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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary International, July 30, 2015, Vol.376, p.1(4)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.04.057 Byline: Daniela Sauer Author Affiliation: Institute of Geography, University of Gottingen, Goldschmidtstr. 5, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany
    ISSN: 1040-6182
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Research, 2015, Vol.53(6), p.577-591
    Description: Soil chronosequence data may easily be interpreted in a too straightforward and simple a way if some relevant theoretical background is not kept in mind. This paper discusses pedological concepts that are considered relevant for soil chronosequence studies and may provide some guidance for establishing soil chronosequences and interpreting obtained data. Concepts related to the soil system, soil body, and soil-forming factors are introduced, and advantages and disadvantages of different types of soil chronosequences are pointed out. The question of whether soil formation reaches steady-state is raised, leading to the conclusion that some soil properties achieve steady-state whereas others do not, and that soil formation as a whole may only rarely reach a kind of near steady-state. The influence of climate and relief, and associated three-dimensional water and material fluxes in landscapes, are addressed, and concepts related to pedogenic processes, soil properties, and energy and matter transfers as drivers of soil formation are discussed. Feedback systems and thresholds in soil development are highlighted, the concept of progressive vs regressive pedogenesis is introduced, and potential shortcomings of soil chronosequence studies are addressed. Implications of each of the mentioned concepts for soil chronosequence studies are pointed out.
    Keywords: chronofunctions; pedogenesis; soil development; soil properties; soil sequences.
    ISSN: 1838-675X
    E-ISSN: 1838-6768
    E-ISSN: 1446568X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Catena, February 2016, Vol.137, pp.581-582
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2015.10.007 Byline: Daniela Sauer, Rosa M. Poch, Karl Stahr Article History: Received 13 August 2015; Accepted 13 August 2015
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Geography ; Geology
    ISSN: 0341-8162
    E-ISSN: 1872-6887
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary International, 16 November 2012, Vol.279-280, pp.429-429
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 1040-6182
    E-ISSN: 1873-4553
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(6), p.e39928
    Description: In this manuscript, we describe the identification of highly pathogenic bacteria using an assay coupling biothreat group-specific PCR with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) run on an Ibis PLEX-ID high-throughput platform. The biothreat cluster assay identifies most of the potential bioterrorism-relevant microorganisms including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei and pseudomallei, Brucella species, and Coxiella burnetii. DNA from 45 different reference materials with different formulations and different concentrations were chosen and sent to a service screening laboratory that uses the PCR/ESI-MS platform to provide a microbial identification service. The standard reference materials were produced out of a repository built up in the framework of the EU funded project “Establishment of Quality Assurances for Detection of Highly Pathogenic Bacteria of Potential Bioterrorism Risk” (EQADeBa). All samples were correctly identified at least to the genus level.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Microbiology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of plant nutrition and soil science = Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde, 2010, Vol.173(6), pp.822-842
    Description: Soil-chronosequence studies are useful to assess relationships between land-surface ages and stages of soil formation. Such relationships may then be applied to establish relative chronologies of development of land surfaces of unknown ages, contributing to landscape-history reconstruction. For this purpose, it is important to identify those soil properties that are most closely related to soil age. This article reviews soil-chronosequence studies from Mediterranean regions in Europe and California. Soil properties described in the field and soil-development indices based on field criteria that have been used in the studies are evaluated. The properties total texture, rubification, clay films, dry consistence, and soil thickness are identified as useful and easy-to-obtain soil parameters, which are generally closely related to soil age. Most soil properties exhibit their greatest changes during certain phases of soil development, e.g., soil structure in soils 100,000 y. The specific time spans of major changes of soil properties need to be considered, when looking for appropriate parameters to study a particular chronosequence. Indices, which combine several soil properties having their greatest changes in different phases of soil development, are useful to study soil chronosequences comprising large time spans, e.g., from Holocene to Middle Pleistocene. It is important to be aware that soil chronofunctions obtained from Pleistocene soils integrate rates of soil-forming processes over periods of very variable climate and environment, and that soil development crossed internal and external pedogenic thresholds that are not reflected in soil chronofunctions. ; Includes references ; p. 822-842.
