Eh) ; Mobilization ; Governing Factors ; Wetlands ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, August 2018, Vol.205, pp.514-523
    Description: Rare earth elements (REEs) are increasingly used in high-tech industry, agriculture, and healthcare technologies what leads to their release into soils and waters, and to the transfer into plants what may have negative impacts on human health and the environment. The toxicity and potential mobilization of REEs in soils can be assessed by their content and geochemical behavior along with soil properties. However, those interactions are so far not reviewed in German soils although such a review is important for a better understanding and prediction of the potential mobilization and toxicity. Therefore, this review summarizes the recent knowledge about REE contents and potential mobilization in different soil profiles in Germany. We found that the REE content tends to decrease in dependence on the parent material in the following order: Carbonatite 〉 basalt 〉 orthogneiss 〉 clay slate 〉 loess 〉 sandstone 〉 Pleistocene and Holocene sediments 〉 organic material. Also, we used data of earlier studies, summarized and newly evaluated those data aiming to quantify the factors influencing the total REE content in German soil profiles. The contents of REEs in soil profiles of different parent material showed significant relations with content of clay, carbonate, organic matter, aluminium, iron, and manganese. Geochemical fractionation results suggest that the bioavailability of REEs is relatively low while the residual fraction is relatively high in German soils. In soils, where water fluctuations are important, the redox potential is a key factor controlling the mobilization of REEs also via related changes of pH.
    Keywords: Scandium (Sc) ; Yttrium (Y) ; Lanthanum (La) ; Mobilization ; Geochemical Fraction ; Wetland Soils ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Management, 15 January 2017, Vol.186, pp.253-260
    Description: The impact of sugar beet factory lime (SBFL) on the release dynamics and mobilization of toxic metals (TMs) under dynamic redox conditions in floodplain soils has not been studied up to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the scientific hypothesis that SBFL is able to immobilize Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn under different redox potentials (E ) in a contaminated floodplain soil. For this purpose, the non-treated contaminated soil (CS) and the same soil treated with SBFL (CS+SBFL) were flooded in the laboratory using a highly sophisticated automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The experiment was conducted stepwise from reducing (−13 mV) to oxidizing (+519 mV) soil conditions. Soil pH decreased under oxic conditions in CS (from 6.9 to 4.0) and in CS+SBFL (from 7.5 to 4.4). The mobilization of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Fe were lower in CS+SBFL than in CS under both reducing/neutral and oxic/acidic conditions. Those results demonstrate that SBFL is able to decrease concentrations of these elements under a wide range of redox and pH conditions. The mobilization of Cd, Co, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn were higher in CS+SBFL than in CS under reducing/neutral conditions; however, these concentrations showed an opposite behavior under oxic/acidic conditions and were lower in CS+SBFL than in CS. We conclude that SBFL immobilized Cu, Cr, Pb, and Fe under dynamic redox conditions and immobilized Cd, Co, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Zn under oxic acidic conditions; however, the latter elements were mobilized under reducing neutral conditions in the studied soil. Therefore, the addition of SBFL to acid floodplain soils contaminated with TMs might be an important alternative for ameliorating these soils with view to a sustainable management of these soils.
    Keywords: Agro-Environmental Management ; Liming Materials Release Kinetics ; Toxic Metals ; Redox Processes ; Wetlands ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4797
    E-ISSN: 1095-8630
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, January 2016, Vol.142, pp.41-47
    Description: Biochar (BC) can be used to remediate soils contaminated with potential toxic elements (PTEs). However, the efficiency of BC to immobilize PTEs in highly contaminated floodplain soils under dynamic redox conditions has not been studied up to date. Thus, we have (i) quantified the impact of pre-definite redox conditions on the release dynamics of dissolved aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in a highly contaminated soil (CS) (non-treated) and in the same soil treated with 10 g kg biochar based material (CS + BC), and (ii) assessed the efficacy of the material to reduce the concentrations of PTEs in soil solution under dynamic redox conditions using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The impact of redox potential ( ), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and sulfate (SO ) on dynamics of PTEs was also determined. The was lowered to +68 mV and afterwards increased stepwise to +535 mV. Significant negative correlation between and pH in CS and CS + BC was detected. The systematic increase of along with decrease of pH favors the mobilization of PTEs in CS and CS + BC. The material addition seems to have little effect on redox processes because pattern of /pH and release dynamics of PTEs was basically similar in CS and CS + BC. However, concentrations of dissolved PTEs were considerably lower in CS + BC than in CS which demonstrates that BC is able to decrease concentrations of dissolved PTEs even under dynamic redox conditions.
    Keywords: Immobilization of Trace Metal(Loid)S ; Soil Additives ; Biochar Based Material ; Redox Processes ; Paddy Soil ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, August 2017, Vol.181, pp.313-319
    Description: For the first time, the impact of pre-definite redox conditions on the release dynamics of rare earth elements (REEs) and the determining factors pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), aluminum (Al), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and sulfate (SO ) in a floodplain soil was elucidated using an advanced, highly sophisticated automatic biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The redox potential (E ) ranged between +82 and + 498 mV during the experiment. The systematic increase of E caused a decreasing pH from 6.6 to 4.6 which resulted in an enhanced mobilization and release of REEs along with Fe, Al, and Mn under oxic and acidic conditions. Also, organic matter seems to contribute to the mobilization of REEs under changing redox conditions. A factor analysis identified that the REEs form one group with E , Fe, Al, and Mn what indicates that REEs and sesquioxides have a similar geochemical behavior. The pH, DOC, and DIC are together in another cluster which demonstrates that their behavior substantially differs from the other group. The sequential extraction procedure revealed that the majority of the REEs were bound in the residual fraction, followed by the reducible, the oxidisable and the water soluble/exchangeable/carbonate bound fraction. Future studies should further elucidate the specific release kinetics of REEs, the controlling factors on the release dynamics and the underlying mobilization processes in highly dynamic wetland soils around the globe.
