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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, November 2011, Vol.128(5), pp.e1250-8
    Description: Fetal growth predicts childhood behavioral problems associated with brain serotonergic systems. We hypothesized that allelic variations in genes involved in serotonergic function would moderate associations between birth weight (BW) and internalizing traits in childhood. The Child Behavior Checklist was administered to 545 healthy Singaporean children at 8 to 12 years. BW, corrected for gestational age, and candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TPH2, HTR2A, and SCL6A4 genes were investigated. There was no significant main effect of BW on internalizing T scores (F = 1.08; P = .36). After multiple corrections, significant main effects on internalizing T scores were found for HTR2A rs2296972 (adjusted: F = 2.85; P = .019) and HTR2A rs6313 (adjusted: F = 5.91; P = .0002). Significant interactions were found between BW and SNPs for the TPH2 gene (rs2171363: P = .008; rs7305115: P = .007) and the HTR2A gene (rs2770304: P = .001; rs6313: P = .026) for internalizing T scores. The CC genotype of TPH2 rs2171363, GG genotype of TPH2 rs7305115, CC genotype of HTR2A rs2770304, and CC genotype of HTR2A rs6313 were associated with reduced internalizing scores for children born in the quartile above the midpoint. No significant main effects or interactions were found for SCL6A4 SNPs. These findings suggest that sequence variations in genes involved in serotonergic functions modulate relationships between BW and internalizing traits and might be candidates for plasticity mechanisms that determine individual differences in responses to environmental influences over the course of development.
    Keywords: Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Quantitative Trait Loci ; Birth Weight -- Genetics ; Fetal Development -- Genetics ; Receptor, Serotonin, 5-Ht2a -- Genetics ; Receptors, Serotonin -- Genetics ; Tryptophan Hydroxylase -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00314005
    E-ISSN: 1098-4275
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 05 May 2012, Vol.379(9827), pp.1739-1748
    Description: Myopia has emerged as a major health issue in east Asia, because of its increasingly high prevalence in the past few decades (now 80–90% in school-leavers), and because of the sight-threatening pathologies associated with high myopia, which now affects 10–20% of those completing secondary schooling in this part of the world. Similar, but less marked, changes are occurring in other parts of the world. The higher prevalence of myopia in east Asian cities seems to be associated with increasing educational pressures, combined with life-style changes, which have reduced the time children spend outside. There are no reported major genes for school myopia, although there are several genes associated with high myopia. Any genetic contribution to ethnic differences may be small. However, to what extent many genes of small effect and gene-environment interactions contribute to variations in school myopia within populations remains to be established. There are promising optical and pharmacological interventions for preventing the development of myopia or slowing its progression, which require further validation, and promising vision-sparing treatments for pathological myopia.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Pediatrics, July 2013, Vol.163(1), pp.167-172.e1
    Description: To evaluate an incentive-based physical activity intervention to increase physical activity and fitness among children in a 9-month cluster randomized controlled trial. Children aged 6-12 years were randomized to control (n = 138 from 106 families) or intervention arm (n = 147 from 106 families). The intervention included incentives for meeting step targets as measured by pedometers and structured weekend outdoor activities. Outcomes included trends in activity for the intervention group and between-group differences in pedometer steps, 6-minute walk test, body mass index, and parent-reported Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. At follow-up, children in the intervention group recorded significantly more pedometer steps than controls over the entire week (8660 vs 7767; = .010), on weekdays (8646 vs 7826; = .041), and on weekends (8779 vs 7684; = .018). Three different trajectory classes were identified. The first group increased activity but was not sustained, the second group met the target step levels, and the third group significantly surpassed the step goals. The intervention group showed trends toward longer 6-minute walk test times and higher Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scores, but the differences were not statistically significant. Incentives for increased step activity were effective in producing greater steps and showed a (nonsignificant) trend toward improvements in other health outcomes. Thus, future incentive trials should be incorporate greater step targets and longer follow-up periods to provide evidence of the long-term effect of these incentives on children's health.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-3476
    E-ISSN: 1097-6833
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(4), p.e36502
    Description: Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (〉2500 g) and gestational age (37–41 weeks) within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine ; Social And Behavioral Sciences ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Mental Health ; Neuroscience ; Pediatrics And Child Health
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Leadership Quarterly, October 2015, Vol.26(5), pp.671-686
    Description: Trait theories of leadership have documented the role of individual characteristics in affecting leadership. Twin studies have further revealed significant genetic effects on leadership role occupancy. In the era of genomics, the current research examines how a dopamine transporter gene, DAT1, is involved in genetic influences on leadership role occupancy. Study 1 found DAT1 10-repeat allele to negatively relate to proactive personality, which in turn was positively associated with leadership role occupancy. The negative indirect effect was significant, but the overall relationship between this gene and leadership was not. In addition to replicating Study 1's findings using a nationally representative sample, Study 2 revealed another countervailing mechanism: DAT1 was positively related to (moderate) rule breaking, which was positively associated with leadership role occupancy. Consistent findings across the two studies suggest that the pathways linking specific genes to leadership are complex and a middle-ground approach is needed in such multidisciplinary investigations.
