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  • 1
    In: Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2017, Vol. 43(suppl1), pp.S129-S129
    Description: Background: There are significant deficits in verbal learning in patients with schizophrenia, and this cognitive process is dependent on a network of regions including the hippocampus. The hippocampus is thought to play a key role in the development of psychosis and is reduced in volume in patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to examine whether the deficits in verbal learning observed in schizophrenic patients are related to hippocampal volume reduction. Methods: The PubMed database was searched for studies reporting both verbal memory scores and hippocampal volume in patients with schizophrenia or those with a genetic high risk (GHR) until June 2016, and the reference lists of eligible articles were searched for further relevant articles. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria and comprised 755 schizophrenic patients (SCZ), 232 genetic high risk (GHR), and 914 healthy controls (HC). A restricted maximum likelihood random effects model was used to calculate the pooled correlation coefficient between hemisphere (left, right, or total) and type of recall (immediate or delayed) for each diagnostic group individually (SCZ, GHR, and HC). This was done using MetaNSUE, a meta-analytical method that allows the inclusion of statistically nonsignificant unreported correlation coefficients. Results: In patients with schizophrenia, left hippocampal volume positively correlated with immediate ( r  = 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.41) and delayed ( r  = 0.13, 95% CI, 0.04–0.22) verbal recall. The same was found in the right hemisphere, (immediate: r  = 0.23, 95% CI, 0.09–0.36; delayed: r  = 0.23, 95% CI, 0.13–0.33). There was also a correlation between total hippocampal volume and delayed recall ( r  = 0.23, 95% CI, 0.04–0.41). None of these correlations were significant in healthy controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and immediate recall only, in the GHR group ( r  = 0.36, 95% CI, 0.15–0.53). Conclusion: The results from this meta-analysis suggest that hippocampal volume affects immediate and delayed verbal learning capacity in schizophrenia. This provides further evidence of hippocampal dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia which may be an important therapeutic target in the future.
    ISSN: 0586-7614
    E-ISSN: 1745-1701
    Source: Oxford University Press
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2014, Vol.513(7517), p.172
    Keywords: Retraction of Publication As Topic ; Science -- Standards;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Neurophysiology, October 2017, Vol.128(10), pp.e406-e407
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2017.06.233 Byline: A. Scholer Objectives Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) is a rhythmic sensory cueing to enhance gait patterns. Aim of the study was to research the effectiveness of RAS as an additional treatment for chronic stroke patients. Methods In the randomized controlled study 12 patients were assigned randomly into n= 6 intervention group and n= 6 control group. Both groups completed a 4-week gait training. The intervention group additionally received RAS through music over headphones. Berg Balance Scale, 6-Minute Walk Test, stride length and velocity over a distance of 10 m were used for assessment before and after interventions as well as 12 weeks later (follow up). Results There were no significant differences in relationship to the measured variables between intervention and control group. There were no indications to be drawn that the ability to follow a beat is necessary for effective results. Discussion/Conclusion The effectiveness of RAS with chronic stroke patients in the outpatient setting could not be proven in this study. It still remains in question whether the use of RAS in the treatment of stroke patients in the outpatient setting is effective or not. Author Affiliation: Studentin der SRH Gera, MSc Neurorehabilitation, Botersen, Germany
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1388-2457
    E-ISSN: 1872-8952
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 15 June 2015, Vol.106(24)
    Description: Generation of micro- and nanostructured complex light beams attains increasing impact in photonics and laser applications. In this contribution, we demonstrate the implementation and experimental realization of the relatively unknown, but highly versatile class of complex-valued Elegant Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian beams. These beams create higher trapping forces compared to standard Gaussian light fields due to their propagation changing properties. We demonstrate optical trapping and alignment of complex functional particles as nanocontainers with standard and Elegant Gaussian light beams. Elegant Gaussian beams will inspire manifold applications in optical manipulation, direct laser writing, or microscopy, where the design of the point-spread function is relevant.
    Keywords: Photonics And Optoelectronics
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
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  • 5
    In: Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2017, Vol. 43(suppl1), pp.S80-S81
    Description: Background: Medication adherence during the early period following first episode of psychosis (FEP) is a key factor that determines outcome and subsequent course of the illness. Uncertainty exists whether the use of nonprescription psychoactive substances following onset, in particular cannabis use, affects medication adherence. Methods: Two hundred and thirty three FEP patients presenting to psychiatric services in South London were included. Data obtained through prospective assessments (face-to-face and clinical notes) measured medication adherence, pattern of cannabis use (combining measures of continuation of cannabis use with type of cannabis used), and pattern of other substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and illicit drugs) in the first 2 years following onset of psychosis. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to compare the different substance use groups with regard to risk of medication nonadherence while controlling for confounders. Results: The proportion of nonadherent patients was higher in those who continued using high-potency forms of cannabis (skunk-like) following the onset (83%) when compared to never regular users (51%). This effect remained significant ([Odds Ratio (OR) 5.26, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.91–15.68]) in multiple analysis. No significant increases in risk were present in those who used cannabis more sporadically ([OR 2.03, 95% CI 0.76–5.68]) or used milder forms of cannabis (hash-like) ([OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.28–9.22]). Other substances did not make an independent contribution in this model, including cigarette use ([OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.41–1.89]), alcohol use ([OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.27–1.64]), or regular use of other illicit drugs ([OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.34–3.15]) following the onset. Conclusion: Continued use of high-potency forms of cannabis following the onset of psychosis is likely to adversely affect medication adherence. Interventions aimed at improving medication adherence should focus on comorbid cannabis use as a preventable risk factor and need to be implemented early in the course of psychosis.
