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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Gender & History, Nov, 2009, Vol.21(3), p.541(19)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0424.2009.01565.x Byline: Nicole Rudolph (1) Abstract: This article draws upon archival sources, architectural trade publications and contemporary social science to trace the design and reception of the 'cell', a functionalist, rational apartment that was the building block of apartment complexes that sprung up all over France during the 1950s and 1960s. I argue that French Modernist architects, shaped by both professional and socio-political concerns, believed their streamlined interiors to be key to building a classless society and restoring French greatness and thus rejected the dwelling preference and expertise of French homemakers when designing their homes. Nevertheless, Frenchwomen tried to ignore architectural dictates when it came to homemaking, and ultimately, in a changed political climate, their preferences convinced the national housing ministry to redefine its norms and standards for apartments. Author Affiliation: (1)Adelphi University, New York
    Keywords: Working Women -- Social Aspects ; Architectural Services -- Social Aspects
    ISSN: 0953-5233
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.369(1), pp.669-680
    Description: Aims: The rhizosphere is a dynamic system strongly influenced by root activity. Roots modify the pH of their surrounding soil causing the soil pH to vary as a function of distance from root surface, location along root axes, and root maturity. Non-invasive imaging techniques provide the possibility to capture pH patterns around the roots as they develop. Methods: We developed a novel fluorescence imaging set up and applied to the root system of two lupin (Lupinus albus L., Lupinus angustifolius L.) and one soft-rush (Juncus effusus L.) species. We grew plants in glass containers filled with soil and equipped with fluorescence sensor foils on the container side walls. We gained highly-resolved data on the spatial distribution of H super(+) around the roots by taking time-lapse images of the samples over the course of several days. Results: We showed how the soil pH in the vicinity of roots developed over time to different values from that of the original bulk soil. The soil pH in the immediate vicinity of the root surface varied greatly along the root length, with the most acidic point being at 0.56-3.36 mm behind the root tip. Indications were also found for temporal soil pH changes due to root maturity. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study shows that this novel optical fluorescence imaging set up is a powerful tool for studying pH developments around roots in situ.
    Keywords: Acidification ; Alkalization ; Exudates ; Fluorescence imaging ; Optical sensors ; pH mapping ; Rhizosphere
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The French Review, 1 February 2012, Vol.85(3), pp.508-518
    Description: The author proposes the use of architecture as another means—in addition to cultural products like songs and poems—of organically integrating the teaching of culture into the study of language and literature. The author suggests that using the tool of the virtual tour, available on many Web sites, helps instructors to bring France closer to students by providing more visual referents in three dimensions. With three sample lesson plans, the article demonstrates the integration of architecture into beginning and intermediate language courses, as well as into an upper-level literature course.
    Keywords: Arts -- Applied arts -- Architecture ; Political science -- Political philosophy -- Political ideologies ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Applied psychology ; Linguistics -- Applied linguistics -- Psycholinguistics ; Linguistics -- Language -- Nonnative languages ; Linguistics -- Applied arts -- Architecture ; Arts -- Specialized education -- Professional education ; Education -- Literature -- Literary studies ; Arts -- Literature -- Literary studies ; Arts -- Literature -- Literary studies
    ISSN: 0016111X
    E-ISSN: 23297131
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Affective Disorders, 2010, Vol.124(3), pp.335-340
    Description: Skin flushing after niacin (methylnicotinate, vitamin B ) stimulation is a biological marker of availability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Decreased PUFA levels have been reported in depressive disorder, while add-on supplementation of omega-3 PUFA has been suggested to improve depressive symptoms. This study aimed to clarify whether a disturbance of niacin skin flushing occurs also in depression, and to identify patient characteristics for those who might benefit from PUFA supplementation. We studied 30 patients with recurrent unipolar depressive disorder during a major depressive episode (treated with antidepressants), and 30 healthy volunteers matched for age and gender. Aqueous methylnicotinate was applied in three dilution steps (0.001 M, 0.01 M, and 0.1 M) onto the inner forearm skin. Skin flushing was assessed in three-minute intervals over 15 min using optical reflection spectroscopy. While there was no overall difference in skin flushing between patients and controls, niacin sensitivity was inversely correlated with severity of symptoms, and flush deficits were significantly associated with depressed mood, feelings of anxiety and somatic symptoms (loss of appetite and weight loss). Results are suggestive of a subgroup of depressive patients characterised by a specific symptom cluster and disturbed niacin skin flushing.
