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  • 1
    Dissertation
    Dissertation
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München ; Tierärztliche Fakultät
    Keywords: Tierärztliche Fakultät ; Natural sciences and mathematics ; Zoological sciences
    Source: Universitätsbibliothek der LMU Muenchen
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(4), p.e18577
    Description: H5N1 influenza vaccines, including live intranasal, appear to be relatively less immunogenic compared to seasonal analogs. The main influenza virus surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) was shown to be more susceptible to acidic pH treatment than that of human or low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. The acidification machinery of the human nasal passageway in response to different irritation factors starts to release protons acidifying the mucosal surface (down to pH of 5.2). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of H5 HA to the acidic environment might be the reason for the low infectivity and immunogenicity of intranasal H5N1 vaccines for mammals. ; We demonstrate that original human influenza viruses infect primary human nasal epithelial cells at acidic pH (down to 5.4), whereas H5N1 HPAIVs lose infectivity at pH≤5.6. The HA of A/Vietnam/1203/04 was modified by introducing the single substitution HA2 58K→I, decreasing the pH of the HA conformational change. The H5N1 reassortants containing the indicated mutation displayed an increased resistance to acidic pH and high temperature treatment compared to those lacking modification. The mutation ensured a higher viral uptake as shown by immunohistochemistry in the respiratory tract of mice and 25 times lower mouse infectious dose. Moreover, the reassortants keeping 58K→I mutation designed as a live attenuated vaccine candidate lacking an NS1 gene induced superior systemic and local antibody response after the intranasal immunization of mice. ; Our finding suggests that an efficient intranasal vaccination with a live attenuated H5N1 virus may require a certain level of pH and temperature stability of HA in order to achieve an optimal virus uptake by the nasal epithelial cells and induce a sufficient immune response. The pH of the activation of the H5 HA protein may play a substantial role in the infectivity of HPAIVs for mammals.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Immunology ; Infectious Diseases
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 27 April 2011, Vol.29(19), pp.3517-3524
    Description: The isolation and cultivation of human influenza viruses in embryonated hen eggs or cell lines often leads to amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin (HA) molecule. We found that the propagation of influenza A H3N2 viruses on Vero cells may trigger the appearance of HA destabilising mutations, affecting viral resistance to low pH or high temperature treatment. Two ΔNS1 reassortants, containing the HA sequences identical to the original human H3N2 influenza virus isolates were constructed. Passages of these viruses on Vero cells led to the appearance of single mutations in the HA L194P or HA G75R subunits that impaired virus stability. The original HA sequences and the stable phenotypes of the primary isolates were preserved if reassortants were passaged by infection at pH 5.6 and cultivation in medium at pH 6.5. Corresponding ΔNS1 reassortants were compared for their immunogenicity in ferrets upon intranasal immunisation. Vaccine candidates containing HA mutations demonstrated significantly lower immunogenicity compared to those without mutations. Thus, the retaining of the original HA sequences of human viruses during vaccine production might be crucial for the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccines.
    Keywords: Influenza A Virus ; Ns1 Deletion ; Vero Cells ; Mutation in Ha ; Ha Stability ; Immunogenicity ; Medicine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Biology & Therapy, 15 September 2010, Vol.10(6), pp.592-599
    Description: Previously we have developed a prototype for conditionally replicating oncolytic influenza A virus which is based on deletions in the non-structural (NS1) protein. Multi-cycle replication of influenza A virus in malignant tissue is critically dependent on a protease which cleaves the viral...
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1538-4047
    E-ISSN: 1555-8576
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2009, Vol.4(6), p.e5984
    Description: We developed a novel intranasal influenza vaccine approach that is based on the construction of replication-deficient vaccine viruses that lack the entire NS1 gene (ΔNS1 virus). We previously showed that these viruses undergo abortive replication in the respiratory tract of animals. The local release of type I interferons and other cytokines and chemokines in the upper respiratory tract may have a “self-adjuvant effect”, in turn increasing vaccine immunogenicity. As a result, ΔNS1 viruses elicit strong B- and T- cell mediated immune responses. ; We applied this technology to the development of a pandemic H5N1 vaccine candidate. The vaccine virus was constructed by reverse genetics in Vero cells, as a 5∶3 reassortant, encoding four proteins HA, NA, M1, and M2 of the A/Vietnam/1203/04 virus while the remaining genes were derived from IVR-116. The HA cleavage site was modified in a trypsin dependent manner, serving as the second attenuation factor in addition to the deleted NS1 gene. The vaccine candidate was able to grow in the Vero cells that were cultivated in a serum free medium to titers exceeding 8 log TCIDml. The vaccine virus was replication deficient in interferon competent cells and did not lead to viral shedding in the vaccinated animals. The studies performed in three animal models confirmed the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. Intranasal immunization protected ferrets and mice from being infected with influenza H5 viruses of different clades. In a primate model (), one dose of vaccine delivered intranasally was sufficient for the induction of antibodies against homologous A/Vietnam/1203/04 and heterologous A/Indonesia/5/05 H5N1 strains. ; Our findings show that intranasal immunization with the replication deficient H5N1 ΔNS1 vaccine candidate is sufficient to induce a protective immune response against H5N1 viruses. This approach might be attractive as an alternative to conventional influenza vaccines. Clinical evaluation of ΔNS1 pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccine candidates are currently in progress.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Immunology -- Immunity To Infections ; Microbiology -- Immunity To Infections ; Virology -- Vaccines ; Infectious Diseases -- Respiratory Infections ; Infectious Diseases -- Viral Infections
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: German
    Description: Universiẗat, Diss., 2003--München.