    ISSN: 0586-7614
    E-ISSN: 1745-1701
    Source: Oxford University Press
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 27 March 2015, Vol.290(13), pp.8154-65
    Description: Teneurins are large type II transmembrane proteins that are necessary for the normal development of the CNS. Although many studies highlight the significance of teneurins, especially during development, there is only limited information known about the molecular mechanisms of function. Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal intracellular domain (ICD) of teneurins can be cleaved at the membrane and subsequently translocates to the nucleus, where it can influence gene transcription. Because teneurin ICDs do not contain any intrinsic DNA binding sequences, interaction partners are required to affect transcription. Here, we identified histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1) as a human teneurin-1 ICD interaction partner in a yeast two-hybrid screen. This interaction was confirmed in human cells, where HINT1 is known to inhibit the transcription of target genes by directly binding to transcription factors at the promoter. In a whole transcriptome analysis of BS149 glioblastoma cells overexpressing the teneurin-1 ICD, several microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) target genes were found to be up-regulated. Directly comparing the transcriptomes of MITF versus TEN1-ICD-overexpressing BS149 cells revealed 42 co-regulated genes, including glycoprotein non-metastatic b (GPNMB). Using real-time quantitative PCR to detect endogenous GPNMB expression upon overexpression of MITF and HINT1 as well as promoter reporter assays using GPNMB promoter constructs, we could demonstrate that the teneurin-1 ICD binds HINT1, thus switching on MITF-dependent transcription of GPNMB.
    Keywords: Bex1 ; Gpnmb ; Glioblastoma ; Macf1 ; Microarray ; Odz ; Protein-Protein Interaction ; Receptor ; Tenm1 ; Transcription Repressor ; Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor -- Physiology ; Nerve Tissue Proteins -- Metabolism ; Tenascin -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 7
    In: Nature, 2014, Vol.509(7498), p.101
    Description: Successful mammalian cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) into unfertilized, metaphase II (MII)-arrested oocytes attests to the cytoplasmic presence of reprogramming factors capable of inducing totipotency in somatic cell nuclei (1-3). However, these poorly defined maternal factors presumably decline sharply after fertilization, as the cytoplasm of pronuclear-stage zygotes is reportedly inactive (4,5). Recent evidence suggests that zygotic cytoplasm, if maintained at metaphase, can also support derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells after SCNT (6-8), albeit at low efficiency. This led to the conclusion that critical oocyte reprogramming factors present in the metaphase but not in the interphase cytoplasm are 'trapped' inside the nucleus during interphase and effectively removed during enucleation (9). Here we investigated the presence of reprogramming activity in the cytoplasm of interphase two-cell mouse embryos (I2C). First, the presence of candidate reprogramming factors was documented in both intact and enucleated metaphase and interphase zygotes and twocell embryos. Consequently, enucleation did not provide a likely explanation for the inability of interphase cytoplasm to induce reprogramming. Second, when we carefully synchronized the cell cycle stage between the transplanted nucleus (ES cell, fetal fibroblast or terminally differentiated cumulus cell) and the recipient I2C cytoplasm, the reconstructed SCNT embryos developed into blastocysts and ES cells capable of contributing to traditional germline and tetraploid chimaeras. Last, direct transfer of cloned embryos, reconstructed with ES cell nuclei, into recipients resulted in live offspring. Thus, the cytoplasm of I2C supports efficient reprogramming, with cell cycle synchronization between the donor nucleus and recipient cytoplasm as the most critical parameter determining success. The ability to use interphase cytoplasm in SCNT could aid efforts to generate autologous human ES cells for regenerative applications, as donated or discarded embryos are more accessible than unfertilized MII oocytes.
    Keywords: Embryonic Development -- Research ; Nuclear Reprogramming -- Research ; Cytological Research;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 14 October 2013, Vol.114(14)
    Description: Recent advances in droplet manipulation methods by electric fields and signals require a deeper understanding of water droplet charge. In this paper, we have investigated the electrophoretic motion of individual water microdroplets injected into non-polar silicone and paraffin oil by video optical microscopy on an individual droplet basis to determine droplet charge. It was found that the initial surface charge density of surfactant free droplets directly after injection from a micropipette is positive and of the order of 10 −6 C/m 2 , regardless of pH and ion concentration in the range from pH 4 to pH 10 and from 0.01 mmol/l to 1.5 mol/l, respectively. The experimental results together with molecular dynamics simulations show that the nature and polarity of the charge can be explained by anisotropic orientation of water molecules at the interface rather than selective adsorption of ions. Furthermore, we showed that slip at the liquid-liquid boundary must be taken into account when interpreting electrophoretic measurements of droplets.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Nov 5, 2014, Vol.461, p.18(4)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.07.035 Byline: Andreas M. Schoeler, Dimitris N. Josephides, Shahriar Sajjadi, Patrick Mesquida Abstract: Author Affiliation: Department of Physics, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS, UK Article History: Received 3 June 2014; Revised 18 July 2014; Accepted 21 July 2014
    ISSN: 0927-7757
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
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