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  • 1
    In: Business and Economic Reports, 2010, Issue 8
    Keywords: Russia, Business, Telecommunications, Navigation, Gps, Glonass, Sistema, Yevtushenkov
    Source: East View Information Services
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, April 1, 2013, Vol.367, p.157(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2013.02.019 Byline: Kristy F. Tiampo (a), Pablo J. Gonzalez (a), Sergey S. Samsonov (b) Keywords: Hayward fault; San Andreas fault; polarimetric InSAR; geodesy; aseismic creep Abstract: We present new results for shallow aseismic creep on the Hayward fault in California using a new DInSAR technique. This method not only provides, for the first time, the ability to map the displacement field on both sides of the fault, it does so over a much shorter time period than earlier results. The results provide a good match in the near-field to both the regional continuous GPS velocities and data from an alinement network that measures long-term creep along the fault. The average slip rate for the northern segment of the Hayward fault is [approximately equal to]4.4mm/yr between 2008 and 2011, slightly less than that estimated for longer time periods, suggesting that the slip rate may not be constant. If the slip rate along the fault is variable on the decadal or longer scale, current estimates of its earthquake potential and the associated hazard associated with the slip rate deficit may need to be revised from previous estimates. We demonstrate the potential impact of this method to better define the spatial and temporal complexity of aseismic slip and estimate the accumulated elastic strain along one of the most significant sources of seismic hazard in the San Francisco Bay area. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Earth Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5B (b) Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0Y7 Article History: Received 25 February 2012; Revised 17 February 2013; Accepted 19 February 2013 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: P. Shearer
    Keywords: Strike-slip Faults ; Synthetic Aperture Radar
    ISSN: 0012-821X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observations and Geoinformation, August, 2013, Vol.23, p.142(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2012.12.008 Byline: Sergey Samsonov (a)(b), Nicolas d'Oreye (b)(c), Benoit Smets (b) Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry; InSAR; SBAS; Time series analysis; Ground deformation; Ground subsidence; Greater Region of Luxembourg; Saarland; Lorraine; Mining and post-mining ground deformation Abstract: a* Developed novel methodology for integration of multi-sensor SAR data. a* Remarkable resolution and precision for two components of deformation are achieved. a* Time series of ground deformation along French-German border are presented for the first time. a* Comparison of InSAR and leveling measurements is successfully performed. Author Affiliation: (a) Natural Resources Canada, 588 Booth Street, Ottawa, ON K1A0Y7, Canada (b) European Center for Geodynamics and Seismology, Rue Josy Welter 19, L-7256 Walferdange, Luxembourg (c) National Museum of Natural History, Department of Geophysics/Astrophysics, Rue Josy Welter 19, L-7256 Walferdange, Luxembourg Article History: Received 20 September 2012; Revised 17 December 2012; Accepted 18 December 2012
    Keywords: Seismology -- Methods ; Seismology -- Analysis ; Satellite Remote Sensing -- Methods ; Satellite Remote Sensing -- Analysis ; Mining Industry -- Methods ; Mining Industry -- Analysis ; Synthetic Aperture Radar -- Methods ; Synthetic Aperture Radar -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0303-2434
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Geophysical Journal International, Dec, 2012, Vol.191, p.1095(14)
