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  • 1
    UID:
    b3kat_BV047930504
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (268 Seiten) , 21 x 28cm
    ISBN: 9789264250062 , 9789264244580
    Content: Les boissons alcoolisées, et leur consommation nocive, sont depuis toujours un trait commun des sociétés humaines. L'alcool est l'une des premières causes de morbidité et de mortalité prématurée dans le monde. Il est en effet à l'origine d'un décès sur 17, et d'une proportion importante de handicaps, surtout chez les hommes. Dans les pays de l'OCDE, la consommation d'alcool est près de deux fois supérieure à la moyenne mondiale. Son coût social est estimé à plus de 1 % du PIB dans les pays à revenu élevé et intermédiaire. Quand elle n'est pas liée à une dépendance, la consommation d'alcool est un choix individuel, déterminé par des normes sociales et associé de fortes connotations culturelles.
    Content: Cela se traduit par des schémas uniques de disparités sociales face à la consommation d'alcool, les plus aisés étant dans certains cas plus enclins à boire dangereusement, et par une polarisation des problèmes de consommation excessive aux deux extrémités du spectre social. Certaines habitudes de consommation d'alcool ont un impact social, ce qui justifie amplement sur le plan économique le fait que les pouvoirs publics cherchent à influencer les comportements en prenant des mesures axées sur la réduction des préjudices, y compris ceux subis par les personnes autres que les consommateurs. Certaines stratégies sont plus efficaces et judicieuses que d'autres, selon qu'elles parviennent à faire évoluer les normes sociales et à cibler les groupes les plus vulnérables. La présente publication examine dans le détail les tendances et les disparités sociales liées à la consommation d'alcool.
    Content: Elle présente en outre une vaste analyse des effets sanitaires, sociaux et économiques des principales politiques de lutte contre les méfaits de l'alcool dans trois pays de l'OCDE (Allemagne, Canada et République tchèque), et dégage des messages pertinents pour l'action des pouvoirs publics dans un plus grand nombre de pays
    Language: French
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
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  • 2
    Online Resource
    Online Resource
    Paris : OECD Publishing
    UID:
    b3kat_BV047929483
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (236 Seiten) , 21 x 28cm
    ISBN: 9789264235878 , 9789264181069
    Content: Alcoholic beverages, and their harmful use, have been familiar fixtures in human societies since the beginning of recorded history. Worldwide, alcohol is a leading cause of ill health and premature mortality. It accounts for 1 in 17 deaths, and for a significant proportion of disabilities, especially in men. In OECD countries, alcohol consumption is about twice the world average. Its social costs are estimated in excess of 1% of GDP in high- and middle-income countries. When it is not the result of addiction, alcohol use is an individual choice, driven by social norms, with strong cultural connotations. This is reflected in unique patterns of social disparity in drinking, showing the well-to-do in some cases more prone to hazardous use of alcohol, and a polarisation of problem-drinking at the two ends of the social spectrum. Certain patterns of drinking have social impacts, which provide a strong economic rationale for governments to influence the use of alcohol through policies aimed at curbing harms, including those occurring to people other than drinkers. Some policy approaches are more effective and efficient than others, depending on their ability to trigger changes in social norms, and on how well they can target the groups that are most at risk. This book provides a detailed examination of trends and social disparities in alcohol consumption. It offers a wide-ranging assessment of the health, social and economic impacts of key policy options for tackling alcohol-related harms in three OECD countries (Canada, the Czech Republic and Germany), extracting relevant policy messages for a broader set of countries
    Language: English
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
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  • 3
    UID:
    gbv_788926861
    Format: Online-Ressource (50 S.) , graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: OECD health working papers 66
    Content: Taxes and other fiscal measures on health-related commodities are in widespread use. Alcoholic beverages and tobacco products have been subjected to taxation for a long time in most countries. Several OECD governments have passed legislation to increase existing taxes or to introduce new taxes on foods high in salt, sugar or fat in the past few years. Traditionally, commodity taxes have been primarily seen as a source of fiscal revenues and a way to address consumption externalities. More recently, an increased emphasis has been placed on the potential health benefits of commodity taxation, as evidence emerged of the adverse public health, social and economic consequences of the consumption of a range of commodities. This paper provides a review of the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence on the key factors that governments must address when considering the adoption of fiscal measures for health promotion, highlighting the strengths, as well as the limitations and pitfalls, of specific measures. The main focus of this paper is on taxes on health-related commodities, although a range of other fiscal measures may potentially be used in health promotion. Existing evidence of effects on consumption and health outcomes points to the conclusion that taxes on healthrelated commodities can be a powerful tool for health promotion, although the variety and complexity of the effects they generate require careful consideration by policy makers who intend to adopt new taxes or reform existing ones. The arguments in support of taxes being used to attain public health objectives are strong for tobacco products and alcoholic beverages, but less clear-cut for foods, in which case the value of using taxes is highly dependent on their design and on the context in which they would be applied.