    Keywords: Major Depression ; Unipolar Depressive Disorder ; Niacin Skin Test ; Prostaglandin Signalling ; Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids ; Hpa Axis
    ISSN: 0165-0327
    E-ISSN: 1573-2517
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: French Politics, Culture and Society, 2014, Vol.32(3), p.45(13)
    Description: This article reviews the New York Museum of Modern Art's recent Le Corbusier retrospective and its accompanying catalogue. The author critically evaluates the curators' reassessment of Le Corbusier's legacy via the lens of landscape. A key insight gleaned from the show pertains to technologies of mobility: inspired by the views from the automobile, the steamer, and the airplane, Le Corbusier deployed modern materials and techniques of mass construction in order to maximize an inhabitant's contemplation of the natural world. What we learn from Le Corbusier: An Atlas of Modern Landscapes, the author argues, is that the architect valorized and designed to prioritize '3 Cs': circulation, composition, and contemplation. The notion of contemplation may be more useful to understanding Le Corbusier's architecture than the concept of landscape. Adapted from the source document.
    Keywords: Architecture – Exhibitions
    ISSN: 1537-6370
    E-ISSN: 15585271
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Interiors, 01 July 2014, Vol.5(2), pp.239-257
    Description: Because it is difficult to ascertain the representivity or reception of design advice, historians have been reluctant to use it as a primary source. This article expands our notion of advice to include the model home. Using the model homes displayed in France during the 1950s-60s as a case...
    Keywords: Model Home ; Show Home ; Interior Design ; Postwar France ; Mass Home ; Visual Arts
    ISSN: 2041-9112
    E-ISSN: 2041-9120
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2012, Vol.12(1), pp.63-74
    Description: Byline: Nicole Rudolph (1), Hanna G. Esser (1), Andrea Carminati (2), Ahmad B. Moradi (3), Andre Hilger (4), Nikolay Kardjilov (4), Stefan Nagl (5), Sascha E. Oswald (1) Keywords: Fluorescence imaging; Neutron radiography; Oxygen mapping; Rhizosphere; Root respiration; Water distribution Abstract: Purpose The rooted zone of a soil, more precisely the rhizosphere, is a very dynamic system. Some of the key processes are water uptake and root respiration. We have developed a novel method for measuring the real-time distribution of water and oxygen concentration in the rhizosphere as a biogeochemical interface in soil. This enables understanding where and when roots are active in respect to root respiration and water uptake and how the soil responds to it. Materials and methods We used glass containers (15x15x1 cm), which were filled with a quartz sand mixture. Sensor foils for fluorescence dye imaging of O.sub.2 were installed on the inner side of the containers. A lupine plant was grown in each container for 2 weeks under controlled conditions. Then we took time series of fluorescence images for time-lapsed visualization of oxygen depletion caused by root respiration. Changing water content was mapped in parallel by non-invasive neutron radiography, which yields water content distributions in high spatial resolution. Also it can detect the root system of the lupine plants. By this combined imaging of the samples, a range of water contents and different oxygen concentration levels, both induced by root activities, could be assessed. Results and discussion We monitored the dynamics of these vital parameters induced by roots during a period of several hours. We observed that for high water saturation, the oxygen concentration decreased in parts of the container. The accompanying neutron radiographies gave us the information that these locations are spatially correlated to roots. Therefore, it can be concluded that the observed oxygen deficits close to the roots result from root respiration and show up while re-aeration from atmosphere by gas phase transport is restricted by the high water saturation. Conclusions Our coupled imaging setup was able to monitor the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of oxygen and water content in a night and day cycle. This reflects complex plant activities such as photosynthesis, transpiration, and metabolic activities impacting the root--soil interface. Our experimental setup provides the possibility to non-invasively visualize these parameters with high resolution. The particular oxygen imaging method as well as the combination with simultaneously mapping the water content by neutron radiography is a novelty. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476, Potsdam, Germany (2) Department Hydrogeology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research--UFZ, Permoser Str. 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany (3) Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA (4) Helmholtz Centre Berlin--HZB, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109, Berlin, Germany (5) Institute of Analytical Chemistry, University of Leipzig, Johannisallee 29, 04103, Leipzig, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 21/07/2011 Received Date: 05/05/2011 Accepted Date: 21/07/2011 Online Date: 13/09/2011 Article note: Responsible editor: Michael Kersten