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, December 2010, Vol.173(6), pp.822-842
    Description: Soil‐chronosequence studies are useful to assess relationships between land‐surface ages and stages of soil formation. Such relationships may then be applied to establish relative chronologies of development of land surfaces of unknown ages, contributing to landscape‐history reconstruction. For this purpose, it is important to identify those soil properties that are most closely related to soil age. This article reviews soil‐chronosequence studies from Mediterranean regions in Europe and California. Soil properties described in the field and soil‐development indices based on field criteria that have been used in the studies are evaluated. The properties total texture, rubification, clay films, dry consistence, and soil thickness are identified as useful and easy‐to‐obtain soil parameters, which are generally closely related to soil age. Most soil properties exhibit their greatest changes during certain phases of soil development, soil structure in soils 100,000 y. The specific time spans of major changes of soil properties need to be considered, when looking for appropriate parameters to study a particular chronosequence. Indices, which combine several soil properties having their greatest changes in different phases of soil development, are useful to study soil chronosequences comprising large time spans, from Holocene to Middle Pleistocene. It is important to be aware that soil chronofunctions obtained from Pleistocene soils integrate rates of soil‐forming processes over periods of very variable climate and environment, and that soil development crossed internal and external pedogenic thresholds that are not reflected in soil chronofunctions.
    Keywords: Soil Development ; Soil Chronosequences ; Mediterranean ; Rubification ; Profile‐Development Index
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2015, Vol.15(6), pp.1437-1453
    Description: Byline: Daniela Sauer (1), Christine Stein (2), Stephan Glatzel (4), Jurgen Kuhn (3), Mehdi Zarei (2), Karl Stahr (2) Keywords: Duricrusts; Opal-A; Opal-CT; Palygorskite; Portugal; Silica Abstract: Purpose This paper reports on extremely thick and massive duricrusts in soils of two basins in the Alentejo (southern Portugal). Since different types of duricrusts (calcretes, silcretes and palycretes) have been reported from other regions in the Mediterranean, the purpose of this study was to identify the cementing agents in the duricrusts and to compare their composition in the two basins. Moreover, the study aimed at identifying the processes involved in duricrust formation, and especially the role of topography and lateral water and element transport in the landscape, and drawing conclusions about environmental conditions and time of duricrust formation. Materials and methods After studying an extensive number of road cuts in the field and mapping soil patterns in parts of the two basins by manual augering, ten pedons were selected for detailed description and sampling. Thin sections were analysed under a petrographic microscope, focusing on the micromorphology and optical properties of the cementing materials. Selected samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to reconfirm the optical identification. The laboratory analyses included pH, carbonate contents, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Results and discussion The duricrusts in the eastern Sado basin are indurated by silica. Combination of XRD and thin section analysis allowed to identify opal-CT as a major component, while opal-A is present to a lesser extent, and chalcedony is very rare. The cementing materials of the duricrusts in the Oriola basin are palygorskite and calcite, which may occur alone or in combination within a soil profile. Conclusions The thick duricrusts formed in the basins through precipitation of calcite, palygorskite and silica from lateral water flows, which ran from the Serra de Portel into the basins, during short moist seasons in a generally warm, semi-arid climate with strong evapotranspiration. Lithology of the upper catchment areas (element sources) and topography control the spatial distribution of the different duricrusts. Their formation took place mainly during the Pliocene. Palygorskite transformation to smectite in the upper parts of the palycretes indicates that palygorskite is unstable in the present (more humid, typical Mediterranean) climate. This study demonstrates the potential role of lateral water and element transport in landscapes that need to be considered in pedological studies and concepts, and the use of mineral indicators of past climates such as palygorskite and the ageing stage of silica precipitations as tools for reconstructing environmental conditions and possible time of duricrust formation. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute of Geography, Dresden University of Technology, Helmholtzstr. 10, 01069, Dresden, Germany (2) Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, University of Hohenheim, Emil-Wolff-Str. 27, 70599, Stuttgart, Germany (3) Institute of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476, Potsdam-Golm, Germany (4) Geoecology Group, Department of Geography and Regional Research, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Article History: Registration Date: 12/01/2015 Received Date: 14/01/2014 Accepted Date: 12/01/2015 Online Date: 29/01/2015 Article note: Responsible editor: Arnaud Temme
    Keywords: Duricrusts ; Opal-A ; Opal-CT ; Palygorskite ; Portugal ; Silica