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05669.x/abstract Byline: Sergey Samsonov(1)(2), Nicolas d'Oreye(2)(3) Keywords: Time-series analysis; Numerical solutions; Inverse theory; Satellite geodesy; Radar interferometry; Africa SUMMARY A novel, multidimensional small baseline subset (MSBAS) methodology is presented for integration of multiple interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets for computation of 2- or 3-D time-series of deformation. The proposed approach allows the combination of all possible air-borne and space-borne SAR data acquired with different acquisition parameters, temporal and spatial sampling and resolution, wave-band and polarization. The produced time-series have improved temporal resolution and can be enhanced by applying either regularization or temporal filtering to remove high-frequency noise. We apply this methodology to map 2003-2010 ground deformation of the Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP), North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo. The horizontal and vertical time-series of ground displacement clearly identify lava compaction areas, long-term deformation of Mt Nyamuragira and 2004, 2006 and 2010 pre- and coeruptive deformation. Providing that enough SAR data is available, the method opens new opportunities for detecting ground motion in the VVP and elsewhere. Author Affiliation: (1)Natural Resources Canada, 588 Booth Street, Ottawa, ON K1A0Y7, Canada. E-mail: sergey.samsonov@nrcan-rncan.gc.ca (2)European Center for Geodynamics and Seismology, Rue Josy Welter 19, L-7256 Walferdange, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (3)National Museum of Natural History, Department of Geophysics/Astrophysics, Rue Josy Welter 19, L-7256 Walferdange, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg Accepted 2012 September 5. Received 2012 September 5; in original form 2012 April 20
    Keywords: Seismology -- Analysis ; Satellite Remote Sensing -- Analysis ; Synthetic Aperture Radar -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0956-540X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    In: Nature, 2014
    Description: The seismic gap theory (1) identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison with other portions of a fault. It has successfully explained past earthquakes (see, for example, ref. 2) and is useful for qualitatively describing where large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile (3-6), which had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M~8.8 event in 1877. On 1 April 2014 a M8.2 earthquake occurred within this seismic gap. Here we present an assessment of the seismotectonics of the March-April 2014 Iquique sequence, including analyses of earthquake relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer. This ensemble of information allows us to place the sequence within the context of regional seismicity and to identify areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results constrain the size and spatial extent of rupture, and indicate that this was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Significant sections of the northern Chile subduction zone have not ruptured in almost 150 years, so it is likely that future megathrust earthquakes will occur to the south and potentially to the north of the 2014 Iquique sequence.
    Keywords: Seismology -- Research ; Earthquakes -- Research ; Earthquakes -- Forecasts And Trends ; Earthquakes -- Chile;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Biochemistry, 17 September 2013, Vol.52(37), pp.6487-98
    Description: Human cysteine cathepsin S (catS) participates in distinct physiological and pathophysiological cellular processes and is considered as a valuable therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases, cancer, atherosclerosis, and asthma. We evaluated the capacity of negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin 4/6-sulfates, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid) to modulate the activity of catS. Chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4-S) impaired the collagenolytic activity (type IV collagen) and inhibited the peptidase activity (Z-Phe-Arg-AMC) of catS at pH 5.5, obeying a mixed-type mechanism (estimated Ki = 16.5 ± 6 μM). Addition of NaCl restored catS activity, supporting the idea that electrostatic interactions are primarly involved. Furthermore, C4-S delayed in a dose-dependent manner the maturation of procatS at pH 4.0 by interfering with the intermolecular processing pathway. Binding of C4-S to catS was demonstrated by gel-filtration chromatography, and its affinity was measured by surface plasmon resonance (equilibrium dissociation constant Kd = 210 ± 40 nM). Moreover, C4-S induced subtle conformational changes in mature catS as observed by intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy analysis. Molecular docking predicted three specific binding sites on catS for C4-S that are different from those found in the crystal structure of the cathepsin K-C4-S complex. Overall, these results describe a novel glycosaminoglycan-mediated mechanism of catS inhibition and suggest that C4-S may modulate the collagenase activity of catS in vivo.
