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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 07 March 2012, Vol.483(7388), pp.164-5
    Description: There is evidence4 for such gene flow between Neanderthals and the lineage that ultimately produced modern humans, and between morphologically differentiated non-human primate groups that are often considered separate species, such as macaques5,6 and...
    Keywords: Evolution, Molecular ; Genetic Speciation ; Genome -- Genetics ; Gorilla Gorilla -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2012, Vol.483(7388), p.164
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    Source: Nature Publishing Group
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature, March 8, 2012, Vol.483(7388), p.164(2)
    Keywords: Apes – Natural History ; Genomes – Identification and Classification ; Evolutionary Genetics – Research ; Human Evolution – Research
    ISSN: 0028-0836
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  • 4
    In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, February 2018, Vol.165, pp.23-36
    Description: The complexity and diversity of primate behavior have long attracted the attention of ethologists, psychologists, behavioral ecologists, and neuroscientists. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the nature of genetic influences on differences in behavior among individuals within species. A number of analyses have focused on the genetic analysis of behavioral reactions to specific experimental tests, providing estimates of the degree of genetic control over reactivity, and beginning to identify the genes involved. Substantial progress is also being made in identifying genetic factors that influence the structure and function of the primate brain. Most of the published studies on these topics have examined either cercopithecines or chimpanzees, though a few studies have addressed these questions in other primate species. One potentially important line of research is beginning to identify the epigenetic processes that influence primate behavior, thus revealing specific cellular and molecular mechanisms by which environmental experiences can influence gene expression or gene function relevant to behavior. This review summarizes many of these studies of non‐human primate behavioral genetics. The primary focus is on analyses that address the nature of the genes and genetic processes that affect differences in behavior among individuals within non‐human primate species. Analyses of between species differences and potential avenues for future research are also discussed.
    Keywords: Brain Structure ; Epigenetics ; Genetic Association ; Heritability ; Neurobiology ; Temperament
    ISSN: 0002-9483
    E-ISSN: 1096-8644
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 28 January 2014, Vol.111(4), pp.1467-72
    Description: New World monkeys (NWMs) are characterized by an extensive size range, with clawed NWMs (subfamily Callitrichinae, or callitrichines) such as the common marmoset manifesting diminutive size and unique reproductive adaptations. Perhaps the most notable of these adaptations is their propensity toward multiple gestations (i.e., dichorionic twins and trichorionic triplets). Indeed, with the exception of Goeldi's monkey (Callimico), callitrichine singleton pregnancies rarely occur. Multiple gestations seem to have coevolved with a suite of reproductive adaptations, including hematopoetic chimerism of siblings, suppression of reproduction in nondominant females, and cooperative alloparenting. The sequencing of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) genome offers the opportunity to explore the genetic basis of these unusual traits within this primate lineage. In this study, we hypothesized that genetic changes arising during callitrichine evolution resulted in multiple ovulated ova with each cycle, and that these changes triggered adaptations that minimized complications common to multiple gestations in other primates, including humans. Callitrichine-specific nonsynonymous substitutions were identified in GDF9, BMP15, BMP4, and WFIKKN1. WFIKKN1, a multidomain protease inhibitor that binds growth factors and bone morphogenetic proteins, has nonsynonymous changes found exclusively in common marmosets and other tested callitrichine species that twin. In the one callitrichine species that does not produce twins (Callimico), this change has reverted back to the ancestral (nontwinning) primate sequence. Polymorphisms in GDF9 occur among human cohorts with a propensity for dizygotic twins, and polymorphisms in GDF9 and BMP15 are associated with twinning in sheep. We postulate that positive selection affected NWM growth patterns, with callitrichine miniaturization coevolving with a series of reproductive adaptations.
    Keywords: Primate Evolution ; Reproductive Biology ; Body Size ; Evolution, Molecular ; Reproduction ; Callithrix -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 6
    In: Nature Reviews Genetics, 2014, Vol.15(5), p.347
    Description: Advances in genome sequencing technologies have created new opportunities for comparative primate genomics. Genome assemblies have been published for various primate species, and analyses of several others are underway. Whole-genome assemblies for the great apes provide remarkable new information about the evolutionary origins of the human genome and the processes involved. Genomic data for macaques and other non-human primates offer valuable insights into genetic similarities and differences among species that are used as models for disease-related research. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding primate genome content and dynamics, and proposes a series of goals for the near future.
