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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Forestry Research, 2018, Vol.29(4), pp.1099-1110
    Description: Wild cherry trees produce high-quality timber and provide multiple ecosystem services. However, planting and tending cherry stands in conventional rows are too costly. Therefore, low density group planting was trialled as an alternative to row planting. The mortality, growth, and quality of planted cherry trees were compared between the group and row planting. The influence of neighbourhood competition and light availability on growth and quality was studied. The group and row planting of cherry trees were established at a wind-thrown site in southwestern Germany in the year 2000. In group planting, five cherry seedlings and seven lime seedlings ( Tilia cordata Mill.) were planted with a 1 × 1 m spacing. In total, 60 groups were planted per hectare with a 13 × 13 m spacing. In contrast, 3300 seedlings (2475 cherries and 825 limes) were planted per hectare in row planting with a 3 × 1 m spacing. Ten groups and plots (10 × 10 m) were randomly established in group and row planting stand, respectively. The survival rate, stability (height to diameter ratio), diameter, and height growth were significantly higher in group planting. In the group plantings, 40.5% of cherry trees had straight stems and 13.5% had a monopodial crown compared with 15% with straight stems and 2% with a monopodial crown in row planting. The proportion of dominant cherry trees in canopy was 49% in groups compared with 22% in rows. The length of branch free bole was significantly higher in cherries planted in groups than those grown in rows. Intra- and interspecific competition reduced the growth and stability of cherry trees in row planting, but not in group planting. Light availability did not cause any significant effects on growth and quality between group and row planting. This first study on cherry group planting indicates that the survival rate, growth, and tree quality were higher in groups than in rows at this early development stage. The competition by naturally born seedlings was an important reason for the difference in performance between group and row planting. This study will encourage forest practitioners to establish more cherry group planting trials on multiple sites to test the effectiveness of this alternative technique as a tool of regeneration and restoration silviculture.
    Keywords: Group planting ; Tree growth ; Tree quality ; Interspecific competition ; Intraspecific competition ; Photosynthetically active photon flux density ; Total site factor
    ISSN: 1007-662X
    E-ISSN: 1993-0607
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 November 2016, Vol.380, pp.261-273
    Description: Increasing frequency of extremely dry and hot summers in some regions emphasise the need for silvicultural approaches to increase the drought tolerance of existing forests in the short term, before long-term adaptation through species changes may be possible. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the potential of thinning for improving tree performance during and after drought. We used results from 23 experiments that employed different thinning intensities including an unthinned control and focused on the response variables: radial growth, carbon- and oxygen-isotopes in tree-rings and pre-dawn leaf-water potential. We found that thinning effects on the growth response to drought differed between broadleaves and conifers, although these findings are based on few studies only in broadleaved forests. Thinning helped to mitigate growth reductions during drought in broadleaves, most likely via increases of soil water availability. In contrast, in conifers, comparable drought-related growth reductions and increases of water-use efficiency were observed in all treatments but thinning improved the post-drought recovery and resilience of radial growth. Results of meta-regression analysis indicate that benefits of both moderate and heavy thinning for growth performance following drought (recovery and resilience) decrease with time since the last intervention. Further, growth resistance during drought became smaller with stand age while the rate of growth recovery following drought increased over time irrespective of treatment. Heavy but not moderate thinning helped to avoid an age-related decline in medium-term growth resilience to drought. For both closed and very open stands, growth performance during drought improved with increasing site aridity but for the same stands growth recovery and resilience following drought was reduced with increasing site aridity. This synthesis of experiments from a wide geographical range has demonstrated that thinning, in particular heavy thinning, is a suitable approach to improve the growth response of remaining trees to drought in both conifers and broadleaves but the underlying processes differ and need to be considered.