    Keywords: Cathepsins -- Metabolism ; Chondroitin Sulfates -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00062960
    E-ISSN: 1520-4995
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  • 7
    In: Geophysical Research Letters, 28 March 2017, Vol.44(6), pp.2716-2724
    Description: We present RADARSAT‐2 Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) observations of deformation due to fluid extraction at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF) and afterslip on the 2010 7.2 El Mayor‐Cucapah (EMC) earthquake rupture during 2011–2016. Advanced multidimensional time series analysis reveals subsidence at the CPGF with the maximum rate greater than 100 mm/yr accompanied by horizontal motion (radial contraction) at a rate greater than 30 mm/yr. During the same time period, more than 30 mm of surface creep occurred on the Indiviso fault ruptured by the EMC earthquake. We performed inversions of DInSAR data to estimate the rate of volume changes at depth due to the geothermal production at the CPGF and the distribution of afterslip on the Indiviso fault. The maximum coseismic slip due to the EMC earthquake correlates with the Coulomb stress changes on the Indiviso fault due to fluid extraction at the CPGF. Afterslip occurs on the periphery of maximum coseismic slip areas. Time series analysis indicates that afterslip still occurs 6 years after the earthquake. Ground deformation time series in the vicinity of Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field from RADARSAT‐2 DInSAR during 2011–2016 Stress changes due to fluid extraction at Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field affected coseismic and postseismic slip on the Indiviso fault Observed afterslip on 2010 M7.2 El Mayor‐Cucapah earthquake fault continues for 6 years after the main shock
    Keywords: Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field ; Ground Deformation ; Afterslip ; El Mayor‐Cucapah Earthquake ; Subsidence ; Dinsar
    ISSN: 0094-8276
    E-ISSN: 1944-8007
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  • 8
    In: Geophysical Journal International, October 2011, Vol.187(1), pp.147-160
    Description: We present ground deformation measurements in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) using differential interferomeric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) observations collected by ALOS PALSAR during 2006–2010, and compare them with displacement observations from continuous GPS. We acquired and processed DInSAR images from two ascending paths (324 and 325) and one descending path (628) covering the TVZ, and produced linear deformation rates and time series of deformation. The DInSAR results were improved by using a modified version of the small baseline subset (SBAS) algorithm that simultaneously solves for deformation rates and residual topographic noise. The accuracy of the DInSAR displacement rates along line‐of‐sight to the satellite is 0.5–2 cm yr depending on the number of SAR images and their coherence. We found good agreement between the DInSAR‐derived displacement rates and those measured by continuous GPS for the two ascending paths (correlation 0.94 ± 0.01 and 0.89 ± 0.02); the DInSAR uncertainties were too large to make a useful comparison for the descending path (correlation 0.66 ± 0.03). We identified ground deformation due to groundwater and steam extraction for geothermal power. To demonstrate the geophysical application, we modelled the deformation results using simplified sources for some of the geothermal signals using ellipsoidal and tabular approximations.
    Keywords: Time Series Analysis ; Image Processing ; Satellite Geodesy ; Radar Interferometry ; Back‐Arc Basin Processes ; New Zealand
    ISSN: 0956-540X
    E-ISSN: 1365-246X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The journal of physical chemistry. B, 16 August 2018, Vol.122(32), pp.7821-7827
    Description: Entropy calculations represent one of the most challenging steps in obtaining the binding free energy in biomolecular systems. A novel computationally effective approach (IE) was recently proposed to calculate the entropy based on the computation of protein-ligand interaction energy directly from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We present a study focused on the application of this method to flexible molecular systems and compare its performance with well-established normal mode (NM) and quasiharmonic (QH) entropy calculation approaches. Our results demonstrated that the IE method is intended for calculating entropy change for binding partners in fixed conformations, as by the original definition of IE, and is not applicable to the molecular complexes in which the interacting partners undergo significant conformational changes during the binding process.
    Keywords: Fysikalisk Kemi ; Physical Chemistry ; Biofysik ; Biophysics ; Teoretisk Kemi ; Theoretical Chemistry;
    ISSN: 15206106
    E-ISSN: 1520-5207
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  • 10
    In: Geophysical Research Letters, 28 June 2015, Vol.42(12), pp.4816-4823
    Description: Nevado del Ruiz is part of a large volcano complex in the northern Andes of Colombia. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations from the RADARSAT‐2 satellite since 2011 show steady inflation of the volcano since 2012 at 3–4 cm/yr. The broad (〉20 km) deformation pattern from both ascending and descending track data constrain source models for either point or spheroidal sources, both located at 〉14 km beneath the surface (mean elevation 4.2 km) and 10 km SW of Nevado del Ruiz, below nearby Santa Isabel Volcano. Stress change computations for both sources in the context of a compressive regional stress indicate that dikes propagating from the source should become trapped in sills, possibly leading to a more complex pathway to the surface and explaining the significant lateral separation of the source and Nevado del Ruiz Volcano. Volcano source is 10 km SW of the summit, beneath volcano complex The volcano source is deep, nearly 15 km beneath the surface Source stress calculations imply lateral magma transport through sills
    Keywords: Nevado Del Ruiz Volcano ; Volcano Deformation ; Insar
    ISSN: 0094-8276
    E-ISSN: 1944-8007
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