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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, April 1, 2013, Vol.169, p.21(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.02.006 Byline: Marianne Ruidisch (a), Svenja Bartsch (b), Janine Kettering (c), Bernd Huwe (a), Sven Frei (b) Keywords: Nitrate leaching; Numerical modeling; Fertilizer best management practices; Ridge tillage; Plastic mulch; Groundwater Abstract: a* Nitrate leaching rates are 26% lower in a plastic mulched ridge cultivation system compared to uncovered ridges. a* Fertilizer placement only in ridges decreases nitrate leaching rates up to 36%. a* Split application decreases nitrate leaching rates up to 59%. a* Combing plastic mulch, a better fertilizer placement and split applications reduces nitrate leaching up to 82%. a* We recommend to apply plastic mulch and fertilizer best management practices for sandy soils in a flat terrain under monsoon climate. Author Affiliation: (a) University of Bayreuth, Soil Physics Group, Universitatsstr. 30, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany (b) University of Bayreuth, Department of Hydrology, Universitatsstr. 30, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany (c) University of Bayreuth, Department of AgroEcoSystem Research, Universitatsstr. 30, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany Article History: Received 13 September 2012; Revised 13 February 2013; Accepted 15 February 2013
    Keywords: Leaching -- Analysis ; Leaching -- Models ; Soil Biology -- Analysis ; Soil Biology -- Models ; Agroecosystems -- Analysis ; Agroecosystems -- Models ; Sandy Soils -- Analysis ; Sandy Soils -- Models ; Hydrology -- Analysis ; Hydrology -- Models ; Fertilizer Industry -- Analysis ; Fertilizer Industry -- Models ; Agricultural Chemicals -- Analysis ; Agricultural Chemicals -- Models
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Agricultural Water Management, Jan 1, 2013, Vol.116, p.204(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2012.07.011 Byline: Marianne Ruidisch (a), Janine Kettering (b), Sebastian Arnhold (a), Bernd Huwe (a) Keywords: Polyethylene film; Ridge-furrow tillage; Extreme rain events; Hydrus 2/3D; Potato crop; Hillslopes Abstract: a* Plastic mulching induces horizontal water movement from furrows to ridges. a* Interflow occurs in coarse textured and ploughed topsoil during monsoon events. a* Plastic mulching reduces drainage water up to 16%. a* Plastic mulching increases surface runoff up to 70%. a* We recommend to apply perforated and biodegradable plastic mulch. Author Affiliation: (a) Soil Physics Group, University of Bayreuth, Universitatsstr. 30, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany (b) AgroEcoSystem Research Department, University of Bayreuth, Universitatsstr. 30, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany Article History: Received 5 February 2012; Accepted 26 July 2012
    Keywords: Agroecosystems -- Models ; Potatoes -- Models ; Polyethylene -- Models ; Hydraulic Flow -- Models ; Runoff -- Models ; Biodegradable Plastics -- Models
    ISSN: 0378-3774
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, Feb 13, 2014, Vol.509, p.601(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.12.005 Byline: Svenja Bartsch, Sven Frei, Marianne Ruidisch, Christopher L. Shope, Stefan Peiffer, Bomchul Kim, Jan H. Fleckenstein Abstract: acents Temporal variability of river-aquifer exchange fluxes is controlled by the monsoon. acents Monsoonal extreme precipitation events are dominant drivers for flow reversals. acents Frequent flow reversals affect the local water quality. Article History: Received 26 August 2013; Revised 3 December 2013; Accepted 5 December 2013 Article Note: (miscellaneous) This manuscript was handled by Peter K. Kitanidis, Editor-in-Chief, with the assistance of Philippe Negrel, Associate Editor
    Keywords: Aquifers ; Rain ; Climate
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 15 March 2014, Vol.186, pp.160-169
    Description: This study examined the synergies and tradeoffs between nitrate leaching and net farm income of radish ( ) cultivation in a highland area of South Korea. Synergies describe economic and environmental benefits that are derived by agricultural management practices, which increase net farm income and decrease nitrate leaching simultaneously. The effects of different nitrogen best management practices (NMBP) in reducing nitrate leaching and their economic consequences, in terms of net farm income, were investigated via field experiments, modeling simulations of nitrate leaching and economic analyses of costs and benefits. Our results showed that the use of plastic mulch, fertilizer placement only in ridges, split fertilization and combination of these NBMP reduced nitrate that percolates into the groundwater system. The plastic mulching and fertilizer placement only in ridges were also shown to be economically profitable, demonstrating synergies between net farm income and nitrate leaching. However, there are tradeoffs in the cases of split fertilization and combination of NBMP as they lower both leached nitrate and net farm income. Thus, there are opportunities for policy makers to motivate farmers to adopt split fertilization and combine NBMP. This can be done by compensating farmers for the losses of their net farm income.
