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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: The Gerontologist, 2008, Vol. 48(6), pp.732-740
    Description: Purpose:  The purpose of this study was to examine the joint effects of bereavement and caregiver intervention on caregiver depressive symptoms.  Design and Methods:  Alzheimer's caregivers from a randomized trial of an enhanced caregiver support intervention versus usual care who had experienced the death of their spouse ( n = 254) were repeatedly assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale prior to and following bereavement. Random effects regression growth curve analyses examined the effects of treatment group and bereavement while controlling for other variables.   Results:  The death of the care recipient led to reductions in depressive symptoms for both caregiving groups. Enhanced support intervention led to lower depressive symptoms compared with controls both before and after bereavement. Post-bereavement group differences were stronger for caregivers of spouses who did not previously experience a nursing home placement. These caregivers maintained these differences for more than 1 year after bereavement. Caregivers who received the enhanced support intervention were more likely to show long-term patterns of fewer depressive symptoms before and after bereavement, suggesting resilience, whereas control caregivers were more likely to show chronic depressive symptoms before and after the death of their spouse.  Implications: Caregiver intervention has the potential to alter the long-term course of the caregiving career. Such clinical strategies may also protect caregivers against chronic depressive symptoms that would otherwise persist long after caregiving ends.
    Keywords: Caregiving ; Bereavement ; Intervention ; Resilience
    ISSN: 0016-9013
    E-ISSN: 1758-5341
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(7), p.e0134290
    Description: Epidemiological studies show that high circulating levels of adiponectin are associated with low bone mineral density. The effect of adiponectin on skeletal homeostasis, on osteoblasts in particular, remains controversial. We investigated this issue using mice with adipocyte-specific over-expression of adiponectin (AdTg). MicroCT and histomorphometric analysis revealed decreases (15%) in fractional bone volume in AdTg mice at the proximal tibia with no changes at the distal femur. Cortical bone thickness at mid-shafts of the tibia and at the tibiofibular junction was reduced (3-4%) in AdTg mice. Dynamic histomorphometry at the proximal tibia in AdTg mice revealed inhibition of bone formation. AdTg mice had increased numbers of adipocytes in close proximity to trabecular bone in the tibia, associated with increased adiponectin levels in tibial marrow. Treatment of BMSCs with adiponectin after initiation of osteoblastic differentiation resulted in reduced mineralized colony formation and reduced expression of mRNA of osteoblastic genes, osterix (70%), Runx2 (52%), alkaline phosphatase (72%), Col1 (74%), and osteocalcin (81%). Adiponectin treatment of differentiating osteoblasts increased expression of the osteoblast genes PPARγ (32%) and C/ebpα (55%) and increased adipocyte colony formation. These data suggest a model in which locally produced adiponectin plays a negative role in regulating skeletal homeostasis through inhibition of bone formation and by promoting an adipogenic phenotype.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    In: Endocrinology, 2017, Vol. 158(9), pp.2741-2753
    Description: Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is an essential metabolic regulatory enzyme that plays an important role in mitochondrial metabolism, but its role in bone marrow and skeletal homeostasis remains largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesize that increased expression of Sirt3 plays a role in skeletal aging. Using mice that overexpress Sirt3 [ i.e. , Sirt3 transgenic (Sirt3Tg)], we show that Sirt3 is a positive regulator of adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis and a negative regulator of skeletal homeostasis. Sirt3Tg mice exhibited more adipocytes in the tibia compared with control mice. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from Sirt3Tg mice displayed an enhanced ability to differentiate into adipocytes compared with control BMSCs. We found a 2.5-fold increase in the number of osteoclasts on the bone surface in Sirt3Tg mice compared with control mice ( P 〈 0.03), and increased osteoclastogenesis in vitro . Importantly, Sirt3 activates the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to regulate osteoclastogenesis. Sirt3Tg male mice exhibited a significant reduction in cortical thickness at the tibiofibular junction ( P 〈 0.05). In summary, Sirt3 activity in bone marrow cells is associated with increased adipogenesis, increased osteoclastogenesis through activation of mTOR signaling, and reduced bone mass. Interestingly, Sirt3 expression in bone marrow cells increases during aging, suggesting that Sirt3 promotes age-related adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis associated with bone loss. These findings identify Sirt3 as an important regulator of adipogenesis and skeletal homeostasis in vivo and identify Sirt3 as a potential target for the treatment of osteoporosis. Sirtuin-3 activity in bone marrow cells is associated with increased adipogenesis, increased osteoclastogenesis through activation of mTOR signaling, and reduced bone mass.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0013-7227
    E-ISSN: 1945-7170
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Orthopaedic Research, August 2015, Vol.33(8), pp.1212-1217
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jor.22876/abstract Byline: Liping Wang, Dylan O' Carroll, Xuhui Liu, Theresa Roth, Hubert Kim, Bernard Halloran, Robert A. Nissenson ABSTRACT Available evidence indicates that some Tie2-expressing (Tie2.sub.+) cells serve as multipotent progenitors that have robust BMP-dependent osteogenic activity and mediate heterotopic ossification (HO). Since signaling through the G protein G.sub.i is required for cell motility, we hypothesized that blockade of endogenous G.sub.i signaling in Tie2.sub.+ cell populations would prevent HO formation. Blockade of G.sub.i signaling in Tie2.sub.+ cells was accomplished in transgenic mice with expression of pertussis toxin (PTX) under the control of the Tie2 promoter (Tie2.sub.+/PTX.sub.+). Bone formation within HOs was evaluated 2 weeks after BMP injection. Expression of PTX in Tie2.sub.+ cells significantly reduced the bone volume (BV) of HOs in male and female mice. Orthotopic bones were assessed at the distal femur and expression of PTX significantly increased trabecular bone fractional volume and bone formation rate in females only. In adult Tie2.sub.+/GFP.sub.+ mice, GFP.sub.+ cells appeared both inside and at the surfaces of bone tissue within HOs and in orthotopic bones. In summary, blockade of G.sub.i signaling in Tie2.sub.+ cells reduced the accrual of HOs and stimulated osteogenesis in orthotopic bones. Targeting of G.sub.i protein coupled receptors in Tie2.sub.+ cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy in states of abnormal bone formation such as osteoporosis and HO. [c] 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1212-1217, 2015. Article Note: Conflict of interest: None Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article Additional supporting information may be found in the online version of this article. CAPTION(S): Fig S1: The GFP labeled Tie2 cells in distal femur and HO lesion.
    Keywords: Tie2 + Cells ; Heterotopic Bone ; Bmp ; G Protein‐Coupled Receptors Gpcrs
    ISSN: 0736-0266
    E-ISSN: 1554-527X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Bone, May 2017, Vol.98, pp.18-25
    Description: FGF9 has complex and important roles in skeletal development and repair. We have previously observed that Fgf9 expression in osteoblasts (OBs) is regulated by G protein signaling and therefore the present study was done to determine whether OB-derived FGF9 was important in skeletal homeostasis. To directly test this idea, we deleted functional expression of Fgf9 gene in OBs using a 2.3 kb collagen type I promoter-driven Cre transgenic mouse line (Fgf9 ). Both Fgf9 knockout (Fgf9 ) and the Fgf9 floxed littermates (Fgf9 ) mice were fully backcrossed and maintained in an FBV/N background. Three month old Fgf9 mice displayed a significant decrease in cancellous bone and bone formation in the distal femur and a significant decrease in cortical thickness at the TFJ. Strikingly, female Fgf9 mice did not display altered bone mass. Continuous treatment of mouse BMSCs with exogenous FGF9 inhibited mouse BMSC mineralization while acute treatment increased the proliferation of progenitors, an effect requiring the activation of Akt1. Our results suggest that mature OBs are an important source of FGF9, positively regulating skeletal homeostasis in male mice. Osteoblast-derived FGF9 may serve a paracrine role to maintain the osteogenic progenitor cell population through activation of Akt signaling.