    Keywords: Leadership Role Occupancy ; Dopamine Gene ; Proactive Personality ; Rule Breaking ; Dual Mechanisms ; Business ; Political Science
    ISBN: 9783037850398
    ISSN: 1048-9843
    E-ISSN: 1873-3409
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2015, Vol.102(5), p.1104(9)
    Description: Background: Maternal obesity and hyperglycemia increase risk of obesity and diabetes in offspring later in life. Objective: We examined the relation between gestational glycemia and prepregnancy body mass index (ppBMI) with offspring growth in an Asian mother-offspring cohort. Design: Pregnant mothers undertook a 75-g 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test at 26-28 wk of gestation. In 937 singleton offspring, [less than or equal to] 9 serial measurements of weight and length were obtained from birth until 36 mo of age. Results: Gestational fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was positively associated with birth weight (B: 0.17; 95% Cl: 0.10, 0.24; P 〈 0.001) and birth BMI (B: 0.15; 95% Cl: 0.06, 0.40; P = 0.001) but not at [greater than or equal to] 3 mo of age. In contrast, maternal ppBMI was positively associated with birth variables and conditional growth in weight and BMI in the first 36 mo of life. However, gestational FPG and pre-pregnancy obesity status interacted significantly for the association with offspring growth and overweight status in the first 36 mo of life (P-interaction 〈 0.01). In nonobese mothers, each unit increase in gestational FPG was associated with increased offspring weight (B: 0.08; 95% Cl: 0.008, 0.16; P = 0.03) and BMI (B: 0.08; 95% Cl: 0.003, 0.15; P = 0.04) as well as increased risk of overweight in the first 36 mo of life (OR: 1.36; 95% Cl: 1.10, 1.68). However, in obese mothers, each unit increase in gestational FPG was associated with decreased offspring weight (B: -0.01; 95% Cl: -0.02, -0.003) and BMI (B: -0.008; 95% Cl: -0.01, -0.002) velocity (P 〈 0.01 for both) and decreased risk of overweight (OR: 0.59; 95% Cl: 0.41, 0.86) in the first 36 mo of life. Conclusions: Prepregnancy adiposity was associated with offspring growth in early childhood. Although pooled analyses showed no demonstrable difference by 3 mo of age, there were contrasting and opposite associations of gestational glycemia with weight and BMI in the first 36 mo of life in offspring of nonobese and obese mothers separately. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875. Am J Clin Nutr 2015;102:1104-12. Keywords: gestational glycemia, offspring growth and body com position, prepregnancy obesity doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.117614
    Keywords: Gestational Diabetes – Complications and Side Effects ; Obesity – Risk Factors ; Maternal-Fetal Exchange – Health Aspects
    ISSN: 0002-9165
    E-ISSN: 19383207
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  • 7
    In: JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association, August 14, 2002, Vol.288(6), p.682(1)
    Keywords: Myopia -- Causes Of ; Reading -- Health Aspects
    ISSN: 0098-7484
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Quality of Life Research, 2010, Vol.19(2), pp.167-176
    Description: Byline: Truls Astbye (1,2), Rahul Malhotra (1), Hwee-Bee Wong (3,4), Say-Beng Tan (5,6), Seang-Mei Saw (4,7,8) Keywords: Body mass index; Obesity; Asia; Quality of life; Adolescence; Ethnicity Abstract: Purpose To investigate the relationship between body mass and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among Singaporean adolescents. Variation in this relationship by age, gender and ethnicity, and association of HRQOL with change in body mass over time and with demographic, socioeconomic and health variables were also assessed. Methods HRQOL was assessed for Singaporean adolescents aged 11--18 from their own (N = 1,249) and their parent's (N = 948) perspective using PedsQL[TM] 4.0 generic core scales. Body mass, measured as body mass index z-score based on the WHO Reference 2007, was categorized as thin, healthy weight, overweight and obese. Multiple linear regression models assessed the relationship between current body mass and HRQOL, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and health variables. Differences between adolescent and parent-proxy reported HRQOL were also investigated. Results Obese adolescents (and their parents) reported significantly lower HRQOL, overall and in most domains, compared to healthy weight adolescents. Parents tended to report lower HRQOL for their adolescents than the adolescents did themselves however, this difference was much larger and statistically significant for obese adolescents. Conclusions Obesity is associated with reduced HRQOL among adolescents. The effect in these Singaporean adolescents is similar to that in populations with higher rates of obesity. Awareness of this relationship can make it easier for health professionals, teachers, parents and peers to be supportive of obese adolescents. Author Affiliation: (1) Health Services and Systems Research, Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore, 169857, Singapore (2) Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University Medical Centre, Durham, NC, USA (3) Health Services Research and Evaluation Division, Ministry of Health, Singapore, Singapore (4) Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore (5) Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore (6) Centre of Quantitative Biology and Medicine, Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore (7) Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore (8) Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore Article History: Registration Date: 22/12/2009 Accepted Date: 21/12/2009 Online Date: 12/01/2010