    Keywords: Sustainable Agriculture ; Plastic Mulched Ridge Cultivation ; Radish ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 2013, Vol.169, pp.21-32
    Description: Groundwater pollution by fertilizer NO₃ ⁻ is a major problem recognized in many parts of the world. The excessive use of mineral fertilizers to assure high yields in agricultural production intensifies the leaching problem especially in regions affected by a monsoon climate as in South Korea. The extent that leaching occurs depends on several factors such as climatic conditions, agricultural management practices, soil properties and the sorption characteristics of fertilizers and agrochemicals. In the South Korean monsoon season 2010, NO₃ ⁻ concentrations under varying nitrogen fertilizer rates were monitored in a plastic mulched ridge cultivation (RTₚₘ) with radish crops (Raphanus sativus L.). Based on these findings we calibrated a three-dimensional water flow and solute transport model using the numerical code HydroGeoSphere in combination with the parameter estimation software ParallelPEST. Subsequently, we used the calibrated model to investigate the effect of plastic mulch as well as different fertilizer best management practices (FBMPs) on NO₃ ⁻ leaching. We found that cumulative NO₃ ⁻ leaching under RTₚₘ was 26% lower compared to ridge tillage without coverage (RT). Fertilizer placement confined to the ridges resulted in 36% lower cumulative NO₃ ⁻-leaching rates compared to broadcast applied fertilizer. Splitting the total amount of 150kgNO₃ ⁻ha⁻¹ per growing season into three fertilizer applications (1–4–2.5 ratio) led to a reduction of NO₃ ⁻ leaching of 59% compared to the one-top dressing at the beginning of the growing season. However, the combination of a fertilizer rate of 150kgNO₃ ⁻ha⁻¹, plastic mulched ridges, fertilizer placement only in the ridges and split applications of fertilizer resulted in the lowest cumulative NO₃ ⁻ leaching rate (8.14kgha⁻¹) during the simulation period, which is equivalent to 5.4% of the total NO₃ ⁻ fertilizer input. Compared to RT with conventional one-top dressing fertilization in ridges and furrows, the NO₃ ⁻ leaching was reduced by 82%. Consequently, the combination of all FBMPs is highly recommendable to decrease economical costs for fertilizer inputs as well as to minimize nitrate leaching and its impact on groundwater quality. ; p. 21-32.
    Keywords: Water Quality ; Input Costs ; Radishes ; Fertilizer Rates ; Monsoon Season ; Furrows ; Split Application ; Raphanus Sativus ; Nitrates ; Mathematical Models ; Mulching ; Growing Season ; Hydrologic Models ; Groundwater Contamination ; Mineral Fertilizers ; Condition Factor ; Agricultural Management ; Soil Properties ; Water Flow ; Leaching ; Plastic Film Mulches ; Climate ; Ridge Tillage
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 01 April 2013, Vol.169, pp.21-32
    Description: ► Nitrate leaching rates are 26% lower in a plastic mulched ridge cultivation system compared to uncovered ridges. ► Fertilizer placement only in ridges decreases nitrate leaching rates up to 36%. ► Split application decreases nitrate leaching rates up to 59%. ► Combing plastic mulch, a better fertilizer placement and split applications reduces nitrate leaching up to 82%. ► We recommend to apply plastic mulch and fertilizer best management practices for sandy soils in a flat terrain under monsoon climate. Groundwater pollution by fertilizer NO is a major problem recognized in many parts of the world. The excessive use of mineral fertilizers to assure high yields in agricultural production intensifies the leaching problem especially in regions affected by a monsoon climate as in South Korea. The extent that leaching occurs depends on several factors such as climatic conditions, agricultural management practices, soil properties and the sorption characteristics of fertilizers and agrochemicals. In the South Korean monsoon season 2010, NO concentrations under varying nitrogen fertilizer rates were monitored in a plastic mulched ridge cultivation (RT ) with radish crops ( L.). Based on these findings we calibrated a three-dimensional water flow and solute transport model using the numerical code HydroGeoSphere in combination with the parameter estimation software ParallelPEST. Subsequently, we used the calibrated model to investigate the effect of plastic mulch as well as different fertilizer best management practices (FBMPs) on NO leaching. We found that cumulative NO leaching under RT was 26% lower compared to ridge tillage without coverage (RT). Fertilizer placement confined to the ridges resulted in 36% lower cumulative NO -leaching rates compared to broadcast applied fertilizer. Splitting