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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Healthcare Infection, September 2013, Vol.18(3), pp.91-93
    Description: Infection prevention and control services are well established within publically funded hospitals within New Zealand. In 2007, the Ministry of Health Quality Improvement Committee developed a set of National Quality Improvement Programs including an Infection Prevention and Control project. This project, the implementation of a national hand hygiene program, provision of guidance to reduce central line associated bacteraemia and recommendations for a national surgical site infection surveillance program, was the first nationally coordinated infection prevention and control program. More recently the Health Quality and Safety Commission has been established and the responsibility of the program delivery shifted to the Commission. District Health Boards have agreed to participate in the programs and the recently introduced Quality and Safety Markers will track the progress of these programs. Ongoing committed to increasing the workforce capacity and capability is required to ensure the successful delivery of these programs.
    Keywords: Infection ; New Zealand ; Commissions ; Epidemiology and Public Health;
    ISSN: 1835-5617
    E-ISSN: 18355625
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2013, Vol.496(7445), p.300
    Keywords: Laboratories ; Drug Contamination -- Prevention & Control ; Indicators and Reagents -- Standards;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Sports Medicine, December 2012, Vol.40(12), pp.2725-2730
    Description: Background: Microfracture is a proven technique to treat articular cartilage defects in the knee. However, there is little evidence in the literature to confirm the ability of microfracture to produce repair tissue in the hip joint. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report the macroscopic...
    Keywords: Hip Arthroscopy ; Femoroacetabular Impingement ; Cartilage Defects ; Microfracture ; Biopsy ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0363-5465
    E-ISSN: 1552-3365
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, Nov 21, 2011, Vol.289, p.136(15)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.08.007 Byline: Michael Lutianov (a), Shailesh Naire (b), Sally Roberts (c), Jan-Herman Kuiper (a)(c) Abstract: Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is a cell-based therapy used mainly for the treatment of chondral defects in the knee. It involves surgically inserting isolated chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), previously expanded in culture, into the defect region. These chondrocytes then proliferate and migrate in the process forming extracellular matrix (ECM) and new cartilage. In the case of MSCs, the process of forming new cartilage is initiated only after differentiation of the stem cells into chondrocytes. Many details of the repair process following insertion in humans are unknown. To enable better understanding of the repair process, we present a mathematical model of cartilage regeneration after cell therapy. The key mechanisms involved in the regeneration process are simulated by modelling cell migration, proliferation and differentiation, nutrient diffusion and depletion, and ECM synthesis and degradation at the defect site, both spatially and temporally. The model successfully simulates the progression of cartilage regeneration. The model predicts a time frame of about 18months for the defect to reach full maturation which corresponds with results from clinical studies and demonstrates that cartilage regeneration is a slow process. Moreover, the model also suggests that regeneration using stem cells alone is no better than that using chondrocytes. The stem cells need to first differentiate into chondrocytes before forming ECM and new cartilage, a process that is initiated only after the stem cell density exceeds a threshold value. Furthermore, with chondrocytes alone, the matrix seems to develop from the subchondral bone interface as compared to the normal cartilage interface, in the case of stem cells alone. The influence of initial conditions and parameters, such as the initial cell seeding densities and cell proliferation rates, is shown to not significantly influence the general evolution characteristics other than accelerating the initial growth process. The model presented here is a first approach towards better understanding of cartilage regeneration after cell therapy techniques. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Keele ST5 5BG, UK (b) School of Computing and Mathematics, Keele University, Keele ST5 5BG, UK (c) Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic & District Hospital NHS Trust, Oswestry SY10 7AG, UK Article History: Received 9 February 2011; Revised 23 June 2011; Accepted 6 August 2011
    Keywords: Stem Cells -- Analysis ; Stem Cells -- Models
    ISSN: 0022-5193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(7), p.e40279
    Description: The components of the Scrib/Dlg tumour suppressor complex have complementary roles in Drosophila and loss of both proteins is a common event in many different human tumours. However no studies have directly addressed the respective contributions of loss of hScrib and hDlg in the same human cell background to cellular phenotypes associated with cell transformation. In human HaCaT keratinocytes we show that removal of hScrib greatly reduces cell-cell contact and cell-matrix interactions, and promotes an invasive phenotype. Conversely, in cells lacking hDlg1 cell-cell contacts are maintained and there are decreases in both cell growth and invasion. However, hDlg-depleted cells show increased resistance to a specialized form of apoptosis known as anoikis, to which cells lacking hScrib are highly susceptible. Thus whilst it has been widely assumed that hScrib and hDlg have complementary roles, these studies in fact demonstrate that hScrib and hDlg1 have distinct and opposing functions in human keratinocytes.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Genetics And Genomics ; Computational Biology ; Cell Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(5)
