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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 01 August 2013, Vol.59(8), pp.1159-1176
    Description: The Box Plot Experiment in Grossbeeren was set up in 1972 to investigate the efficiency of diverse fertilization strategies within an irrigated vegetable crop rotation system for three different soils. Here, we report on the long-term effects on nitrogen, carbon and energy balances of applying...
    Keywords: Long-Term Experiment ; Nitrogen Fertilizer ; Organic Amendment ; Vegetable Crops ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0365-0340
    E-ISSN: 1476-3567
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 July 2018, Vol.321, pp.15-21
    Description: In 1978, after 〉70 years of continuous management of the long-term fertilization experiment in Bad Lauchstädt, a general change of soil management was implemented for several treatments. Experimental plots which had previously received a high input of organic matter (OM) now received only low OM input and vice versa. The resulting changes of SOC concentrations on different treatments vary from −0.1 to +0.1 g kg  yr . These trends were analyzed in order to explain the observed variations with the mean carbon input together with the quality of the different sources to build up new SOC. The results showed that this quality related carbon flux from fresh organic matter (FOM) into SOC, here defined as “carbon reproduction flux” (C ), is a useful indicator to explain changes in SOC trends. Moreover, it can be used to predict the amount of FOM carbon input that is needed to achieve a given sequestration rate. The results revealed that carbon sequestration requires less effort on plots that had already higher carbon input rates in the past because the SOC storage, still far from the equilibrium state, had already a positive trend. Therefore, it is important to consider not only SOC stock but also the direction of the current trend when selecting measures that increase SOC to achieve the goal of the “4‰ Initiative: soils for food security and climate” which was launched during the COP21 conference.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon ; Soil Carbon Reproduction ; Soc Trend Prediction ; Indicator ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America journal, 2012, Vol.76(4), pp.1290-1300
    Description: Long-term use of organic soil amendments, compared with unamended or mineral fertilized soils, can change soil organic matter content, microbial biomass content, the microbial community structure, and the activity of enzymes involved in organic matter decomposition. It is not clear, however, whether long-term use of organic amendments, by means of these changes, leads to modified decomposition rates of newly added organic amendments. Therefore, this study was used to test the hypothesis that amendment history has an influence only on the decomposition of recalcitrant organic amendments and not on less recalcitrant organic amendments. Soils used for experimentation were taken from a field experiment where contrasting organic amendment regimes of farmyard manure, pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) bark, vegetable crop residues, and an unamended control had been applied for 35 yr. In a full factorial, laboratory-based incubation experiment, each soil was treated with each of these amendments and net C and N mineralization and microbial biomass C contents were monitored during a 147-d period. Collected data were then used to estimate gross turnover rates of newly added amendments with a modeling approach based on the soil organic matter module of the Daisy model. The modeling results suggested that the turnover of farmyard manure and pine bark, not however of crop residues, should be simulated in consideration of an amendment history effect. In contrast, the results of the ANOVA indicated that amendment history had an insignificant effect on net C and N mineralization from recently applied amendment. We concluded that the effects of amendment history on gross turnover rates of recently added organic amendments may depend on the type of amendment but that these effects on net C and N mineralization are minor in magnitude and hence irrelevant to N fertilization practice. ; p. 1290-1300.
    Keywords: Crop Residues ; Organic Soils ; Nitrogen Fertilizers ; Soil Organic Matter ; Organic Matter ; Field Experimentation ; Microbial Biomass ; Enzymes ; Vegetable Crops ; Models ; Soil Amendments ; Microbial Communities ; Pinus Sylvestris ; Bark ; Mineralization ; Analysis Of Variance ; Community Structure ; Animal Manures
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America journal, 2009, Vol.73(3), pp.876-885
    Description: Soil bulk density (rho b) is required to estimate, evaluate, and calculate many physical soil properties and processes and is essential to convert data from weight-based to volume- and area-related data. One of the dominating factors changing b is the soil's organic matter (SOM) concentration that alters the soil's compressibility; rho b is an important soil structure attribute. Currently, no parameter for characterizing soil compactness giving directly comparable values for all soils is available. Therefore, our aim was to develop a general approach to calculate the effect of SOM concentration on rho b that would be universally valid for soils different in their genesis, compaction, and type of land use. To describe the effect of SOM on rho b mathematically, we used a nonlinear regression model that was parameterized and validated using published data from experiments where SOM concentration was the main rho b-affecting factor (long-term fertilization and proctor experiments, wetlands, reclaimed soils, and volcanic soils). To obtain a standardized parameter describing the present compaction status of a site, we introduced the standardized bulk density s rho b. Mathematically, s rho b is the intercept parameter of the used nonlinear regression model, and ranged between 0.7 and 2.1 Mg m-3 and was very simple to estimate. Another distinct advantage of this novel concept is that only one representative pair of rho b and SOM has to be known to calculate s rho b as well as the bulk densities corresponding to other SOM concentrations measured on the site. This concept might also be helpful for identifying similar universal approaches to standardize the effect of other rho b affecting parameters (e.g., texture, soil depth, tillage regime), however, reassessed from the SOM effect. ; Includes references ; p. 876-885.
