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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 25 November 2016, Vol.354(6315), pp.967-968
    Description: If you have the choice, don't be a low-ranking, female rhesus monkey. As with many primates, rhesus social groups feature stable, linear dominance hierarchies. Those at the bottom work harder for their calories, have less access to social support (e.g., grooming), and are more subject to displacement aggression from a dominant individual (1). Not surprisingly, primate social subordination can produce adverse health outcomes. Depending on the species, gender, and setting, this includes elevated concentrations of glucocorticoids (the adrenal steroids secreted during stressful situations) and increased rates of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive dysfunction (2). On page 1041 of this issue, Snyder-Mackler et al. (3) show that primate social subordination promotes a proinflammatory response. Do the trials, tribulations, and inflammatory states of rhesus monkeys apply to us?
    Keywords: Primates
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 15 July 2011, Vol.333(6040), pp.293-4
    Description: Few historians are familiar with the encounter groups of the American robber barons in the 1880s. Captains of industry--John Astor, John Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt, and the like--suffered greatly from the burdens of spending enormous wealth, crushing unions, flouting laws, and buying politicians. And...
    Keywords: Behavior, Animal ; Hierarchy, Social ; Social Dominance ; Stress, Psychological ; Papio -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 30 October 2012, Vol.109(44), pp.17730-1
    Description: Author contributions: R.M.S. wrote the paper.
    Keywords: Leadership ; Stress, Psychological
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 4
    In: Nature Neuroscience, 2015, Vol.18(10), p.1344
    Description: It is a truism that the brain influences the body and that peripheral physiology influences the brain. Never is this clearer than during stress, where the subtlest emotions or the most abstract thoughts can initiate stress responses, with consequences throughout the body, and the endocrine transducers of stress alter cognition, affect and behavior. For a fervent materialist, few things in life bring more pleasure than contemplating the neurobiology of stress.
    Keywords: Stress (Psychology) -- Health Aspects ; Brain Mapping -- Observations ; Cognition -- Observations;
    ISSN: 1097-6256
    E-ISSN: 15461726
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  • 5
    In: Nature Neuroscience, 2016, Vol.19(11), p.1387
    Description: The realm of human uniqueness steadily shrinks; reflecting this, other primates suffer from states closer to depression or anxiety than 'depressive-like' or 'anxiety-like behavior'. Nonetheless, there remain psychiatric domains unique to humans. Appreciating these continuities and discontinuities must inform the choice of neurobiological approach used in studying any animal model of psychiatric disorders. More fundamentally, the continuities reveal how aspects of psychiatric malaise run deeper than our species' history.
    Keywords: Depression (Mood Disorder) – Models ; Depression (Mood Disorder) – Research ; Animal Research Models – Usage ; Animal Research Models – Research;
    ISSN: 1097-6256
    E-ISSN: 1546-1726
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science, 29 April 2005, Vol.308(5722), pp.648-652
    Description: Dominance hierarchies occur in numerous social species, and rank within them can greatly influence the quality of life of an animal. In this review, I consider how rank can also influence physiology and health. I first consider whether it is high- or low-ranking animals that are most stressed in a dominance hierarchy; this turns out to vary as a function of the social organization in different species and populations. I then review how the stressful characteristics of social rank have adverse adrenocortical, cardiovascular, reproductive, immunological, and neurobiological consequences. Finally, I consider how these findings apply to the human realm of health, disease, and socioeconomic status.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Socioeconomics ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Behavioral sciences -- Ethology -- Animal behavior ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36092
    Description: Innate behaviors are shaped by contingencies built during evolutionary history. On the other hand, environmental stimuli play a significant role in shaping behavior. In particular, a short period of environmental enrichment can enhance cognitive behavior, modify effects of stress on learned behaviors and induce brain plasticity. It is unclear if modulation by environment can extend to innate behaviors which are preserved by intense selection pressure. In the present report we investigate this issue by studying effects of relatively short (14-days) environmental enrichment on two prominent innate behaviors in rats, avoidance of predator odors and ability of males to attract mates. We show that enrichment has strong effects on both the innate behaviors: a) enriched males were more avoidant of a predator odor than non-enriched controls, and had a greater rise in corticosterone levels in response to the odor; and b) had higher testosterone levels and were more attractive to females. Additionally, we demonstrate decrease in dendritic length of neurons of ventrolateral nucleus of hypothalamus, important for reproductive mate-choice and increase in the same in dorsomedial nucleus, important for defensive behavior. Thus, behavioral and hormonal observations provide evidence that a short period of environmental manipulation can alter innate behaviors, providing a good example of gene-environment interaction.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Physiology ; Neuroscience ; Evolutionary Biology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science, 09 August 1996, Vol.273(5276), pp.749-750
    Description: Sustained stress induces overly high concentrations of glucocorticoids (GCs), which have been shown to damage the hippocampus in rodent brains. New studies link hippocampal atrophy in humans to high GC levels due to depression, Cushing's syndrome and combat stress.
    Keywords: Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Clinical psychology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Clinical psychology ; Political science -- Military science -- Armed forces ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Neuroscience ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology ; Health sciences -- Medical diagnosis -- Diagnostic methods
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Science, 12 September 1997, Vol.277(5332), pp.1620-1621
    Description: A report shows that subtle stimulation in a rat's infancy has marked consequences that are probably life-long; the effects of "neonatal handling" in rats and how they relate to humans are discussed.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Biomolecules ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Physiology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology ; Behavioral sciences -- Psychology -- Cognitive psychology ; Behavioral sciences -- Ethology -- Animal behavior ; Behavioral sciences -- Sociology -- Human societies ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Developmental biology ; Social sciences -- Population studies -- Human populations ; Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Biomolecules
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Physiology & Behavior, August, 2014, Vol.135, p.98(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.05.036 Byline: Doruk Golcu, Rahiwa Z. Gebre, Robert M. Sapolsky Abstract: The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) manipulates the behavior of its rodent intermediate host to facilitate its passage to its feline definitive host. This is accomplished by a reduction of the aversive response that rodents show towards cat odors, which likely increases the predation risk. Females on average show similar changes as males. However, behaviors that relate to aversion and attraction are usually strongly influenced by the estrus cycle. In this study, we replicated behavioral effects of T. gondii in female rats, as well as expanded it to two novel behavioral paradigms. We also characterized the role of the estrus cycle in the behavioral effects of T. gondii on female rats. Uninfected females preferred to spend more time in proximity to rabbit rather than bobcat urine, and in a dark chamber rather than a lit chamber. Infected females lost both of these preferences, and also spent more time investigating social novelty (foreign bedding in their environment). Taken together, these data suggest that infection makes females less risk averse and more exploratory. Furthermore, this effect was influenced by the estrus cycle. Uninfected rats preferred rabbit urine to bobcat urine throughout the cycle except at estrus and metestrus. In contrast, infected rats lost this preference at every stage of the cycle except estrus. Commensurate with the possibility that this was a hormone-dependent effect, infected rats had elevated levels of circulating progesterone, a known anxiolytic. Article History: Received 25 March 2013; Revised 14 April 2014; Accepted 28 May 2014
    Keywords: Sex Hormones
    ISSN: 0031-9384
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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