    Keywords: Stand Density ; Water Stress ; Radial Growth ; Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes ; Water Potential ; Resilience ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 November 2012, Vol.283, pp.106-118
    Description: ► This is the first published meta-analysis of different forest regeneration methods. ► Oak group plantings resulted in survival, growth, and quality similar or superior to row planting. ► Original assumptions regarding performance of oak nest plantings are not valid. ► Trainer trees proved to be important for oak quality in young stands. Cluster planting of oaks ( and ) was introduced to central Europe in the 1980s and 1990s as an economic and ecological alternative to the traditional and costly row planting for re-afforestation of wind-thrown and clear-cut areas. Clusters comprising 20–30 seedlings are either ‘nests’ (nest planting) with very dense spacing of ca. 0.2 m between trees, or ‘groups’ (group planting) with 1 m between trees. Commonly, 100 groups or 200 nests ha were planted in uniform distribution. We used a comprehensive weighted meta-analysis to compare the growth and quality (stem form, crown shape, branch free bole length, number of potential future crop trees) of oaks grown in clusters with those planted in rows (e.g. 2 × 1 m spacing). Data were obtained from 25 trials located in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Tree survival, growth and quality were significantly lower in nests than in neighbouring row planting counterparts. Very low initial growing space was presumably one of the main reasons for low survival, unfavourable growth and quality development of oaks in nest plantings. In group plantings, survival, growth and tree quality were similar or superior to row plantings. Tree quality benefitted from the presence of trainer trees in group plantings. Based on this study, we recommend planting oak groups as an alternative to traditional row planting. Our study showed the usefulness of weighted meta-analysis to develop a synthesis from raw data collected from independent silvicultural trials established with comparable designs and similar research goals.
    Keywords: Nest Planting ; Group Planting ; Tree Survival ; Oaks ; Tree Quality ; Trainer Trees ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 July 2017, Vol.396, pp.160-175
    Description: Biomass and leaf area equations are often required to assess or model forest productivity, carbon stocks and other ecosystem services. These factors are influenced by climate, age and stand structural attributes including stand density and tree species diversity or species composition. However, such covariates are rarely included in biomass and leaf area equations. We reviewed the literature and built a database of biomass and leaf area equations for 24 European tree species and 3 introduced species. The final dataset contained 973 equations. Most of the equations were site-specific and therefore restricted to the edaphic, climatic and stand structural conditions of the given site. To overcome this limitation, the database was used to develop regional species-specific equations that can be used in a wide range of stands and to quantify the effects of climate, age and stand structure on biomass or leaf area. The analysis showed considerable inter- and intra-specific variability in biomass relationships. The intra-specific variability was related to climate, age or stand characteristics, while the inter-specific variability was correlated with traits such as wood density, specific leaf area and shade tolerance. The analysis also showed that foliage mass is more variable than stem or total aboveground biomass, both within and between species, and these biomass components have contrasting responses to age and changes in stand structure. Despite the large number of published equations, many species are still not well represented. Therefore, generic equations were developed that include species-specific wood density instead of species identity. Further improvements may be possible if future studies quantify the stand structure of individual tree neighbourhoods instead of using the stand means for all trees sampled with the given stand.
    Keywords: Allometry ; Forest Growth ; Pseudo-Observations ; Shade Tolerance ; Specific Leaf Area ; Wood Density ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Flora, April 2017, Vol.229, pp.58-70
    Description: Owing to the growing sensitivity of forests to drought under the warming climate, more attention should be paid to the role of soil drought, plant–plant interactions, tree species and structural diversity, and other abiotic factors on the crown die-back of trees. We studied how permanent soil water stress had impacted on crown die-back of beech trees ( L.) at their drought limit in near-natural temperate forests of Germany and Switzerland. Crown die-back was quantified by the proportion of dead above-ground biomass to total biomass for the individual beech tree. We quantified the available soil water storage capacity as a measure of soil drought stress in combination with other biotic (e.g., plant–plant interactions, tree species diversity, stand structural diversity, plant height and proportion of oak trees) and abiotic (e.g., light availability, soil pH, soil bulk density, potential evapotranspiration) factors to determine the influence of those stressors on crown die-back. We found increases in soil water storage capacity, neighbourhood interactions, plant height and light decreased crown die-back of the beech trees. These stressors differently influenced the die-back among different parts of tree crown. Soil water storage capacity, light availability, intra- and interspecific interactions, plant height and tree species diversity had the strongest influence on die-back in the upper part of the crown. Permanent death of beech trees occurred when the amount of dead above-ground biomass exceeded a 58% mortality threshold. We conclude that vitality of beech trees in drought stressed forests is related to soil water storage capacity, light availability, neighbourhood interactions and tree species diversity.