the total amount of 150 kg NO ha per growing season into three fertilizer applications (1–4–2.5 ratio) led to a reduction of NO leaching of 59% compared to the one-top dressing at the beginning of the growing season. However, the combination of a fertilizer rate of 150 kg NO ha , plastic mulched ridges, fertilizer placement only in the ridges and split applications of fertilizer resulted in the lowest cumulative NO leaching rate (8.14 kg ha ) during the simulation period, which is equivalent to 5.4% of the total NO fertilizer input. Compared to RT with conventional one-top dressing fertilization in ridges and furrows, the NO leaching was reduced by 82%. Consequently, the combination of all FBMPs is highly recommendable to decrease economical costs for fertilizer inputs as well as to minimize nitrate leaching and its impact on groundwater quality.
    Keywords: Nitrate Leaching ; Numerical Modeling ; Fertilizer Best Management Practices ; Ridge Tillage ; Plastic Mulch ; Groundwater ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, 13 February 2014, Vol.509, pp.601-614
    Description: An important prerequisite to better understand the transport of nutrients and contaminants across the river-aquifer interface and possible implications for biogeochemical transformations is to accurately characterize and asses the exchange fluxes. In this study we investigate how monsoonal precipitation events and the resulting variability in river discharge affect the dynamics of river-aquifer exchange and the corresponding flux rates. We evaluate potential impacts of the investigated exchange fluxes on local water quality. Hydraulic gradients along a piezometer transect were monitored at a river reach in a small catchment in South Korea, where the hydrologic dynamics are driven by the East-Asian Monsoon. We used heat as a tracer to constrain river-aquifer exchange fluxes in a two-dimensional flow and heat transport model implemented in the numerical code HydroGeoSphere, which was calibrated to the measured temperature and total head data. To elucidate potential effects of river-aquifer exchange dynamics on biogeochemical transformations at the river-aquifer interface, river water and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO ) and dissolved oxygen saturation (DO ). Our results illustrate highly variable hydrologic conditions during the monsoon season characterized by temporal and spatial variability in river-aquifer exchange fluxes with frequent flow reversals (changes between gaining and losing conditions). Intense monsoonal precipitation events and the associated rapid changes in river stage are the dominant driver for the observed riverbed flow reversals. The chemical data suggest that the flow reversals, when river water high in DOC is pushed into the nitrate-rich groundwater below the stream and subsequently returns to the stream may facilitate and enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate in the shallow groundwater.
    Keywords: River-Aquifer Exchange Fluxes ; Heat As a Natural Tracer ; Monsoonal-Type Climate ; Hydraulic Gradient Reversals ; Hydrogeosphere ; Natural Attenuation of Nitrate ; Geography
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    E-ISSN: 1879-2707
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Applied and Environmental Soil Science, Annual, 2013
    Description: Non-sustainable agricultural practices can alter the quality of soil and water. A sustainable soil management requires detailed understanding of how tillage affects soil quality, erosion, and leaching processes. Agricultural soils in the Haean catchment (South Korea) are susceptible to erosion by water during the monsoon. For years, erosion-induced losses have been compensated by spreading allochthonous sandy material on the fields. These anthropogenically modified soils are used for vegetable production, and crops are cultivated in ridges using plastic mulches. To evaluate whether the current practice of ridge cultivation is sustainable with regard to soil quality and soil and water conservation, we (i) analyzed soil properties of topsoils and (ii) carried out dye tracer experiments. Our results show that the sandy topsoils have a very low soil organic matter content and a poor structure and lack soil burrowers. The artificial layering induced by spreading sandy material supported lateral downhill water flow. Ridge tillage and plastic mulching strongly increased surface runoff and soil erosion. We conclude that for this region a comprehensive management plan, which aims at long-term sustainable agriculture by protecting topsoils, increasing soil organic matter, and minimizing runoff and soil erosion, is mandatory for the future.
