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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(10)
    Description: It is increasingly recognized that the efficacy of medical treatments is determined in critical part by the therapeutic context in which it is delivered. An important characteristic of that context is treatment history. We recently reported first evidence for a carry-over of treatment experience to subsequent treatment response across different treatment approaches. Here we expand on these findings by exploring the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of the effect of treatment experience on future treatment response in an experimental model of placebo analgesia with a conditioning procedure. In a combined behavioral and neuroimaging study we experimentally induced positive or negative experiences with an analgesic treatment in two groups of healthy human subjects. Subsequently we compared responses to a second, different analgesic treatment between both groups. We found that participants with an experimentally induced negative experience with the first treatment showed a substantially reduced response to a second analgesic treatment. Intriguingly, several psychological trait variables including anxiety, depression and locus of control modulate the susceptibility for the effects of prior treatment experiences on future treatment outcome. These behavioral effects were supported by neuroimaging data which showed significant differences in brain regions encoding pain and analgesia between groups. These differences in activation patterns were present not only during the pain phase, but also already prior to painful stimulation and scaled with the individual treatment response. Our data provide behavioral and neurobiological evidence showing that the influence of treatment history transfers over time and over therapeutic approaches. Our experimental findings emphasize the careful consideration of treatment history and a strictly systematic treatment approach to avoid negative carry-over effects.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    In: Age and Ageing, 2011, Vol. 40(1), pp.66-73
    Description: Background: drug intake is associated with the risk of drug-related problems (DRPs), e.g. the intake of PIM. the proportion of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) taken by elderly people was analysed. community-based, prospective cohort study. ambulatory health-care sector in a German rural area. seven hundred and forty-four patients with age 〉65 years and regular intake of drugs. comprehensive home medication review (HMR) provided by specially qualified assistants of GP practices using electronic case reporting forms (eCRFs), and GPʼs diagnoses were extracted from patients’ health records. Updated Beers’ list of Fick . was used to detect PIM for patients 〉65 years and drug–condition interaction. a total of 18% (= 134) of the patients received 163 inappropriate drugs. Out of these drugs, most prevalent PIM were benzodiazepine derivates (= 45). Out of all drugs, 25 drug–condition interactions were identified. The intake of PIM was slightly associated with self-reported falls (: 0.1074; = 0.0244). Multivariate logistic regression showed significant results for the number of taken substances (OR = 1.176; 95% CI 1.121–1.234, 〈 0.001). a high proportion of patients taking PIM in a community-based setting were investigated. Statistical associations with self-reported falls were found. Confounding may influence data. Further research to investigate findings is needed.
    Keywords: Home Medication Review ; Drug - Related Problem ; Inappropriate Drugs ; Falls ; Self - Medication ; Elderly
    ISSN: 0002-0729
    E-ISSN: 1468-2834
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, Oct 2, 2014, Vol.9(10)
    Description: It is increasingly recognized that the efficacy of medical treatments is determined in critical part by the therapeutic context in which it is delivered. An important characteristic of that context is treatment history. We recently reported first evidence for a carry-over of treatment experience to subsequent treatment response across different treatment approaches. Here we expand on these findings by exploring the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of the effect of treatment experience on future treatment response in an experimental model of placebo analgesia with a conditioning procedure. In a combined behavioral and neuroimaging study we experimentally induced positive or negative experiences with an analgesic treatment in two groups of healthy human subjects. Subsequently we compared responses to a second, different analgesic treatment between both groups. We found that participants with an experimentally induced negative experience with the first treatment showed a substantially reduced response to a second analgesic treatment. Intriguingly, several psychological trait variables including anxiety, depression and locus of control modulate the susceptibility for the effects of prior treatment experiences on future treatment outcome. These behavioral effects were supported by neuroimaging data which showed significant differences in brain regions encoding pain and analgesia between groups. These differences in activation patterns were present not only during the pain phase, but also already prior to painful stimulation and scaled with the individual treatment response. Our data provide behavioral and neurobiological evidence showing that the influence of treatment history transfers over time and over therapeutic approaches. Our experimental findings emphasize the careful consideration of treatment history and a strictly systematic treatment approach to avoid negative carry-over effects.
    Keywords: Therapeutics – Health Aspects ; Analgesics – Health Aspects
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 04/15/2012, Vol.72(8 Supplement), pp.4915-4915
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 07/15/2016, Vol.76(14 Supplement), pp.5066-5066
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: NeuroImage, 15 October 2015, Vol.120, pp.114-122
    Description: Despite the clinical relevance of nocebo effects, few studies have addressed their underlying neural mechanisms in clinically-relevant pain models. We aimed to address the contribution of nocebo effects and their underlying neural circuitry to central pain amplification in visceral pain, as it may develop over repeated painful experiences due to negative pain-related expectations. Healthy volunteers received verbal suggestions of pain sensitization (nocebo group, N = 28) or neutral instructions (control group, N = 16). fMRI was used to investigate changes in neural responses during cued pain anticipation and painful rectal distensions delivered in successive fMRI sessions. Pain intensity was rated trial-by-trial, and expected pain intensity, state anxiety and tension were assessed prior to each session. Behavioral analyses demonstrated significantly greater increases in both expected and perceived pain in the nocebo group. The fMRI analysis performed on nocebo-responders only (N = 14) revealed that these behavioral changes were associated with increased activation within the secondary somatosensory cortex and amygdala during pain anticipation and within the thalamus, insula and amygdala during painful stimulation when compared to controls. A subsequent psycho-physiological interaction analysis of the pain phase showed increased functional connectivity between the anterior insula, which was set-up as seed region based on group results, and midcingulate cortex as a function of negative expectations. These findings support that negative pain-related expectations can play a crucial role in pain amplification of visceral pain, which is mediated, at least in part, by a neural up-regulation of pain-associated areas and their connectivity. These findings may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of chronic abdominal pain.