    Keywords: Scandium (Sc) ; Yttrium (Y) ; Lanthanum (La) ; Geochemical Distribution of Rees ; Wetland Soils ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, October 2017, Vol.185, pp.94-95
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, May 2016, Vol.150, pp.740-748
    Description: The impact of redox potential (E ), pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chloride (Cl ), aliphatic and aromatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and sulfate ( ) on the release of dissolved arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and vanadium (V) were studied in Louisiana freshwater marsh Wax Lake Delta soil (Mississippi River) using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. The experiment was conducted from reducing (−60 mV) to stepwise oxidizing (+491 mV) conditions. The initial pH was 7.4 and decreased under reducing conditions to 4.9, and remained constant during the increase of E . Concentrations of As (1.3–120.5 μg L ), V (0.9–48.6 μg L ), Fe, DOC, and the specific UV absorbance increased under reducing conditions and decreased with rising E . Release of As and V appeared to be related to changes of E /pH, co-precipitation with Fe oxides, and the release of dissolved aromatic carbon compounds. Concentrations of soluble Cd (4.8–11.2 μg L ), Mn, , and Cl increased under oxidizing conditions. Release of Co (166.6–258.2 μg L ) was related to the chemistry of Fe, Mn and DOC. Phospholipid fatty acids analysis indicated the potential for the microbial community to be involved in biogeochemical processes such as the formation of sulfides, oxidation and reduction of compounds, and the bio-methylation of elements such as As. Overall, we measured a release of As and V under anoxic conditions, while oxic conditions favored the release of Cd. These results outline concern on the potential risk of mobilization of toxic elements in temporary waterlogged soils for agricultural purposes in deltaic ecosystems.
    Keywords: Heavy Metal(Loid)S ; Redox Chemistry ; Specific Uv Absorbance (Suva) ; Phospholipid Fatty Acids (Plfa) ; Mississippi River ; Wetland ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, June 2018, Vol.200, pp.471-480
    Description: This study examined the solid-liquid distribution of 14.8-nm Ag and 6.2-nm CeO nanoparticles in soil suspensions and compared it to that of Ag and Ce ions, to better understand their environmental behaviour and fate. After 24 h incubation, more than 51% or 29% of the spiked amounts of Ag or CeO nanoparticles, respectively, can be retrieved in the liquid phase of (re)suspended soils. The Ag or Ce concentration remaining in solution depends on the incubation time and was influenced by soil properties. Significant correlations are obtained between, on the one hand, the relative amounts of Ag or CeO nanoparticles in suspension and the soil-pH, CEC, texture, suspended matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, TOC and main and trace elements content on the other hand. The presence of dissolved natural organic matter stabilizes CeO nanoparticles in the aqueous phase. In soil suspensions, Ag and Ce ions seemingly interact more strongly with soil constituents compared to their nanoparticle counterparts, rendering the Ag and CeO nanoparticles to be more stable and potentially bioavailable.
    Keywords: Silver ; Cerium Oxide ; Nanoparticles ; Environmental Fate ; Soil ; Stability ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, May 2016, Vol.150, pp.390-397
    Description: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) combined with a seven steps sequential extraction technique were used to assess the geochemical distribution of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in a contaminated floodplain soil. Total contents of Cr and Pb were 490.3 and 402.1 mg kg , respectively. The residual fraction was 59.5 and 56.3% of total Cr and Pb. The crystalline iron (Fe) oxide was the dominant non-residual fraction of Cr (35.9% of total Cr). Considerable amounts of Pb were found in the organic fraction (35.4%). Using C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the soil organic matter was identified as 48.9% aromatic carbon, which indicated that a certain portion of Pb and Cr might be associated with aromatic compounds. The SEM–EDX images demonstrate a concomitant occurrence of Pb, manganese (Mn), Fe, and aluminum (Al) as well as a coexistence of Cr and Fe. The release dynamics of dissolved Cr and Pb as affected by redox potential (E ), pH, Fe, Mn, dissolved organic carbon, and sulfate was quantified using an automated biogeochemical microcosm apparatus. Soil pH decreased under oxic conditions. The release of Cr, Pb, Fe, and Mn increased under acidic oxic (pH = 3.7, E  = 521 mV) conditions due to the associated decrease of pH (7.1–3.7). The mobilization of Cr and Pb was affected by the Fe and Mn. In conclusion, our multi-technique approach identified the geochemical distribution of Cr and Pb and verified major factors that explain mobilization of Cr and Pb in floodplain soils.
    Keywords: Toxic Metals ; Mobilization ; Wetlands ; Scanning Electron Microscope Coupled With Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM–Edx) ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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