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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: International Journal of Obesity, 2010, Vol.35(1), p.128
    Description: Objective:To compare measures of growth and body fatness (body mass index (BMI) and % body fat) in children from two contrasting income backgrounds and to examine the contribution of height difference to these measures.Design:Cross-sectional study.Setting:Schools in inner East London ('low income') and West London, Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire ('high income'), UK.Participants:A total of 2298 children aged 5-14 years.Main outcome measures:Height, weight, BMI (weight per height super(2)) and percentage body fat (%BF, by bioelectrical impedance analysis). Results:Children from the 'lower income' background were significantly shorter, heavier and fatter (%BF) with a higher BMI for their age compared with those from a 'higher income' background. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was greater in the 'lower income' group children, assessed on the basis of BMI, and this income group difference was magnified when based on %BF (overfat/obese). Irrespective of the assessment tool used, overweight/overfat/obese children as a group were significantly taller for their age compared with children categorized as normal weight/normal fat. Despite the overfat/obese children being taller for their age, an 'income group' difference in height remained within this category. Conclusion:These findings confirm the income group influence on obesity prevalence. They also illustrate that BMI underestimates the true number of children having excess body fat, particularly in 'low income' children. Exactly why BMI seems to function differently along income group divisions in unclear, but a shorter height-for-age of the 'lower income' group children could be one explanation. These findings raise important questions about the causes and consequences of obesity in children from 'lower income' backgrounds.
    Keywords: Age ; Body Mass ; Income ; Obesity ; Children ; British Isles, England, Greater London, London ; Epidemiology and Public Health;
    ISSN: 0307-0565
    E-ISSN: 14765497
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  • 2
    In: Evolution, January 2018, Vol.72(1), pp.211-212
    Description: Ejaculate evolution in externally fertilizing species is influenced by competition among sperm as well as the rate at which sperm and eggs encounter one another. Liao etal. (2017) found that ejaculate evolution in external fertilizers depended on spawning conditions. In anurans, gametes are released very close to eggs and are relatively protected from dispersal by water currents, thus sperm competition is more important. However, in fish, sperm-egg encounter rate plays a much more important role in ejaculate evolution because gametes may be easily dispersed when released into the aquatic environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 0014-3820
    E-ISSN: 1558-5646
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 06 June 2015, Vol.385(9984), pp.2227-2229
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61931-0 Byline: Heribert Schunkert, Nilesh J Samani Author Affiliation: (a) Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen and Technische Universitat Munchen, DZHK Munich Heart Alliance, D-80636 Munich, Germany (b) Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, and NIHR Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, BHF Cardiovascular Research Centre, Leicester, UK
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Neuropsychologia, 08 January 2018, Vol.108, pp.73-81
    Description: Previous work has shown that a single-bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise improves task-specific activity within frontoparietal networks and produces a short-term ‘boost’ to executive-related cognitive control – an effect in healthy young adults that is reported to be selective to exercise durations of 20 min or greater. The present study sought to determine whether such a ‘boost’ extends to an exercise duration as brief as 10 min. Healthy young adults performed a 10-min single-bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (i.e., via a cycle ergometer) and pre- and post-exercise executive control was examined via the antisaccade task. Antisaccades are an executive task requiring a goal-directed eye movement (i.e., a saccade) mirror-symmetrical to a visual stimulus. The hands- and language-free nature of antisaccades coupled with the temporal precision of eye-tracking technology make it an ideal tool for identifying executive performance changes. Moreover, an extensive literature has shown that antisaccades are mediated via frontoparietal networks that are modulated following single-bout and chronic exercise training. Results showed that antisaccade reaction time (RT) reliably decreased by 27 ms from pre- to post-exercise assessments. Further, the percentage of antisaccade directional errors did not reliably vary from the pre- (13%) to post-exercise (9%) assessments – a result indicating that the RT improvement was unrelated to a speed-accuracy trade-off. A follow-up experiment involving antisaccade sessions separated by a non-exercise interval did not show a similar RT modulation. Thus, a 10-min bout of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise benefits executive-related oculomotor control, and is a finding we attribute to an exercise-based increase in attention/arousal and/or improved task-specific activity within the frontoparietal networks supporting antisaccades.
    Keywords: Aerobic Exercise ; Antisaccades ; Executive Control ; Oculomotor ; Single-Bout ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0028-3932
    E-ISSN: 1873-3514
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 2015, Vol.86(11)
    Description: BackgroundNon-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants provide a valuable alternative option to warfarin for thromboprophylaxis for non-valvular atrial fibrillation. NICE has recently released a national consensus statement which will guide local protocol/guideline development. Currently, their use is often governed by physician preference combined with patient factors. We explored the pattern of prescribing in the pre-guideline era.MethodRetrospective analysis of admissions from June-October 2014. Student T-test and Fischer's exact test with Bonferroni corrections were used to compare demographics between groups. A creatinine clearance of 〈60 umol/L defined renal impairment.Results61 patients, 37 female, mean age 80.8 years were audited. 35 were prescribed rivoroxaban 20 mg, 7 rivoroxaban 15 mg, 11 apixaban 5 mg and 8 apixaban 2.5 mg. None were prescribed dabigatran. Age, CHADS2 and HAS-BLED scores did not show statistically significant variability between subgroups. Renal impairment was signficantly commoner in the apixaban 2.5 mg group compared to the 5mg group (p〈0.001) and the rivoroxaban 15mg compared to the 20mg group (P〈0.01). There was no difference between the rivoroxaban and apixaban groups.ConclusionCurrently, renal impairment is the main determinant for thromboprophylaxis choice. Local guidelines have been created with physician education underway and re-audit planned in 3 months. The authors will present the full data.
