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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 10 November 2005, Vol.438(7065), pp.208-11
    Description: Many palaeoclimate records from the North Atlantic region show a pattern of rapid climate oscillations, the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger events, with a quasi-periodicity of approximately 1,470 years for the late glacial period. Various hypotheses have been suggested to explain these rapid temperature shifts, including internal oscillations in the climate system and external forcing, possibly from the Sun. But whereas pronounced solar cycles of approximately 87 and approximately 210 years are well known, a approximately 1,470-year solar cycle has not been detected. Here we show that an intermediate-complexity climate model with glacial climate conditions simulates rapid climate shifts similar to the Dansgaard-Oeschger events with a spacing of 1,470 years when forced by periodic freshwater input into the North Atlantic Ocean in cycles of approximately 87 and approximately 210 years. We attribute the robust 1,470-year response time to the superposition of the two shorter cycles, together with strongly nonlinear dynamics and the long characteristic timescale of the thermohaline circulation. For Holocene conditions, similar events do not occur. We conclude that the glacial 1,470-year climate cycles could have been triggered by solar forcing despite the absence of a 1,470-year solar cycle.
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Energy policy, 2013, Vol.57, pp.160-171
    Description: Isolated environmental campaigns focusing on defined target behaviors are rolled out to millions of households every year. Yet it is still unclear whether these programs trigger cross-domain adoption of additional environment-friendly behaviors (positive spillover) or reduced engagement elsewhere. A thorough evaluation of the real net performance of these programs is lacking. This paper investigates whether positive or perverse side effects dominate by exemplifying the impact of a water conservation campaign on electricity consumption. The study draws on daily water (10,780 data points) and weekly electricity (1386 data points) consumption data of 154 apartments in a controlled field experiment at a multifamily residence. The results show that residents who received weekly feedback on their water consumption lowered their water use (6.0% on average), but at the same time increased their electricity consumption by 5.6% compared with control subjects. Income effects can be excluded. While follow-up research is needed on the precise mechanism of the psychological process at work, the findings are consistent with the concept of moral licensing, which can more than offset the benefits of focused energy efficiency campaigns, at least in the short-term. We advocate the adoption of a more comprehensive view in environmental program design/evaluation in order to quantify and mitigate these unintended effects. ; p. 160-171.
    Keywords: Households ; Water Conservation ; Income ; Residential Housing ; Electricity ; Field Experimentation ; Energy Conservation ; Energy Efficiency
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, June 2013, Vol.57, pp.160-171
    Description: Isolated environmental campaigns focusing on defined target behaviors are rolled out to millions of households every year. Yet it is still unclear whether these programs trigger cross-domain adoption of additional environment-friendly behaviors (positive spillover) or reduced engagement elsewhere. A thorough evaluation of the real net performance of these programs is lacking. This paper investigates whether positive or perverse side effects dominate by exemplifying the impact of a water conservation campaign on electricity consumption. The study draws on daily water (10,780 data points) and weekly electricity (1386 data points) consumption data of 154 apartments in a controlled field experiment at a multifamily residence. The results show that residents who received weekly feedback on their water consumption lowered their water use (6.0% on average), but at the same time increased their electricity consumption by 5.6% compared with control subjects. Income effects can be excluded. While follow-up research is needed on the precise mechanism of the psychological process at work, the findings are consistent with the concept of moral licensing, which can more than offset the benefits of focused energy efficiency campaigns, at least in the short-term. We advocate the adoption of a more comprehensive view in environmental program design/evaluation in order to quantify and mitigate these unintended effects. ► We measure cross-domain licensing effects in a naturalistic setting. ► We rule out income effects as an alternative explanation for the effects. ► The conservation campaign succeeds in reducing demand for the target resource water. ► Yet participants increase consumption in other domains (electricity demand). ► The energy/CO savings from water are more than offset by higher electricity demand.
    Keywords: Energy-Related Behavior ; Residential Energy Conservation Campaigns ; Moral Licensing ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: ASHRAE Transactions, July, 2011, Vol.117(2), p.307(8)
    Description: Our paper presents findings from in-depth monitoring of two single-family "Net Zero Energy Homes" (NZEH) in Massachusetts, begun in July and October 2010 respectively. It concentrates on the cooling period 2010. In both buildings, we measured the electric energy consumption at the circuit level. In addition, we measured parameters related to indoor comfort and indoor air quality on seasonal test series. Based on these measurements, we generated average daily electric load profiles during a large portion of the cooling season. We also used indoor temperature and relative humidity measurement to evaluate thermal comfort based on static and an adaptive comfort models. Finally, we used C[O.sub.2]concentration measurements as an indicator for indoor air quality (IAQ) and to assess the sufficiency of air exchange rates.
    Keywords: Energy Consumption -- Control ; Climate -- Environmental Aspects ; Energy Efficient Buildings -- Properties ; Housing -- Energy Use
    ISSN: 0001-2505
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Bicycle Retailer and Industry News, August 1, 2012, Vol.21(13), p.46(1)
    Keywords: Bicycle Industry ; Investment Companies
    ISSN: 1069-8493
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Nutritional Outlook, Dec, 2012, Vol.15(10), p.20(3)
    Keywords: Food Industry ; Dietary Supplements Industry ; Initial Public Offerings ; Acquisitions And Mergers ; Dietary Supplements ; Bayer Healthcare Ag ; Mondel?Z International Inc.