    Keywords: Soil Texture ; Bulk Density ; Soil Compaction ; Nonlinear Models ; Soil Organic Matter ; Equations ; Soil Density ; Regression Analysis
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Soil Biology, 2010, Vol.46(6), pp.365-370
    Description: Mineral and organic fertilizers are the important factors for maintenance and improvement of soil fertility and aggregation. Despite aggregation and aggregate stability are proxy of soil fertility, the connection between fertilization and aggregation is not direct, as short and long-term processes may affect the aggregate formation in different directions. In this study, the long-term effects of a 20-year application of mineral and organic fertilizers were studied in an intensive horticultural crop rotation with the following treatments: i) without fertilization (control soil), ii) nitrogen applied by mineral fertilizer, and iii) farmyard manure application with low (30 t ha  y ) or iv) high (60 t ha  y ) rates. In case of short-term aggregation process, K-polyacrylate was added to the soil to change aggregate composition and then the aggregated soils were incubated for 2 weeks. Long-term fertilization increased the soil organic C (SOC) content by 42–73% and the portion of small macroaggregates (1–0.25 mm) compared to control soil. In contrast, soil aggregation induced by K-polyacrylate showed an increase of the large macroaggregate (2–1 mm) portion independent of fertilization. Polyacrylate had no effect on soil microbial biomass C. According to the increased SOC content, the fertilization increased CO efflux from soil (4.2–5.2% of SOC after 80 days of incubation). Short-term aggregation by K-polyacrylate decreased the SOC mineralization rate mainly of the labile C-pools. In conclusion the data of this study suggest that long-term fertilization mainly contributes to the formation of small macroaggregates. In contrast, the formation of large macroaggregates is mediated mainly by short-term processes and contributes to the decrease of SOC mineralization. ► Concerns have been expressed on aggregation and soil organic C content in sandy soil of inherently low organic C. It is known that soil aggregation is promoted by long-term organic matter addition and fungal hyphae. In spite of having such potential, hardly any assessment so far has been made to this end of effects on aggregation and consequence. An attempt has been made and presented in the present MS. To assess long-term fertilizer and short-term K-polyacrylate induced aggregation in relation to soil organic C distribution in different aggregate size fractions. Information generated may be useful for better understanding of distribution of organic C stock in different aggregate fractions of soil and organic C decomposition in relation to soil aggregation processes in sandy soil.
    Keywords: Fertilization ; Aggregate Fractions ; Soil Organic C ; Decomposition ; CO 2 Efflux ; Biology ; Zoology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 1164-5563
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2012, Vol.12(1), pp.75-85
    Description: Byline: Gawan Jacob Hilma Muehl (1), Joerg Ruehlmann (1), Marc-Oliver Goebel (2), Joerg Bachmann (2) Keywords: Film; Fluorescence; Porous media; Segmentation; Visualization; Wettability Abstract: Purpose Wettability affects water configuration and thereby transport processes and microbial activity in soil. Approaches to visualize the effect of porous media wettability on water films surrounding particles are rarely available in the literature. The aim of this study is therefore (1) to visualize the effect of wettability on area and connectivity of the water phase and (2) to develop a segmentation strategy to enable water films and bulk water to be differentiated. Materials and methods Wettability of silica sand was rendered by silanization using dichlorodimethylsilane. The resulting contact angle was measured using the sessile drop method. Furthermore, wettability was characterized by the water penetration time test in air-dry samples and at a volumetric water content of 8 vol.%. Sulforhodamine B was used to stain distilled water at a concentration of 40 mg/l. By means of the Wilhelmy plate method, the influence of the dye on the liquid surface tension was tested. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to visualize the area and connectivity of the fluorescent-dyed water phase and the thickness of water films in untreated and silanized samples at water contents of 8, 16, and 32 vol.%. Results and discussion The silanization significantly increased the contact angle of silica sand, whereas the surface tension of the dye solution did not differ significantly from that of undyed water. CLSM visualized the distribution of water, focused across the surface grain layer. Thresholding of fluorescence signal in two-dimensional intensity projections enables the discrimination between film and bulk water. It was shown that even subcritical water repellency (contact angle 〈90) leads to a decrease in area and connectivity of the water phase by affecting film instead of bulk water. CLSM detects decreasing effects of wettability with increasing water content, which were no longer significant at a water content of 32 vol.%. CLSM was found to be more sensitive for detecting the effects of wettability than the water drop penetration time test. Conclusions CLSM provides new insight into wettability-dependent water configuration. One advantage over conventional microscopy arises from the capability to visualize water focused over the pore space. Compared to other three-dimensional imaging techniques, the advantage of CLSM is its simplicity. If only the optically accessible upper layer of the porous media is of interest, sample preparation, measurements, and image analysis can easily be carried out with a cost- and time-saving setup. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Grossbeeren/Erfurt, Theodor-Echtermeyer-Weg 1, 14979, Grossbeeren, Germany (2) Institute of Soil Science, Leibniz University of Hannover, Herrenhauser Str. 2, 30419, Hannover, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 29/06/2011 Received Date: 02/03/2011 Accepted Date: 27/06/2011 Online Date: 04/08/2011 Article note: An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11368-011-0422-8
    Keywords: Film ; Fluorescence ; Porous media ; Segmentation ; Visualization ; Wettability
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2012, Vol.12(1), pp.116-116
    Description: Byline: Gawan Jacob Hilma Muehl (1), Joerg Ruehlmann (1), Marc-Oliver Goebel (2), Joerg Bachmann (2) Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Grossbeeren/Erfurt, Theodor-Echtermeyer-Weg 1, 14979, Grossbeeren, Germany (2) Institute of Soil Science, Leibniz University of Hannover, Herrenhauser Str. 2, 30419, Hannover, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 22/08/2011 Online Date: 06/09/2011 Article note: The online version of the original article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11368-011-0395-7.