    Note: Zsfassung in franz. Sprache , Systemvoraussetzungen: Acrobat Reader.
    Language: English
    Keywords: Arbeitspapier ; Graue Literatur
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  • 4
    UID:
    gbv_730027031
    Format: 49 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD Education Working Papers no.39
    Content: An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years. Existing evidence provides strong suggestions that such epidemic has affected certain social groups more than others. In particular, education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of obesity, especially among women. A range of analyses of health survey data from Australia, Canada, England and Korea were undertaken with the aim of exploring the relationship between education and obesity. The findings of these analyses show a broadly linear relationship between the number of years spent in full-time education and the probability of obesity, with most educated individuals displaying lower rates of the condition (the only exception being men in Korea). This suggests that marginal returns to education, in terms of reduction in obesity rates, are approximately constant throughout the education spectrum. The findings obtained confirm that the education gradient in obesity is stronger in women than in men. Differences between genders are minor in Australia and Canada, more pronounced in England and major in Korea. The causal nature of the link between education and obesity has not yet been proven with certainty; however, using data from France we were able to ascertain that the direction of causality appears to run mostly from education to obesity, as the strength of the association is only minimally affected when accounting for reduced educational opportunities for those who are obese in young age. Most of the effect of education on obesity is direct. Small components of the overall effect of education on obesity are mediated by an improved socio-economic status linked to higher levels of education, and by a higher level of education of other family members, associated with an individual’s own level of education. The positive effect of education on obesity is likely to be determined by at least three factors: (a) greater access to health-related information and improved ability to handle such information; (b) clearer perception of the risks associated with lifestyle choices; and, (c) improved self-control and consistency of preferences over time. However, it is not just the absolute level of education achieved by an individual that matters, but also how such level of education compares with that of the individual’s peers. The higher the individual’s education relative to his or her peers’, the lower is the probability of the individual being obese.
    Language: English
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  • 5
    UID:
    gbv_729999629
    Format: 40 p
    ISSN: 1995-2856
    Content: An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years. Existing evidence provides a strong suggestion that such an epidemic has affected certain social groups more than others. In particular, a better education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of obesity, especially among women. This paper sheds light on the nature and the strength of the correlation between education and obesity. Analyses of health survey data from Australia, Canada, England, and Korea were undertaken with the aim of exploring this relationship. Social gradients in obesity were assessed across the entire education spectrum, overall and in different population sub-groups. Furthermore, investigations testing for mediation effects and for the causal nature of the links observed were undertaken to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between education and obesity.
    In: OECD, OECD journal: economic studies, Paris : Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development, 2008, Vol. 2011, no. 1, p. 1-40, 1995-2856
    Language: English
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  • 6
    UID:
    gbv_730005488
    Format: 108 p. , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD Health Working Papers no.48
    Language: English
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  • 7
    UID:
    b3kat_BV047939535
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (40 Seiten) , 21 x 28cm
    Content: An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years. Existing evidence provides a strong suggestion that such an epidemic has affected certain social groups more than others. In particular, a better education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of obesity, especially among women. This paper sheds light on the nature and the strength of the correlation between education and obesity. Analyses of health survey data from Australia, Canada, England, and Korea were undertaken with the aim of exploring this relationship. Social gradients in obesity were assessed across the entire education spectrum, overall and in different population sub-groups. Furthermore, investigations testing for mediation effects and for the causal nature of the links observed were undertaken to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between education and obesity
    Language: English
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
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  • 8
    UID:
    b3kat_BV047932804
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (48 Seiten) , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD Education Working Papers
    Content: An epidemic of obesity has been developing in virtually all OECD countries over the last 30 years. Existing evidence provides strong suggestions that such epidemic has affected certain social groups more than others. In particular, education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of obesity, especially among women. A range of analyses of health survey data from Australia, Canada, England and Korea were undertaken with the aim of exploring the relationship between education and obesity. The findings of these analyses show a broadly linear relationship between the number of years spent in full-time education and the probability of obesity, with most educated individuals displaying lower rates of the condition (the only exception being men in Korea). This suggests that marginal returns to education, in terms of reduction in obesity rates, are approximately constant throughout the education spectrum.