    Keywords: Bone Formation ; Fgf9 ; Osteoblasts ; Akt ; Stem Cells ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 8756-3282
    E-ISSN: 1873-2763
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Endocrinology, 01 September 2019, Vol.160(9), pp.2024-2037
    Description: Progranulin (PGRN) is best known as a glial protein for which deficiency leads to the most common inherited form of frontotemporal dementia. Recently, PGRN has been found to be an adipokine associated with diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, PGRN may have homeostatic effects on bone because PGRN is reported to promote the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. We investigated the actions of PGRN on bone using PGRN gene (Grn) knockout (KO) mice and transgenic mice with PGRN mutation and surprisingly found that loss of PGRN prevented the bone loss in female mice induced by aging and estrogen deficiency, whereas it had no effect on male bones during aging. Strikingly, bone formation was increased in female (but not male) PGRN KO mice. We also found that loss of PGRN inhibited bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis in both male and female mice and promoted the production of osteogenic factors in osteoclast lineage cells. These results indicate that PGRN serves to uncouple bone turnover in female mice by promoting bone resorption and suppressing bone formation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that microglial cells/macrophages, but not adipocytes, are an important source of PGRN in producing negative skeletal effects in females. Targeting PGRN production by microglial cells/macrophage-lineage cells may provide a therapeutic approach for the treatment of osteoporosis in females.
    Keywords: Abridged;
    ISSN: 00137227
    E-ISSN: 1945-7170
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 01 July 2019, Vol.517, pp.1-13
    Description: Volcanic island flank collapses have the potential to trigger devastating tsunamis threatening coastal communities and infrastructure. The 1888 sector collapse of Ritter Island, Papua New Guinea (in the following called Ritter) is the most voluminous volcanic island flank collapse in historic times. The associated tsunami had run-up heights of more than 20 m on the neighboring islands and reached settlements 600 km away from its source. This event provides an opportunity to advance our understanding of volcanic landslide-tsunami hazards. Here, we present a detailed reconstruction of the 1888 Ritter sector collapse based on high-resolution 2D and 3D seismic and bathymetric data covering the failed volcanic edifice and the associated mass-movement deposits. The 3D seismic data reveal that the catastrophic collapse of Ritter occurred in two phases: (1) Ritter was first affected by deep-seated, gradual spreading over a long time period, which is manifest in pronounced compressional deformation within the volcanic edifice and the adjacent seafloor sediments. A scoria cone at the foot of Ritter acted as a buttress, influencing the displacement and deformation of the western flank of the volcano and causing shearing within the volcanic edifice. (2) During the final, catastrophic phase of the collapse, about 2.4 km of Ritter disintegrated almost entirely and traveled as a highly energetic mass flow, which incised the underlying sediment. The irregular topography west of Ritter is a product of both compressional deformation and erosion. A crater-like depression underlying the recent volcanic cone and eyewitness accounts suggest that an explosion may have accompanied the catastrophic collapse. Our findings demonstrate that volcanic sector collapses may transform from slow gravitational deformation to catastrophic collapse. Understanding the processes involved in such a transformation is crucial for assessing the hazard potential of other volcanoes with slowly deforming flanks such as Mt. Etna or Kilauea.