    Keywords: Body mass index ; Obesity ; Asia ; Quality of life ; Adolescence ; Ethnicity
    ISSN: 0962-9343
    E-ISSN: 1573-2649
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, June 2015, Vol.145(6), pp.1303-10
    Description: Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence fetal growth. However, the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and birth size outcomes is less clear. We examined the associations between maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy and infant birth size. Pregnant women (n = 835) from the Singapore GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) mother-offspring cohort were studied. At 26-28 wk of gestation, the macronutrient intake of women was ascertained with the use of 24 h dietary recalls and 3 d food diaries. Weight, length, and ponderal index of their offspring were measured at birth. Associations were assessed by substitution models with the use of multiple linear regressions. Mean ± SD maternal energy intake and percentage energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates per day were 1903 ± 576 kcal, 15.6% ± 3.9%, 32.7% ± 7.5%, and 51.6% ± 8.7% respectively. With the use of adjusted models, no associations were observed for maternal macronutrient intake and birth weight. In male offspring, higher carbohydrate or fat intake with lower protein intake was associated with longer birth length (β = 0.08 cm per percentage increment in carbohydrate; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.13; β = 0.08 cm per percentage increment in fat; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.13) and lower ponderal index (β = -0.12 kg/m(3) per percentage increment in carbohydrate; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.05; β = -0.08 kg/m(3) per percentage increment in fat; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.003), but this was not observed in female offspring (P-interaction 〈 0.01). Maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy was not associated with infant birth weight. Lower maternal protein intake was significantly associated with longer birth length and lower ponderal index in male but not female offspring. However, this finding warrants further confirmation in independent studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.
    Keywords: Birth Length ; Birth Weight ; Macronutrients ; Ponderal Index ; Pregnancy Diet ; Protein ; Asian Continental Ancestry Group ; Birth Weight ; Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Dietary Proteins -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2018, Vol.27(1), pp.37-46
    Description: The relative impact of parenting on socio-emotional development of children has rarely been examined in a longitudinal context. This study examined the association between perceived parenting styles and socio-emotional functioning from childhood to adolescence. We hypothesized that optimal parenting associated with improvement in socio-emotional functioning from childhood into early adulthood, especially for those with more behavioral problems in childhood. Children between ages 7 and 9 years were recruited for the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM). Nine years later, 700 out of 1052 subjects were followed up (67%). During childhood, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), while young adults completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR) and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Perceived optimal parental care resulted in less internalizing and externalizing problems in early adulthood in comparison to non-optimal parental care styles. Perceived optimal paternal parenting, but not maternal parenting, in interaction with childhood externalizing problems predicted externalizing symptoms in early adulthood. No significant interactions were found between perceived parenting styles and internalizing problems. In conclusion, perceived parental care associates with the quality of socio-emotional development, while optimal parenting by the father is especially important for children with more externalizing problems in childhood.
    Keywords: Parenting ; Child development ; Behavioural problems ; Socio-emotional development ; Adolescence
    ISSN: 1018-8827
    E-ISSN: 1435-165X
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