    Content: The findings obtained confirm that the education gradient in obesity is stronger in women than in men. Differences between genders are minor in Australia and Canada, more pronounced in England and major in Korea. The causal nature of the link between education and obesity has not yet been proven with certainty; however, using data from France we were able to ascertain that the direction of causality appears to run mostly from education to obesity, as the strength of the association is only minimally affected when accounting for reduced educational opportunities for those who are obese in young age. Most of the effect of education on obesity is direct. Small components of the overall effect of education on obesity are mediated by an improved socio-economic status linked to higher levels of education, and by a higher level of education of other family members, associated with an individual's own level of education.
    Content: The positive effect of education on obesity is likely to be determined by at least three factors: (a) greater access to health-related information and improved ability to handle such information; (b) clearer perception of the risks associated with lifestyle choices; and, (c) improved self-control and consistency of preferences over time. However, it is not just the absolute level of education achieved by an individual that matters, but also how such level of education compares with that of the individual's peers. The higher the individual's education relative to his or her peers', the lower is the probability of the individual being obese
    Language: English
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
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  • 9
    UID:
    b3kat_BV047933842
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (39 Seiten)
    Series Statement: OECD Health Working Papers
    Content: Health care expenditure per person, after accounting for changes in overall price levels, began to slow in many OECD countries in the early-to-mid 2000s, well before the economic and fiscal crisis. Using available estimates from the OECD's System of Health Accounts (SHA) database, we explore common trends in health care expenditure since 1996 in a set of 22 OECD countries. We assess the extent to which the trends observed are the results of cyclical economic influences, and the respective contributions of changes in relative prices, health care volumes and coverage to the slowdown in health care expenditure growth. Our analysis suggests that cyclical factors may account for a little less than one half of the estimated slowdown in health care spending since the crisis, suggesting that structural changes have contributed to the trends.
    Content: Before the crisis the slowdown in health care expenditure growth was accounted for by health care prices growing less than general prices and a reduction in care volumes, whereas the latter accounts for most of the steeper deceleration after the crisis. Although both privately and publically financed health care expenditure grew at a reduced pace during the study period, the sharp post-crisis deceleration happened mostly in the public component. When examined by function, the slowdown in publicly-financed expenditure has been largest in curative and rehabilitative care (particularly after the crisis) and in medical goods (especially pharmaceuticals), whereas the deceleration in the privately financed component is largely in medical goods (including pharmaceuticals).
    Content: We conclude that structural changes in publicly financed health care have constrained the growth of care volumes (especially) and prices leading to a marked reduction in health care expenditure growth rates, beyond what could be expected based on cyclical economic fluctuations. We examine a range of government policies enacted in a selection of OECD countries that likely contributed to the structural changes observed in our analysis
    Language: English
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
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  • 10
    UID:
    b3kat_BV047931144
    Format: 1 Online-Ressource (82 Seiten) , 21 x 29.7cm
    Series Statement: OECD Health Working Papers
    Content: Harmful alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of ill health and premature mortality worldwide. This paper illustrates trends and social disparities in alcohol consumption and harmful drinking in 20 OECD countries. Analyses are based on individual-level data from national health and lifestyle surveys. Alcohol consumption, on average, remained relatively stable in OECD countries over the past 20 years, but with significant variations between countries. However, a closer look at trends and patterns of consumption in specific population groups reveals a more complex picture. Young people are increasingly taking up harmful drinking. Women with high education and high socio-economic status are more likely to engage in harmful drinking than their less educated and less well-off counterparts, while the opposite is observed in men. Levels and patterns of alcohol consumption have an impact on labour market. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with less employment opportunities, high wage penalties, and lower productivity, whereas light and moderate consumption are associated with positive labour market outcomes. By shedding light on some of the dimensions of alcohol consumption in OECD countries, this paper aims at contributing to the design of appropriate health policies to prevent alcohol-related harms. The findings presented in the paper provide a basis for a quantitative assessment of the impacts of alternative policy options, and may contribute to a better targeting of such policies
    Language: English
    URL: Volltext  (URL des Erstveröffentlichers)
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