    Keywords: Nocebo ; Visceral Pain ; Hyperalgesia ; Brain Imaging ; Expectations ; Rectal Distension ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    E-ISSN: 1095-9572
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(2), p.e57957
    Description: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the human motor hand area (M1HAND) can induce lasting changes in corticospinal excitability as indexed by a change in amplitude of the motor-evoked potential. The plasticity-inducing effects of rTMS in M1HAND show substantial inter-individual variability which has been partially attributed to the val(66)met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Here we used theta burst stimulation (TBS) to examine whether the BDNF val(66)met genotype can be used to predict the expression of TBS-induced homeostatic metaplasticity in human M1HAND. TBS is a patterned rTMS protocol with intermittent TBS (iTBS) usually inducing a lasting increase and continuous TBS (cTBS) a lasting decrease in corticospinal excitability. In three separate sessions, healthy val(66)met (n = 12) and val(66)val (n = 17) carriers received neuronavigated cTBS followed by cTBS (n = 27), cTBS followed by iTBS (n = 29), and iTBS followed by iTBS (n = 28). Participants and examiner were blinded to the genotype at the time of examination. As expected, the first TBS intervention induced a decrease (cTBS) and increase (iTBS) in corticospinal excitability, respectively, at the same time priming the after effects caused by the second TBS intervention in a homeostatic fashion. Critically, val(66)met carriers and val(66)val carriers showed very similar response patterns to cTBS and iTBS regardless of the order of TBS interventions. Since none of the observed TBS effects was modulated by the BDNF val(66)met polymorphism, our results do not support the notion that the BDNF val(66)met genotype is a major player with regard to TBS-induced plasticity and metaplasticity in the human M1HAND.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Earth System Science Data, 2016, Vol.8(1), pp.159-164
    Description: On 20 March 2015, a total solar eclipse occurred over Ny-Ålesund (78.9° N, 11.9° E), Svalbard, in the high Arctic. It has been the first time that the surface radiation components during the totality of a solar eclipse have been measured by a Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) station. With the Ny-Ålesund long term radiation data set as background (available at 〈a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.150000" target="_blank"〉http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.150000〈/a〉), we here present the peculiarities of the radiation components and basic meteorology observed during the eclipse event. The supplementary data set contains the basic BSRN radiation and surface meteorological data in 1-minute resolution for March 2015, and is available at 〈a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.854326" target="_blank"〉http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.854326〈/a〉. The eclipse radiation data will be a useful auxiliary data set for further studies on micro-meteorological surface-atmosphere exchange processes in the Svalbard environment, and may serve as a test case for radiative transfer studies.
    Keywords: Geology;
    ISSN: Earth System Science Data
    ISSN: 18663508
    E-ISSN: 1866-3516
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  • 9
    In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 27 September 2011, Vol.116(D18), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: We used a general circulation model of Earth's climate to conduct simulations of the 12–16 June 2009 eruption of Sarychev volcano (48.1°N, 153.2°E). The model simulates the formation and transport of the stratospheric sulfate aerosol cloud from the eruption and the resulting climate response. We compared optical depth results from these simulations with limb scatter measurements from the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS), in situ measurements from balloon‐borne instruments lofted from Laramie, Wyoming (41.3°N, 105.7°W), and five lidar stations located throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The aerosol cloud covered most of the Northern Hemisphere, extending slightly into the tropics, with peak backscatter measured between 12 and 16 km in altitude. Aerosol concentrations returned to near‐background levels by spring 2010. After accounting for expected sources of discrepancy between each of the data sources, the magnitudes and spatial distributions of aerosol optical depth due to the eruption largely agree. In conducting the simulations, we likely overestimated both particle size and the amount of SO injected into the stratosphere, resulting in modeled optical depth values that were a factor of 2–4 too high. Modeled optical depth due to the eruption shows a peak too late in high latitudes and too early in low latitudes, suggesting a problem with stratospheric circulation in the model. The model also shows a higher decay rate in optical depth than is observed, showing an inaccuracy in stratospheric removal rates in some seasons. The modeled removal rate of sulfate aerosols from the Sarychev eruption is higher than the rate calculated for aerosols from the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. Accuracy of climate model simulations of volcanic eruptions Validation of OSIRIS Comparison of various measurements of aerosol optical depth
    Keywords: Volcanic Eruptions
    ISSN: 0148-0227
    ISSN: 2169897X
    E-ISSN: 2156-2202
    E-ISSN: 21698996
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 07/01/2017, Vol.77(13 Supplement), pp.1738-1738
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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