    ISSN: 1098-1179
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, February 2011, Vol.57(1), pp.76-84
    Description: Consumer systems for home energy management can provide significant energy saving. Such systems may be based on nonintrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM), in which individual appliance power consumption information is disaggregated from single-point measurements. The disaggregation methods constitute the most important part of NIALM systems. This paper reviews the methodology of consumer systems for NIALM in residential buildings.
    Keywords: Home Appliances ; Harmonic Analysis ; Monitoring ; Transient Analysis ; Reactive Power ; Training ; Accuracy ; Disaggregation Algorithm ; Current Waveform ; Signal Features ; Energy Management ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0098-3063
    E-ISSN: 1558-4127
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 2018, Vol.22(4), pp.2551-2573
    Description: Quantitative knowledge of the subsurface material distribution and its effective soil hydraulic material properties is essential to predict soil water movement. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a noninvasive and nondestructive geophysical measurement method that is suitable to monitor hydraulic processes. Previous studies showed that the GPR signal from a fluctuating groundwater table is sensitive to the soil water characteristic and the hydraulic conductivity function. In this work, we show that the GPR signal originating from both the subsurface architecture and the fluctuating groundwater table is suitable to estimate the position of layers within the subsurface architecture together with the associated effective soil hydraulic material properties with inversion methods. To that end, we parameterize the subsurface architecture, solve the Richards equation, convert the resulting water content to relative permittivity with the complex refractive index model (CRIM), and solve Maxwell's equations numerically. In order to analyze the GPR signal, we implemented a new heuristic algorithm that detects relevant signals in the radargram (events) and extracts the corresponding signal travel time and amplitude. This algorithm is applied to simulated as well as measured radargrams and the detected events are associated automatically. Using events instead of the full wave regularizes the inversion focussing on the relevant measurement signal. For optimization, we use a global–local approach with preconditioning. Starting from an ensemble of initial parameter sets drawn with a Latin hypercube algorithm, we sequentially couple a simulated annealing algorithm with a Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The method is applied to synthetic as well as measured data from the ASSESS test site. We show that the method yields reasonable estimates for the position of the layers as well as for the soil hydraulic material properties by comparing the results to references derived from ground truth data as well as from time domain reflectometry (TDR).
    Keywords: Geography;
    ISSN: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
    ISSN: 10275606
    E-ISSN: 1607-7938
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 03/02/2017, pp.1-31
    Description: We investigate the quantitative effect of unrepresented (i) sensor position uncertainty, (ii) small scale-heterogeneity, and (iii) 2D flow phenomena on estimated effective soil hydraulic material properties. 〈br〉〈br〉 Therefore, a complicated 2D subsurface architecture (ASSESS) was forced with a fluctuating groundwater table. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), and hydraulic potential measurement devices monitored the hydraulic state during the experiment. Since the measurement data are analyzed with an inversion method, starting close to the measurement data is key. Therefore, we developed a method which estimates the initial water content distribution by approximating the soil water characteristic on the basis of TDR measurement data and the position of the groundwater table. In order to reduce parameter bias due to unrepresented model errors, we implemented a structural error analysis to identify uncertain model components which have to be included in the parameter estimation. Hence, focussing on TDR and hydraulic potential data, we realized a 1D and a 2D study with increasingly complex setups: Starting with estimating effective hydraulic material properties, we added the estimation of sensor positions, the estimation of small-scale heterogeneity, or both. 〈br〉〈br〉 The analysis of these studies with a modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm demonstrates three main points: (i) The approximated soil water characteristic for the initial water content distribution is reasonably close to inversion results. (ii) Although the material properties resulting from 1D and 2D studies are similar, the 1D studies are likely to yield biased parameters due to unrepresented lateral flow. (iii) Representing and estimating sensor positions as well as small-scale heterogeneity improves the mean absolute error by more than a factor of 2.
    Keywords: Geography;
    ISSN: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
    E-ISSN: 1812-2116
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 09/13/2017, pp.1-34
    Description: Quantitative knowledge of effective soil hydraulic material properties is essential to predict soil water movement. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a non-invasive and non-destructive geophysical measurement method to monitor the hydraulic processes precisely. Previous studies showed that the GPR signal from a fluctuating groundwater table is sensitive to the soil water characteristic and the hydraulic conductivity function. In this work, we show that this signal is suitable to accurately estimate the subsurface architecture and the associated effective soil hydraulic material properties with inversion methods. Therefore, we parameterize the subsurface architecture, solve the Richards equation, convert the resulting water content to relative permittivity with the complex reflective index model (CRIM), and solve Maxwell's equations numerically. In order to analyze the GPR signal, we implemented a new heuristic event detection and association algorithm. Using events instead of the full wave regularizes the inversion as it allows to focus on the relevant measurement signal. Starting from an ensemble of Latin hypercube drawn initial parameter sets, we sequentially couple the simulated annealing algorithm with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. We apply the method to synthetic as well as measured data from the ASSESS test site and show that the method yields accurate estimates for the soil hydraulic material properties as well as for the subsurface architecture by comparing the results to references derived from time domain reflectometry (TDR) and subsurface architecture ground truth data.
    Keywords: Geography;
    ISSN: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
    E-ISSN: 1812-2116
    Source: CrossRef
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