    Keywords: Cultivation (Land) -- Research ; Cultivation (Land) -- Methods ; Cultivation (Land) -- Environmental Aspects
    ISSN: 1687-7667
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Agricultural Water Management, 01 January 2013, Vol.116, pp.204-217
    Description: ► Plastic mulching induces horizontal water movement from furrows to ridges. ► Interflow occurs in coarse textured and ploughed topsoil during monsoon events. ► Plastic mulching reduces drainage water up to 16%. ► Plastic mulching increases surface runoff up to 70%. ► We recommend to apply perforated and biodegradable plastic mulch. Intensive agricultural land use in combination with heavy rain storm events during the summer monsoon season plays a key role in groundwater pollution by nutrients and agrochemicals in agricultural catchments in South Korea. A widespread measure for weed control in this region is plastic mulched ridge cultivation. However, it is not well understood, how and to which extent the water flow regime in sloped fields is hereby modified. To evaluate the effect of plastic mulched ridge cultivation (RT ) on soil water dynamics, we carried out a two-dimensional process-based modeling study using the numerical model Hydrus 2/3D. Subsequently, RT was compared to model simulations of ridge cultivation without plastic cover (RT) and flat conventional tillage without ridges and without plastic cover (CT). Datasets of soil water potentials obtained by field measurements at two plastic mulched potato fields ( L.) provided the basis for optimizing soil hydraulic parameters inversely by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. We found, that plastic mulching induced horizontal pressure head gradients and forced soil water to move laterally from furrows to ridges under normal weather conditions. During monsoon events, soils were fully saturated and interflow occurred in coarse textured and ploughed topsoil. Further, the water balance of the different model scenarios showed that plastic mulching reduced drainage water up to 16% but concurrently increased the surface runoff up to 65%. The consequences are an increase in runoff peak flow, flood risk and erosion. Therefore, we recommend the application of perforated and biodegradable plastic mulch in regions affected by summer monsoon.
    Keywords: Polyethylene Film ; Ridge-Furrow Tillage ; Extreme Rain Events ; Hydrus 2/3d ; Potato Crop ; Hillslopes ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0378-3774
    E-ISSN: 1873-2283
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Agricultural water management, 2013, Vol.116, pp.204-217
    Description: Intensive agricultural land use in combination with heavy rain storm events during the summer monsoon season plays a key role in groundwater pollution by nutrients and agrochemicals in agricultural catchments in South Korea. A widespread measure for weed control in this region is plastic mulched ridge cultivation. However, it is not well understood, how and to which extent the water flow regime in sloped fields is hereby modified. To evaluate the effect of plastic mulched ridge cultivation (RTₚₘ) on soil water dynamics, we carried out a two-dimensional process-based modeling study using the numerical model Hydrus 2/3D. Subsequently, RTₚₘ was compared to model simulations of ridge cultivation without plastic cover (RT) and flat conventional tillage without ridges and without plastic cover (CT). Datasets of soil water potentials obtained by field measurements at two plastic mulched potato fields (Solanum tuberosum L.) provided the basis for optimizing soil hydraulic parameters inversely by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. We found, that plastic mulching induced horizontal pressure head gradients and forced soil water to move laterally from furrows to ridges under normal weather conditions. During monsoon events, soils were fully saturated and interflow occurred in coarse textured and ploughed topsoil. Further, the water balance of the different model scenarios showed that plastic mulching reduced drainage water up to 16% but concurrently increased the surface runoff up to 65%. The consequences are an increase in runoff peak flow, flood risk and erosion. Therefore, we recommend the application of perforated and biodegradable plastic mulch in regions affected by summer monsoon. ; p. 204-217.
    Keywords: Agricultural Watersheds ; Topsoil ; Mulches ; Furrows ; Potatoes ; Mulching ; Risk ; Solanum Tuberosum ; Soil Hydraulic Properties ; Rain ; Weed Control ; Monsoon Season ; Plastics ; Subsurface Flow ; Mathematical Models ; Agricultural Land ; Simulation Models ; Water Balance ; Groundwater Contamination ; Soil Water ; Plowing ; Runoff ; Summer ; Conventional Tillage ; Land Use
    ISSN: 0378-3774
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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