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary International, 2010, Vol.222(1), pp.48-63
    Description: For decades, the marine terraces in the Metaponto area have been the subject of discussions concerning their number, sedimentology, genesis and age. This paper contributes to landscape history reconstruction from a pedogenetic view. The marine terraces are generally covered by loamy sediments, which have been interpreted in previous works as lagoonal and/or alluvial sediments, deposited shortly after the emergence of the land surface above sea level. Pedogenetic investigation, including field observations (e.g. soil colour, intensity of weathering, precipitation of secondary carbonates) and Fe /Fe ratio, silt/clay ratio and carbonate content, reveals that the usual sedimentation history on the terraces includes a period of soil formation between the deposition of the marine and that of the alluvial sediments. Most likely, soil formation began after the relative sea level maximum within the same interglacial during which the marine terrace formed. Later, alluvial sediments accumulated during a time of periodic flooding, while soil development in the underlying marine sediments probably continued at reduced rates. One central question of this study is whether soil formation indicates progressive ages of the terraces. The complex landscape history involving several sedimentation and erosion phases makes the correlation of soil development stages with terrace ages difficult. Nevertheless, maximum Fe /Fe ratios and (Ca + Mg + K + Na)/Al ratios of the soils developed in the different sediments plotted vs. assumed terrace age indicate increasing soil development. The relationship between Fe /Fe ratios and terrace age can be best described by power ( = 0.89) or logarithmic functions ( = 0.72), both describing a strong increase in pedogenic iron in the first 100 ka which slows down afterwards. (Ca + Mg + K + Na)/Al ratios follow a logarithmic decrease with time ( = 0.99), indicating progressive silicate weathering, associated with element release and leaching.
    Keywords: Geology
    ISSN: 1040-6182
    E-ISSN: 1873-4553
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Quaternary International, June 28, 2012, Vol.265, p.18(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2011.12.018 Byline: Daniela Sauer (a), Peter Finke (b), Rolf Sorensen (c), Ragnhild Sperstad (d), Isabelle Schulli-Maurer (e), Helge Hoeg (f), Karl Stahr (e) Abstract: The first results of modeling soil development in marine sediments in S Norway using the model SoilGen are compared to measured properties of two soil chronosequences, on the western and eastern side of Oslofjord, respectively. The aim of this work is to test how well soil development under well-defined environmental conditions can be modeled. Such testing reveals to what degree soil-forming processes are understood, allowing formulation of adequate calculations reflecting these processes. The model predicts particle size distribution reasonably well, although clay depletion in the upper parts of the soils as a result of clay migration is overestimated. The model tends to underestimate contents of organic carbon and CEC in the A horizons: below, modeled CEC matches well with measured CEC. Base saturation is overestimated in the upper 40 cm and underestimated below. Apparently, leaching of bases proceeds less rapidly in reality than is predicted by the model, due to strong soil structure of the B horizons, causing preferential flow and base leaching around the aggregates, whereas bases inside the aggregates are only slightly affected by leaching. Difficulties and possibilities for improvements are identified, some related to model input data and some to the model itself. Input data could be improved by determining the amounts of organic carbon in organic surface horizons and by quantifying effects of bioturbation. A big challenge is the implementation of soil structure formation in the model. Quantitative data on the development of soil structure with time that can be included in a model are required. Amounts, distribution and connectivity of macro pores need to be defined for each stage of soil development, and zones of low and high base leaching need to be distinguished in the model for each time step. The long-term aim of this work is to model soil development with different sets of soil-forming factors, e.g. different climatic conditions in order to reliably predict soil development under different climate scenarios and related sets of soil-forming factors. The results of the first model runs and the identified possible improvements suggest that this aim is generally achievable. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Geography, University of Technology of Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 10, D-01062 Dresden, Germany (b) Department of Geology and Soil Science, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium (c) Norwegian University of Life Sciences, N-1432 As, Norway (d) Norwegian Institute of Forest and Landscape, N-1431 As, Norway (e) Institute of Soil Science, Hohenheim University, Emil-Wolff-Str. 27, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany (f) Gloppasen 10, N-3261 Larvik, Norway
    Keywords: Leaching -- Models ; Leaching -- Analysis ; Sediments (Geology) -- Models ; Sediments (Geology) -- Analysis ; Climate Change -- Models ; Climate Change -- Analysis ; Soil Structure -- Models ; Soil Structure -- Analysis ; Marine Sediments -- Models ; Marine Sediments -- Analysis
    ISSN: 1040-6182
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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