    Keywords: Environment ; Environmental Physics ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Environment, General ; Agriculture;
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science, 01 July 2011, Vol.61(5), pp.438-447
    Description: Swedish long-term soil fertility experiments were used to investigate the effect of texture and fertilization regime on soil electrical conductivity. In one geophysical approach, fields were mapped to characterize the horizontal variability in apparent electrical conductivity down to 1.5 m...
    Keywords: Conductivity Depth Model ; Conductivity Map ; Electrical Resistivity ; Soil Heterogeneity ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0906-4710
    E-ISSN: 1651-1913
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Precision Agriculture, 2018, Vol.19(4), pp.750-769
    Description: Crop yield variations are strongly influenced by the spatial and temporal availabilities of water and nitrogen in the soil during the crop growth season. To estimate the quantities and distributions of water and nitrogen within a given soil, process-oriented soil models have often been used. These models require detailed information about the soil characteristics and profile architecture (e.g., soil depth, clay content, bulk density, field capacity and wilting point), but high resolution information about these soil properties, both vertically and laterally, is difficult to obtain through conventional approaches. However, on-the-go electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements of the soil and data inversion tools have recently improved the lateral resolutions of the vertically distributed measurable information. Using these techniques, nearly 19,000 virtual soil profiles with defined layer depths were successfully created for a 30 ha silty cropped soil over loamy and sandy substrates in Central Germany, which were used to initialise the CArbon and Nitrogen DYnamics (CANDY) model. The soil clay content was derived from the electrical resistivity (ER) and the collected soil samples using a simple linear regression approach (the mean R 2 of clay = 0.39). The additional required structural and hydrological properties were derived from pedotransfer functions. The modelling results, derived soil texture distributions and original ER data were compared with the spatial winter wheat yield distribution in a relatively dry year using regression and boundary line analysis. The yield variation was best explained by the simulated soil water content (R 2  = 0.18) during the grain filling and was additionally validated by the measured soil water content with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 7.5 Vol%.
    Keywords: Soil process modelling ; Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) ; Soil water variability ; Boundary line analysis
    ISSN: 1385-2256
    E-ISSN: 1573-1618
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Archaeological Science, 2010, Vol.37(9), pp.2198-2206
    Description: Two types of electrical conductivity sensors were evaluated to prospect circular ditches surrounding former Bronze Age burial mounds, complementing aerial photography. The first sensor was based on the electrical resistivity (ER) method, while the second sensor was based on frequency-domain electromagnetic induction (FDEM). Both sensors were designed with multiple receivers, which measure several depth sensitivities simultaneously. First, the sensors were tested on an experimental site where a rectangular structure with limited dimensions was dug in a sandy soil. The structure appeared as a higher conductivity anomaly in the low-conductivity sand. Then, both methods were applied on two Bronze Age sites with different soil properties, which were discovered by aerial photography. The first site, in a sandy soil, gave only very weak anomalies. Soil augering revealed that the ditch filling consisted of the same sandy material as the surrounding, therefore this filling was not able to cause a high-conductivity contrast. Due to its lower sensitivity to noise in the low-conductive range, the ER-sensor produced a more pronounced anomaly than the FDEM-sensor. The second site was located on top of a ridge with a shallow substrate of Tertiary, coastal sediments. The ditch was very clearly visible on the sensor maps as a conductive low. At this location, the soil augering revealed that the ditch was dug through an alternating clay-sand layer and subsequently filled up with silty material from the topsoil. Overall, the shallow receiver separation produced anomalies that were both stronger and that corresponded better to the geometry of the ditches. The other receiver separations provided more information on the natural soil layering, and in the case of the ER-array they could be used to obtain a cross-section of the actual electrical conductivity with 2-D inversion modelling. The results of this study proofed that conductivity sensors can detect Bronze Age ditches, with varying contrast depending on the soil geomorphology. Moreover, the sensor maps combined with soil observations by coring provided insight in the environmental conditions that influence the contrast of the anomalies seen on the aerial photographs and the sensor maps.
    Keywords: Bronze Age Burial Mounds ; Electrical Conductivity ; Multi-Receiver Sensors ; Inversion Modelling ; Electromagnetic Induction ; Electrical Resistivity ; History & Archaeology
    ISSN: 0305-4403
    E-ISSN: 1095-9238
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