    Keywords: Crown Die-Back Threshold ; Drought Limit of Beech ; Facilitation ; Neighbourhood Interaction ; Soil Water Storage Capacity ; Tree Species Diversity ; Botany
    ISSN: 0367-2530
    E-ISSN: 1618-0585
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 August 2013, Vol.4(3), pp.650-665
    Description: Low density plantings complemented by natural regeneration is an increasingly common reforestation technique to ensure growth of a sufficient number of trees from desired species while maintaining natural processes such as succession. One such form of low density planting that aims at lowering...
    Keywords: Tree Species Diversity ; Productivity ; Oak Regeneration ; Group Planting ; Nest Planting ; Mixed-Species Forests ; Forestry
    ISSN: 1999-4907
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 November 2016, Vol.7(11), p.289
    Description: Recent studies have reported superior tree quality and comparable tree growth of oaks planted in group compared with row planting. However, a comparative assessment of the potential future crop trees (PFCTs) between group and row planting is still lacking. Here, we compared the density and...
    Keywords: Oak Regeneration ; Group Planting ; Potential Future Crop Tree ; Tree Quality and Growth ; Forest Restoration ; Low-Density Planting ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 01 October 2018, Vol.9(10), p.627
    Description: Scientific studies have shown that mixed forests of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provide higher ecosystem services than monospecific forests. Mixed forests are known for their high resilience to climate change impacts and superior biodiversity compared...
    Keywords: Mixed Forests ; Monospecific Forests ; Online Questionnaire Survey ; Ecosystem Services ; Public Perception ; Stepwise Regression ; Forestry
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Regional Environmental Change, 2018, Vol.18(6), pp.1783-1799
    Description: The Himalayan region is not only threatened by rapid changes in anthropogenic activities but also by global climate change. Given the uncertainties of magnitude and characteristics of climate change, prior knowledge of long-term changing distribution pattern of forests is of crucial importance. Owing to the heterogeneity of the Himalayan mountain system, knowledge on potential impacts on forests makes it a paramount concern in this region. Therefore, to understand vulnerability as a prerequisite for forest management, we systematically review and synthesize peer-reviewed literature on climate change impacts of the Himalayan forests ( n  = 118). Of the reviewed articles, 91.5% were published after 2009. Our findings emphasize that due to a wide variety of disciplinary domains, the conceptual, methodological, and subsequent findings (observed and predicted) vary greatly given the complexity of the theme of the review. Most assessments addressing climate change vulnerability of forests and forest-dependent people fail to acknowledge the importance of scalar and temporal aspects of vulnerability. In addition, despite the brevity of the phenomena, much lesser is known about adaptation potentials, planning and policy initiatives, and coordinated multi-disciplinary decision making for managing forest resources and dependent livelihood options under different climate change scenarios. This insufficiency of knowledge requires identification of more prioritized focused research efforts. Given the substantial debate surrounding research management and policy-making, we highlight the urgent need to deal with ecological and societal implications of climate change impacts on the Himalayan forests.
    Keywords: Himalayan forests ; Climate change impacts ; Vulnerability ; Adaptation ; Systematic review methodology
    ISSN: 1436-3798
    E-ISSN: 1436-378X
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  • 10
    In: Plants, 2017, Vol.6(1)
    Description: The Himalayas are well known for high diversity and ethnobotanical uses of the region’s medicinal plants. However, not all areas of the Himalayan regions are well studied. Studies on ethnobotanical uses of plants from the Eastern Himalayas are still lacking for many tribes. Past studies have primarily focused on listing plants’ vernacular names and their traditional medicinal uses. However, studies on traditional ethnopharmacological practices on medicine preparation by mixing multiple plant products of different species has not yet been reported in published literature from the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India, Eastern Himalayas. In this study, we are reporting for the first time the ethnopharmacological uses of 24 medicines and their procedures of preparation, as well as listing 53 plant species used for these medicines by the Monpa tribe. Such documentations are done first time in Arunachal Pradesh region of India as per our knowledge. Our research emphasizes the urgent need to document traditional medicine preparation procedures from local healers before traditional knowledge of tribal people living in remote locations are forgotten in a rapidly transforming country like India.
    Keywords: Communication ; Medicinal Plants ; Traditional Knowledge ; Eastern Himalayas ; Mountain Plants ; Ethnobotany ; Ethnopharmacology ; Bioprospecting
    E-ISSN: 2223-7747
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