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 11 May 2009, Vol.27(21), pp.2851-7
    Description: We discovered a unique, single amino acid mutation in the influenza B M1 protein promoting viral growth of NS1 truncation mutants in Vero cells. Due to this mutation, we were able to generate an influenza B virus lacking the complete NS1 open reading frame (DeltaNS1-B virus) by reverse genetics, which was growing to titers of 8log(10)TCID(50)/ml in a Vero cell culture-based micro-carrier fermenter. The DeltaNS1-B vaccine candidate was attenuated in IFN-competent hosts such as human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) similar to influenza A DeltaNS1 viruses. In ferrets, the DeltaNS1-B virus was replication-deficient and did not provoke any clinical symptoms. Importantly, a single intranasal immunization of ferrets at a dose as low as 6 log(10)TCID(50)/animal induced a significant HAI response and provided protection against challenge with wild-type influenza B virus. So far, the lack of a DeltaNS1-B virus component growing to high titers in cell culture has been limiting the possibility to formulate a trivalent vaccine based on deletion of the NS1 gene. Our study closes this gap and paves the way for the clinical evaluation of a seasonal, trivalent, live replication-deficient DeltaNS1 intranasal influenza vaccine.
    Keywords: Influenza B Virus -- Immunology ; Influenza Vaccines -- Administration & Dosage ; Viral Nonstructural Proteins -- Immunology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 18732518
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, 2009, Vol.27(21), pp.2851-2857
    Description: We discovered a unique, single amino acid mutation in the influenza B M1 protein promoting viral growth of NS1 truncation mutants in Vero cells. Due to this mutation, we were able to generate an influenza B virus lacking the complete NS1 open reading frame (ΔNS1-B virus) by reverse genetics, which was growing to titers of 8 log TCID /ml in a Vero cell culture-based micro-carrier fermenter. The ΔNS1-B vaccine candidate was attenuated in IFN-competent hosts such as human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) similar to influenza A ΔNS1 viruses. In ferrets, the ΔNS1-B virus was replication-deficient and did not provoke any clinical symptoms. Importantly, a single intranasal immunization of ferrets at a dose as low as 6 log TCID /animal induced a significant HAI response and provided protection against challenge with wild-type influenza B virus. So far, the lack of a ΔNS1-B virus component growing to high titers in cell culture has been limiting the possibility to formulate a trivalent vaccine based on deletion of the NS1 gene. Our study closes this gap and paves the way for the clinical evaluation of a seasonal, trivalent, live replication-deficient ΔNS1 intranasal influenza vaccine.
    Keywords: Influenza Ns1 Vaccine ; Live-Attenuated Vaccine ; Mucosal Immunization ; Medicine ; Biology ; Veterinary Medicine ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2518
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, October 2019, Vol.371(1), pp.95-105
    Description: Extended half-life (EHL) factor therapies are needed to reduce the burden of prophylaxis and improve treatment adherence in patients with hemophilia. BAX 826 is a novel polysialylated full-length recombinant factor VIII [polysialyic acid (PSA) rFVIII] with improved pharmacokinetics (PK), prolonged pharmacology, and maintained safety attributes to enable longer-acting rFVIII therapy. In factor VIII (FVIII)-deficient hemophilic mice, PSArFVIII showed a substantially higher mean residence time (〉2-fold) and exposure (〉3-fold), and prolonged efficacy in tail-bleeding experiments (48 vs. 30 hours) compared with unmodified recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), as well as a potentially favorable immunogenicity profile. Reduced binding to a scavenger receptor (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) as well as a largely VWF-independent circulation time in mice provide a rationale for prolonged BAX 826 activity. The significantly improved PK profile versus rFVIII was confirmed in cynomolgus monkeys [mean residence time: 23.4 vs. 10.1 hours; exposure (area under the curve from time 0 to infinity): 206 vs. 48.2 IU/ml⋅h] and is in line with results from rodent studies. Finally, safety and toxicity evaluations did not indicate increased thrombogenic potential, and repeated administration of BAX 826 to monkeys and rats was well tolerated. The favorable profile and mechanism of this novel experimental therapeutic demonstrated all of the requirements for an EHL-rFVIII candidate, and thus BAX 826 was entered into clinical assessment for the treatment of hemophilia A. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Prolongation of FVIII half-life aims to reduce the burden of prophylaxis and improve treatment outcomes in patients with hemophilia. This study shows that polysialylation of PSArFVIII resulted in prolongations of rFVIII circulation time and procoagulant activity, together with a favorable nonclinical safety profile of the experimental therapeutic.
    E-ISSN: 1521-0103
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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