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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 25 November 2011, Vol.334(6059), pp.1141-4
    Description: The mitochondrial genome is believed to be maternally inherited in many eukaryotes. Sperm-derived paternal mitochondria enter the oocyte cytoplasm upon fertilization and then normally disappear during early embryogenesis. However, the mechanism responsible for this clearance has been unknown. Here, we show that autophagy, which delivers cytosolic components to lysosomes for degradation, is required for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans. Immediately after fertilization, sperm-derived components trigger the localized induction of autophagy around sperm mitochondria. Autophagosomes engulf paternal mitochondria, resulting in their lysosomal degradation during early embryogenesis. In autophagy-defective zygotes, paternal mitochondria and their genome remain even in the first larval stage. Thus, fertilization-triggered autophagy is required for selective degradation of paternal mitochondria and thereby maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA.
    Keywords: Autophagy ; Fertilization ; Caenorhabditis Elegans -- Embryology ; Embryo, Nonmammalian -- Physiology ; Mitochondria -- Metabolism ; Phagosomes -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Social Science & Medicine, October 2012, Vol.75(8), pp.1450-1459
    Description: Although socioeconomic status is acknowledged to be an important determinant of modern health care utilisation, most analyses to date have failed to include traditional systems as alternative, or joint, providers of care. In developing countries, where pluralistic care systems are common, individuals are likely to be using multiple sources of health care, and the order in which systems are chosen is likely to vary according to income. This paper uses self-collected data from households in Ghana and econometric techniques (biprobit modelling and ordered logit) to show that rising income is associated with modern care use whilst decreasing income is associated with traditional care use. When utilisation is analysed in order, results show rising income to have a positive effect on choice of modern care as a first provider, whilst choosing it second, third or never is associated with decreasing income. The effects of income on utilisation patterns of traditional care are stronger: as income rises, utilisation of traditional care as a first choice decreases. Policy should incorporate traditional care into the general utilisation framework and recognise that strategies which increase income may encourage wider utilisation of modern over traditional care, whilst high levels of poverty will see continued use of traditional care. ► Joint estimation models can be used to model modern and traditional medicines utilisation together. ► Rising income is associated with modern care use whilst decreasing income is associated with traditional care use. ► The ordering of providers chosen also varies with income. ► Modern care is shown to be a normal good, whereas traditional care is an inferior good.
    Keywords: Use of Health Care ; Utilisation ; Traditional Medicines ; Modern Health Care ; Ghana ; Medicine ; Social Sciences (General) ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0277-9536
    E-ISSN: 1873-5347
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: World Development, November 2012, Vol.40(11), pp.2275-2289
    Description: One of the primary objectives of health system reform throughout the world is to guarantee that use of health care is as high for the poor as it is for the most affluent in society, once need is controlled for. The WHO ranks health systems according to evidence on such inequalities. However, in measuring equity in the use of health care, studies typically disregard the use of traditional medicines. Therefore, it is assumed that the failure to use modern health care is equivalent to not receiving any health care at all. Although traditional medicines are less effective than modern medicines, they have the potential to provide relief and cure and are commonly used. Using data from Ghana, this paper hypothesizes and finds evidence for reductions in inequality estimates once traditional medicines are taken into account. Further, it explores inequities in utilization of modern medicine (from public institutions, private sources, and by self) and traditional medicines (by self and through healers) and finds the former to be pro rich whereas the latter is pro poor. These figures are then decomposed into socioeconomic determinants to show nonneed factors to be significant contributors of horizontal inequity.
    Keywords: Traditional Medicines ; Access to Health Care ; Horizontal Inequities ; Ghana ; Sub Saharan Africa ; Economics
    ISSN: 0305-750X
    E-ISSN: 1873-5991
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: World Development, 2011, Vol.39(12), pp.2091-2104
    Description: Debate about the impact of so-called “emerging donors” is becoming increasingly heated. The common reaction to these donors, as distinct from that accorded to traditional donors, has had the unfortunate effect of obscuring two important aspects: (1) commonalities between emerging donors and traditional Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors; and (2) diversity among the emerging donors themselves. With primary focus on the second aspect, this article examines the effects of four emerging donors—China, India, South Korea, and Thailand—on Cambodia’s development, with a specific focus on the processes of aid provision employed by these new donors. This article also challenges the conventional view that aid fragmentation should be reduced .
    Keywords: Emerging Donors ; Asia ; Cambodia ; Harmonization ; Aid Fragmentation ; Institution ; Economics
    ISSN: 0305-750X
    E-ISSN: 1873-5991
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 12 July 2011, Vol.108(28), pp.11680-5
    Description: Insects sense the taste of foods and toxic compounds in their environment through the gustatory system. Genetic studies using fruit flies have suggested that putative seven-transmembrane gustatory receptors (Grs) expressed in gustatory sensory neurons are required for responses to specific tastants. We reconstituted sugar responses of Bombyx mori Gr-9 (BmGr-9), a silkworm Gr, in two heterologous expression systems. Xenopus oocytes or HEK293T cells expressing BmGr-9 selectively responded to D-fructose with an influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and a nonselective cation current conductance in a G protein-independent manner. Outside-out patch-clamp recording of BmGr-9-expressing cell membranes provides evidence supporting the hypothesis that BmGr-9 constitutes a ligand-gated ion channel. The fructose-activated current associated with BmGr-9 was suppressed by other hexoses, including glucose and sorbose. The activation and inhibition of insect Gr ion channels may be the molecular basis for the decoding system that discriminates subtle differences in sweet taste. Finally, Drosophila melanogaster Gr43a (DmGr43a), a BmGr-9 ortholog, also responded to D-fructose, suggesting that DmGr43a relatives appear to compose the family of fructose receptors.