    Description: Hyaline cartilage and mechanically inferior fibrocartilage consisting of mixed collagen types are frequently found together in repairing articular cartilage. The present study seeks to develop methodology to identify collagen type and other tissue components using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral evaluation of matrix composition in combination with multivariate analyses. FTIR spectra of the primary molecular components of repair cartilage, types I and II collagen, and aggrecan, were used to develop multivariate spectral models for discrimination of the matrix components of the tissues of interest. Infrared imaging data were collected from bovine bone, tendon, normal cartilage, meniscus and human repair cartilage tissues, and composition predicted using partial least squares analyses. Histology and immunohistochemistry results were used as standards for validation. Infrared fiber optic probe spectral data were also obtained from meniscus (a tissue with mixed collagen types) to evaluate the potential of this method for identification of collagen type in a minimally-invasive clinical application. Concentration profiles of the tissue components obtained from multivariate analysis were in excellent agreement with histology and immunohistochemistry results. Bone and tendon showed a uniform distribution of predominantly type I collagen through the tissue. Normal cartilage showed a distribution of type II collagen and proteoglycan similar to the known composition, while in repair cartilage, the spectral distribution of both types I and II collagen were similar to that observed via immunohistochemistry. Using the probe, the outer and inner regions of the meniscus were shown to be primarily composed of type I and II collagen, respectively, in accordance with immunohistochemistry data. In summary, multivariate analysis of infrared spectra can indeed be used to differentiate collagen type I and type II, even in the presence of proteoglycan, in connective tissues, using both imaging and fiber optic methodology. This has great potential for clinical in situ applications for monitoring tissue repair.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Engineering ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: BJU International, April, 2011, Vol.107, p.20(4)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10050.x Byline: Robert A. Gardiner, Raymond A. Gwynne (*), Sally A. Roberts ([dagger]) Keywords: perinephric; abscess; staghorn Abstract: The clinical condition of perinephric abscess can present dramatically as an acute emergency or insidiously as a chronic condition. The clinical characteristics and contemporary treatment approaches of these different types of perinephric abscess are outlined in this overview of the topic. Author Affiliation: (*)Department of Medical Imaging, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Queensland, Australia ([dagger])Department of Microbiology, LabPLUS, Auckland District Health Board, New Zealand Article History: Accepted for publication 5 November 2011 Article note: Robert A. Gardiner, Professor University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research and Consultant Urologist, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Australia., e-mail: f.gardiner@uq.edu.au
    Keywords: Chronic Diseases
    ISSN: 1464-4096
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: BJU International, April, 2011, Vol.107, p.20(4)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10050.x Byline: Robert A. Gardiner, Raymond A. Gwynne (*), Sally A. Roberts ([dagger]) Keywords: perinephric; abscess; staghorn Abstract: The clinical condition of perinephric abscess can present dramatically as an acute emergency or insidiously as a chronic condition. The clinical characteristics and contemporary treatment approaches of these different types of perinephric abscess are outlined in this overview of the topic. Author Affiliation: (*)Department of Medical Imaging, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Queensland, Australia ([dagger])Department of Microbiology, LabPLUS, Auckland District Health Board, New Zealand Article History: Accepted for publication 5 November 2011 Article note: Robert A. Gardiner, Professor University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research and Consultant Urologist, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Australia., e-mail: f.gardiner@uq.edu.au
    Keywords: Chronic Diseases
    ISSN: 1464-4096
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Nurse Education Today, 2008, Vol.28(1), pp.85-92
    Description: This paper promotes the use of self-reflective enquiry through practitioner research to address the research question ? The research is located in two consecutive continuing professional development modules for nurses caring for older people. The development of the research question is tracked through student evaluation of the modules. Background theory is presented in relation to both student interaction and the teacher’s role in group learning and the method of enquiry, practitioner research. Two action cycles are undertaken and described in which a critical friend is asked to record student interaction with the use of a sociogram. The findings identify that controlling group membership can lead to a greater perceived ability to participate in group discussions. Techniques to encourage student–student interaction are identified and it is suggested that positive benefits of learning result. The lessons learnt and areas for further research are considered.
    Keywords: Practitioner Research ; Action Research ; Group Facilitation ; Medicine ; Nursing
    ISSN: 0260-6917
    E-ISSN: 1532-2793
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, May 2012, Vol.54(10), pp.1406-12
    Description: Transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) prostate biopsy is a commonly performed procedure, and fluoroquinolones are the most frequently given prophylactic antimicrobials. In the context of increasing fluoroquinolone resistance, and the international emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant sequence type 131 (ST131) Escherichia coli, we describe a large series of E. coli bacteremia after TRUS biopsy. All male patients admitted with community-onset (CO) E. coli bacteremia from January 2006 through December 2010 were included. Patient characteristics, treatment outcomes, and rates of antimicrobial resistance were compared between patients with TRUS biopsy-related bacteremia and other male patients with CO E. coli bacteremia. Molecular typing was performed on E. coli isolates to determine phylogenetic group. A total of 258 male patients were admitted with CO E. coli bacteremia. Of these, 47 patients (18%) were admitted after TRUS biopsy. Patients who had undergone TRUS biopsy were twice as likely to require intensive care admission (25% vs 12%) and had significantly higher rates of resistance to gentamicin (43%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (60%), and ciprofloxacin (62%) as well as all 3 agents in combination (19%). Thirty-six percent of post-TRUS biopsy patients did not receive active empirical antibiotic therapy. The ST131 clone accounted for 41% of all E. coli isolates after TRUS biopsy. E. coli bacteremia can be a life-threatening complication of TRUS biopsy. Infecting strains are frequently multidrug-resistant and resistant to common empirical antibiotic agents. E. coli ST131 is an important cause of sepsis after TRUS biopsy. Further studies should evaluate colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli as a risk factor for postbiopsy sepsis.
    Keywords: Bacteremia -- Epidemiology ; Biopsy -- Adverse Effects ; Escherichia Coli -- Classification ; Escherichia Coli Infections -- Epidemiology ; Prostatic Neoplasms -- Diagnosis ; Ultrasound, High-Intensity Focused, Transrectal -- Adverse Effects
    ISSN: 10584838
    E-ISSN: 1537-6591
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