    Keywords: Stroke – Risk Factors ; Stroke – Care and Treatment ; Anticoagulants – Dosage and Administration ; Treatment Outcome – Analysis
    ISSN: 0022-3050
    E-ISSN: 1468330X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Age and Ageing, March, 2013, Vol.42(2), p.S13(1)
    Keywords: Atrial Fibrillation -- Demographic Aspects ; Atrial Fibrillation -- Drug Therapy ; Atrial Fibrillation -- Patient Outcomes ; Anticoagulants -- Dosage And Administration ; Anticoagulants -- Patient Outcomes
    ISSN: 0002-0729
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Psychological Reports, April 2010, Vol.106(2), pp.539-547
    Description: The aim of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of Self-report Family Content Scale for measurement of a contextual and psycho…educational model for family studies. The sample included 450 college students at Shiraz University (241 women, 209 men; M age = 27.5 yr., SD = 3.8). Principal-components factor analysis indicated a 7-factor solution. The mean correlations among factors and between factors and the total score of the scale were .18 and .42, respectively. Coefficients alpha indicated good reliability and internal consistency for the scale.
    Keywords: Psychology
    ISSN: 0033-2941
    E-ISSN: 1558-691X
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, April 2010, Vol.23(4), pp.791-796
    Description: The purpose of this experiment was to find out how a population becomes adapted to extremely stressful conditions as its environment deteriorates. We created a deteriorating environment for experimental selection lines of yeast by a stepwise increase in the concentration of salt in the growth medium. After each step, we tested the ability of the lines to grow at a high concentration of salt near the lethal limit for the ancestral strain. We found that mutations enhancing growth in this highly stressful environment began to spread at intermediate salt concentrations. The degree of enhancement was related to effective population size by a power law with a small exponent. The effect size of these mutations also increased with the population size in a similar fashion. From these results, we interpret adaptation to lethal stress as an indirect response to selection for resistance to previous lower levels of stress in a deteriorating environment. This suggests that the pattern of genetic correlation between successively higher levels of stress is an important factor in facilitating evolutionary rescue.
    Keywords: Beneficial Mutation ; Effective Population Size ; Experimental Evolution ; Limits To Selection ; Response To Selection ; Saccharomyces Paradoxus
    ISSN: 1010-061X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9101
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 14 January 2013, Vol.113(2)
    Description: Non-equilibrium molecular dynamic simulation was employed to investigate the interfacial thermal conductance between diamond and silicon substrate. The interfacial thermal conductance was computed based on Fourier's law. The simulation was done at different temperature ranges and results show that the interfacial thermal conductance between diamond-silicon is proportional to temperature and increases with temperature even above Debye temperature of silicon. Enhancement of thermal boundary conductance with temperature is attributed to inelastic phonon-phonon scattering at the interface. The system size dependence of interfacial thermal conductance was also examined. We found that thermal transport is a function of the system size when the size of system is smaller than the phonon mean free path and increases with the size of structure. We also simulated the effect of interface defect on phonon scattering and subsequently thermal conductance. The results also show that interface defect enhances acoustic phonon scattering which results in reduction of thermal boundary conductance. Our findings provide accurate and valuable information on phonon transport in diamond-silicon structure.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2015, Vol.112(44), pp.E5944-E5953
    Description: Physiological functions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B remain an enigma, and deletion of the Vegfb gene in mice lacks an overt phenotype. Here we show that knockdown of Vegfba, but not Vegfbb, in zebrafish embryos by specific morpholinos produced a lethal phenotype owing to vascular and neuronal defects in the brain. Vegfba morpholinos also markedly prevented development of hyaloid vasculatures in the retina, but had little effects on peripheral vascular development. Consistent with phenotypic defects, Vegfba, but not Vegfaa, mRNA was primarily expressed in the brain of developing zebrafish embryos. Interestingly, in situ detection of Neuropilin1 (Nrp1) mRNA showed an overlapping expression pattern with Vegfba, and knockdown of Nrp1 produced a nearly identically lethal phenotype as Vegfba knockdown. Furthermore, zebrafish VEGF-Ba protein directly bound to NRP1. Importantly, gain-of-function by exogenous delivery of mRNAs coding for NRP1-binding ligands VEGF-B or VEGF-A to the zebrafish embryos rescued the lethal phenotype by normalizing vascular development. Similarly, exposure of zebrafish embryos to hypoxia also rescued the Vegfba morpholino-induced vascular defects in the brain by increasing VEGF-A expression. Independent evidence of VEGF-A gain-of-function was provided by using a functionally defective Vhl-mutant zebrafish strain, which again rescued the Vegfba morpholino-induced vascular defects. These findings show that VEGF-B is spatiotemporally required for vascular development in zebrafish embryos and that NRP1, but not VEGFR1, mediates the essential signaling.
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Clinical Medicine ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Klinisk Medicin ; Vegf-B; Neuropilin; Zebrafish; Vasculature; Brain Development
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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