    Keywords: Bombyx -- Metabolism ; Insect Proteins -- Metabolism ; Ion Channels -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The journal of physical chemistry. B, 15 December 2011, Vol.115(49), pp.14874-7
    Description: Organism-dependent biogenic quartz formation in the steady-state environment is a phenomenon that can address the global environmental issues such as diagenetic evolution, biogeochemical cycling, and reservoir formation, but detailed studies have not been performed so far. Here, steady-state quartz formation is studied for amorphous silica of different biogenic origin on the basis of the recently established mechanistic model [Sato et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 18131]. Amorphous silica originated from rice husks possesses angstrom-scale pores larger by 1.3 Å than those originated from diatom algae. The slight difference of pore size dramatically reduces activation energies of water diffusion by 78% and reactions of water molecules at pore surfaces by 47%, resulting in the reduction of activation energy of biogenic quartz formation by 64%. The present findings evidence that angstrom-scale pores intrinsically residing in the amorphous matrix are the organism-dependent origin of steady-state biogenic quartz formation.
    Keywords: Quartz -- Chemistry ; Silicon Dioxide -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 15206106
    E-ISSN: 1520-5207
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, Sept, 2014, Vol.105, p.106(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.05.006 Byline: Misato Sato Abstract: As increasingly complex modelling approaches to quantifying embodied carbon in trade have become popular, the lack of disaggregation has been identified as a key weakness. This paper quantifies embodied carbon in bilateral trade at the product level. This is done using the material balance approach, by collecting product carbon intensity factors from multiple data sources and combining with bilateral trade data in physical quantities. The dataset covers trades between 195 countries for 1080 products in 2006. The detailed mapping of trade embodied carbon provides detailed insights into the nature of the flows that were previously masked or under-reported. For example, it finds that the lion's share of global trade embodied emissions are concentrated in a relatively small number of product categories of traded goods, suggesting that focusing mitigation efforts and trade-measures on these products would be an effective strategy to address potential carbon leakage, and to decarbonise international supply chains. The results also highlight that embodied carbon is focused in regional trade, thus regional harmonisation of climate mitigation policy will be effective in mitigating leakage. Article History: Received 25 February 2013; Revised 25 April 2014; Accepted 19 May 2014
    Keywords: International Trade
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Chemical Physics Letters, 2011, Vol.515(4), pp.214-216
    Description: ► An empirical rate equation for association reactions was proposed. ► The rate constants of oxygen atoms with several olefins were tested. ► The temperature dependence from 20 to 500 K was demonstrated. ► It was found that the proposed equation reproduces experimental data satisfactorily. An empirical rate equation , where and are parameters, is proposed to express the rate constants of association reactions. By combining it with the Arrhenius equation, the temperature dependence of the rate constants of oxygen atoms with several olefins from 20 to 500 K can be properly demonstrated.
    Keywords: Chemistry
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    E-ISSN: 1873-4448
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  • 9
    In: Modern Language Journal, September 2013, Vol.97(3), pp.611-633
    Description: This study investigates the beliefs of second language learners regarding peer interaction and peer corrective feedback (CF) as well as the feasibility of a second language intervention, aimed at changing those beliefs. The classroom intervention was designed to promote collaborative learning and to train learners to provide CF to each other. Participants were university-level learners in 4 required English classes in Japan (N = 167), each assigned to 1 of 4 treatment conditions. While all experimental classes were given peer interaction instruction, 2 classes were given CF training (prompts or recasts). Another class served as the control group. Questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention and selected learners (n = 36) were interviewed. The quantitative (factor-analysis and matched-samples t-tests) and qualitative (grounded theory methodology) analyses revealed that, while learners held positive beliefs about peer interaction and peer CF from the onset, the intervention facilitated trust in their classmates as learning resources, and those who were given CF training displayed an increased willingness to and confidence in providing CF. Also, 2 classroom-specific variables emerged for the intervention to be effective on language development: a collaborative classroom environment and positive social relationships between learners. Adapted from the source document
    Keywords: Peer Interaction ; Peer Corrective Feedback ; Classroom Intervention ; Learner Beliefs ; Factor Analysis ; Mixed Methods
    ISSN: 0026-7902
    E-ISSN: 1540-4781
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: International journal of production economics, 2012, Vol.140(2), pp. 579-585
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2012.05.030 Byline: Yuji Sato Keywords: Budget planning; Investment for safety; Quantification; Intangible factor; LP; AHP Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop a framework for optimizing budget planning for investment in safety measures in a chemical company. Decision making for strategic investment for safety is complicated due to the intangible factors that enter into both the evaluation and choice of appropriate safety measures, and the individual situation of plants. This study addressed these issues by combining Linear Programing and Analytic Hierarchy Process, showing how to quantify inherent risks within chemical plants and how to optimize budget planning for safety within a chemical company. Author Affiliation: Graduate School of Policy Science, Mie Chukyo University, 1846 Kubo, Matsusaka, Mie 515-8511, Japan Article History: Received 14 April 2010; Accepted 10 May 2012
    Keywords: Chemical Industry -- Investments ; Budgets;
    ISSN: 09255273
    E-ISSN: 18737579
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