    Keywords: Volcanic Sector Collapse ; Ritter Island ; Landslide ; Tsunami ; 3d Seismic Interpretation ; Geology ; Physics
    ISSN: 0012-821X
    E-ISSN: 1385-013X
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  • 8
    In: The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 2008, Vol. 63(1), pp.67-75
    Description: Background.  The relationship between body mass index (BMI), weight loss, and changes in activities of daily living (ADL) function and mobility in older adults is not clear. We sought to study the relationship between BMI and weight loss on the rate of decline in ADL function and life-space mobility over a 4-year period among older African Americans and whites. Methods.  The participants were 983 enrollees in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging, a longitudinal study of mobility among community-dwelling older adults stratified to achieve a balanced sample in terms of sex, race, and residence. Primary outcome measures were changes in ADL function and mobility assessed by the UAB Study of Aging Life-Space Assessment (LSA) which were measured every 6 months. Results.  Relative to normal weight participants, those with BMI levels in the obese range did not show more rapid ADL functional decline, but a history of unintentional weight loss predicted more rapid decline. Relative to normal-weight participants, other BMI categories were not associated with more rapid decline in LSA scores. However, unintentional weight loss predicted more rapid declines in LSA. Intentional weight loss had no relation to ADL function or LSA decline. Conclusions.  In this population of community-dwelling older African Americans and whites, neither BMI nor intentional weight loss had an association with rate of functional decline. Unintentional weight loss had a negative relation with rate of functional decline, regardless of baseline BMI. Whether this is causal remains to be determined.
    Keywords: Weight Loss ; Body Composition ; Function ; Mobility
    ISSN: 1079-5006
    E-ISSN: 1758-535X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Physical Therapy, August, 2009, Vol.89(8), p.829(11)
    Description: Background. Locomotor training (LT) to improve walking ability in people poststroke can be accomplished with therapist assistance as needed to promote continuous stepping. Various robotic devices also have been developed that can guide the lower limbs through a kinematically consistent gait pattern. It is unclear whether LT with either therapist or robotic assistance could improve kinematic coordination patterns during walking. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LT with physical assistance as needed was superior to guided, symmetrical, robotic-assisted LT for improving kinematic coordination during walking poststroke. Design. This study was a randomized clinical trial. Methods. Nineteen people with chronic stroke (〉6 months' duration) participating in a larger randomized control trial comparing therapist- versus robotic-assisted LT were recruited. Prior to and following 4 weeks of LT, gait analysis was performed at each participant's self-selected speed during overground walking. Kinematic coordination was defined as the consistency of intralimb hip and knee angular trajectories over repeated gait cycles and was compared before and after treatment for each group. Results. Locomotor training with therapist assistance resulted in significant improvements in the consistency of intralimb movements of the impaired limb. Providing consistent kinematic assistance during robotic-assisted LT did not result in improvements in intralimb consistency. Only minimal changes in discrete kinematics were observed in either group. Limitations. The limitations included a relatively small sample size and a lack of quantification regarding the extent of movement consistency during training sessions for both groups. Conclusions. Coordination of intralimb kinematics appears to improve in response to LT with therapist assistance as needed. Fixed assistance, as provided by this form of robotic guidance during LT, however, did not alter intralimb coordination.
    Keywords: Robotics -- Usage ; Stroke -- Care And Treatment ; Stroke -- Patient Outcomes ; Walking -- Physiological Aspects ; Walking -- Research
    ISSN: 0031-9023
    E-ISSN: 15386724
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  • 10
    In: The Value Line Investment Survey (Part 3 - Ratings & Reports), August 12, 1994, Vol.49(48), p.1338(8)
    Description: The machine tool industry is poised to experience slow growth through 1995. Order bookings, which increased 20% during the Jan-Jun 1994 period, seem strongest from the automotive sector and weakest from the defense and aerospace sector. European and Asian machine tool markets are experiencing weakness, which should impact the US market by driving product prices lower. Investments over the long term appear to be the most favorable.
    Keywords: Tool Industry -- Economic Aspects ; Machine Tools ; Acme-cleveland Corp. ; Cincinnati Milacron Inc. ; Giddings & Lewis Inc. ; Gleason Corp. (Rochester, New York) ; Monarch Machine Tool Co. ; Snap-on Inc. ; Stanley Works
    ISSN: 0042-2401
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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