    Keywords: Fluorescence imaging ; Neutron radiography ; Oxygen mapping ; Rhizosphere ; Root respiration ; Water distribution
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Description: After World War II, France embarked on a project of modernization, which included the development of the modern mass home. At Home in Postwar France examines key groups of actors - state officials, architects, sociologists and tastemakers - arguing that modernizers looked to the home as a site for social...
    Keywords: Public Housing -- France -- History -- 20th Century ; Dwellings -- France -- History -- 20th Century ; Society
    ISBN: 9781782385875
    E-ISSN: 97817823
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  • 9
    Book
    Book
    NEW YORK; OXFORD: Berghahn Books
    Language: English
    Description: After World War II, France embarked on a project of modernization, which included the development of the modern mass home.examines key groups of actors - state officials, architects, sociologists and tastemakers - arguing that modernizers looked to the home as a site for social engineering and nation-building; designers and advocates of the modern home contributed to the democratization of French society; and the French home of the, as it was built and inhabited, was a hybrid product of architects', planners', and residents' understandings of modernity. This volume identifies the "right to comfort" as an invention of the postwar period and suggests that the modern mass home played a vital role in shaping new expectations for well-being and happiness.
    Keywords: Housing – France – History – 20th century ; Housing policy – France – History – 20th century ; Architecture, Domestic – France – History – 20th century ; Dwellings – France – History – 20th century ; France – Social conditions – 1945–1995 ; France – Civilization – 1945– ; Architecture and Architectural History History
    ISBN: 9781782385875
    Source: JSTOR Books
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, June 2017, Vol.180(3), pp.336-346
    Description: Rhizosphere processes are highly dynamic in time and space and strongly depend on each other. Key factors influencing pH changes in the rhizosphere are root exudation, respiration, and nutrient supply, which are influenced by soil water content levels. In this study, we measured the real‐time distribution of soil water, pH changes, and oxygen distribution in the rhizosphere of young maize plants using a recently developed imaging approach. Neutron radiography was used to capture the root system and soil water distribution, while fluorescence imaging was employed to map soil pH and soil oxygen changes. Germinated seeds of maize ( L.) were planted in glass rhizotrons equipped with pH and oxygen‐sensitive sensor foils. After 20 d, the rhizotrons were wetted from the bottom and time‐lapsed images fluorescence and neutron imaging were taken during the subsequent day and night cycles for 5 d. We found higher water content and stronger acidification in the first 0.5 mm from the root surface compared to the bulk soil, which could be a consequence of root exudation. While lateral roots only slightly acidified their rhizosphere, crown roots induced stronger acidification of up to 1 pH unit. We observed changing oxygen patterns at different soil moisture conditions and increasing towards lateral as well as crown roots while extending laterally with ongoing water logging. Our work indicates that plants alter the rhizosphere pH and oxygen also depending on root type, which may indirectly arise also from differences in age and water content changes. The results presented here were possible only by combining different imaging techniques to examine profiles at the root‐soil interface in a comprehensive way during wetting and drying.
    Keywords: Crown Roots ; Imaging ; Optical Sensors ; Root Exudation ; Root Respiration
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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