    Keywords: Dna Sequencing -- Innovations ; Primates -- Genetic Aspects ; Genome-Wide Association Studies -- Forecasts And Trends;
    ISSN: 1471-0056
    E-ISSN: 14710064
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  • 7
    In: Evolution, March 2016, Vol.70(3), pp.707-715
    Description: Bilateral symmetry is a fundamental property of the vertebrate central nervous system. Local deviations from symmetry provide various types of information about the development, evolution, and function of elements within the CNS, especially the cerebral hemispheres. Here, we quantify the pattern and extent of asymmetry in cortical folding within the cerebrum of baboons and assess the evolutionary and developmental implications of the findings. Analyses of directional asymmetry show a population‐level trend in length measurements indicating that baboons are genetically predisposed to be asymmetrical, with the right side longer than the left in the anterior cerebrum while the left side is longer than the right posteriorly. We also find a corresponding bias to display a right frontal petalia (overgrowth of the anterior pole of the cerebral cortex on the right side). By quantifying fluctuating asymmetry, we assess canalization of brain features and the susceptibility of the baboon brain to developmental perturbations. We find that features are differentially canalized depending on their ontogenetic timing. We further deduce that development of the two hemispheres is to some degree independent. This independence has important implications for the evolution of cerebral hemispheres and their separate specialization. Asymmetry is a major feature of primate brains and is characteristic of both brain structure and function.
    Keywords: Baboon ; Developmental Noise ; Gyrification ; Morphological Integration ; Primate Brain Evolution
    ISSN: 0014-3820
    E-ISSN: 1558-5646
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, June 2018, Vol.143(6), pp.3946
    Description: Co-prime array geometries have received a great deal of attention due to their ability to discriminate O(MN) sources with only O(M + N) sensors. This has been demonstrated both theoretically and in simulation. However, there are many practical limitations that make it difficult to realize the enhanced degrees of freedom when applying co-prime geometries to real acoustic data taken on a horizontal line array. For instance, co-prime sampling leads to grating lobes that can obscure lower signal-to-noise-ratio acoustic signals making them difficult to detect. In this work, a synthetic aperture (SA) method is presented for filling in holes and increasing redundancy in the difference co-array by exploiting array motion. The SA method is applied to acoustic data collected off the Southeastern shore of Florida on a fixed large aperture horizontal array. Array motion is simulated by taking a co-prime sampled subarray and virtually moving it along the horizontal aperture of the fixed array. It is demonstrated that SA processing on real acoustic data results in reduced side-lobe and grating lobe levels compared to that of the physical co-prime aperture.
    Keywords: Special Issue On Compressive Sensing In Acoustics;
    ISSN: 00014966
    E-ISSN: 1520-8524
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Climate Dynamics, 2013, Vol.40(1), pp.341-352
    Description: Portions of the southern and southeastern United States, primarily Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia, have experienced century-long (1895–2007) downward air temperature trends that occur in all seasons. Superimposed on them are shifts in mean temperatures on decadal scales characterized by alternating warm (1930s–1940s, 1990s) and cold (1900s; 1960s–1970s) regimes. Regional atmospheric circulation and SST teleconnection indices, station-based cloud cover and soil moisture (Palmer drought severity index) data are used in stepwise multiple linear regression models. These models identify predictors linked to observed winter, summer, and annual Southeastern air temperature variability, the observed variance (r 2 ) they explain, and the resulting prediction and residual time series. Long-term variations and trends in tropical Pacific sea temperatures, cloud cover, soil moisture and the North Atlantic and Arctic oscillations account for much of the air temperature downtrends. Soil moisture and cloud cover are the primary predictors of 59.6 % of the observed summer temperature variance. While the teleconnections, cloud cover and moisture data account for some of the annual and summer Southeastern cooling trend, large significant downward trending residuals remain in winter and summer. Comparison is made to the northeastern United States where large twentieth century upward air temperature trends are driven by cloud cover increases and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) variability. Differences between the Northeastern warming and the Southeastern cooling trends in summer are attributable in part to the differing roles of cloud cover, soil moisture, the Arctic Oscillation and the AMO on air temperatures of the 2 regions.
    Keywords: Climate variability ; Soil moisture ; Teleconnections ; Regional cooling trend ; Atlantic multidecadal oscillation
    ISSN: 0930-7575
    E-ISSN: 1432-0894
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 21 July 2015, Vol.112(29), pp.9118-22
    Description: Understanding the heritability of neural systems linked to psychopathology is not sufficient to implicate them as intergenerational neural mediators. By closely examining how individual differences in neural phenotypes and psychopathology cosegregate as they fall through the family tree, we can identify the brain systems that underlie the parent-to-child transmission of psychopathology. Although research has identified genes and neural circuits that contribute to the risk of developing anxiety and depression, the specific neural systems that mediate the inborn risk for these debilitating disorders remain unknown. In a sample of 592 young rhesus monkeys that are part of an extended multigenerational pedigree, we demonstrate that metabolism within a tripartite prefrontal-limbic-midbrain circuit mediates some of the inborn risk for developing anxiety and depression. Importantly, although brain volume is highly heritable early in life, it is brain metabolism-not brain structure-that is the critical intermediary between genetics and the childhood risk to develop stress-related psychopathology.
    Keywords: Anxiety ; Brain Volume ; Heritability ; Positron Emission Tomography ; Primate ; Family Characteristics ; Inheritance Patterns ; Temperament ; Anxiety -- Physiopathology ; Neurons -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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