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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 08 February 2011, Vol.108(6), pp.2366-71
    Description: Two general pathways of mRNA decay have been characterized in yeast. In one pathway, the mRNA is degraded by the cytoplasmic form of the exosome. The exosome has both 3' to 5' exoribonuclease and endoribonuclease activity, and the available evidence suggests that the exonuclease activity is required for the degradation of mRNAs. We confirm here that this is true for normal mRNAs, but that aberrant mRNAs that lack a stop codon can be efficiently degraded in the absence of the exonuclease activity of the exosome. Specifically, we show that the endo- and exonuclease activities of the exosome are both capable of rapidly degrading nonstop mRNAs and ribozyme-cleaved mRNAs. Additionally, the endonuclease activity of the exosome is not required for endonucleolytic cleavage in no-go decay. In vitro, the endonuclease domain of the exosome is active only under nonphysiological conditions, but our findings show that the in vivo activity is sufficient for the rapid degradation of nonstop mRNAs. Thus, whereas normal mRNAs are degraded by two exonucleases (Xrn1p and Rrp44p), several endonucleases contribute to the decay of many aberrant mRNAs, including transcripts subject to nonstop and no-go decay. Our findings suggest that the nuclease requirements for general and nonstop mRNA decay are different, and describe a molecular function of the core exosome that is not disrupted by inactivating its exonuclease activity.
    Keywords: Codon, Terminator -- Metabolism ; Exosomes -- Metabolism ; Fungal Proteins -- Metabolism ; RNA Stability -- Physiology ; RNA, Fungal -- Metabolism ; RNA, Messenger -- Metabolism ; Ribonucleases -- Metabolism ; Saccharomyces Cerevisiae -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 23 April 2013, Vol.110(17), pp.6634-9
    Description: We investigate the approximate dynamics of several differential equations when the solutions are restricted to a sparse subset of a given basis. The restriction is enforced at every time step by simply applying soft thresholding to the coefficients of the basis approximation. By reducing or compressing the information needed to represent the solution at every step, only the essential dynamics are represented. In many cases, there are natural bases derived from the differential equations, which promote sparsity. We find that our method successfully reduces the dynamics of convection equations, diffusion equations, weak shocks, and vorticity equations with high-frequency source terms.
    Keywords: Convection ; Diffusion ; Models, Theoretical ; Mathematics -- Methods
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 21 May 2015, Vol.117(19)
    Description: The paper discusses the wave propagation characteristics of two-dimensional magneto-elastic kagome lattices. Mechanical instabilities caused by magnetic interactions are exploited in combination with particle contact to bring about changes in the topology and stiffness of the lattices. The analysis uses a lumped mass system of particles, which interact through axial and torsional elastic forces as well as magnetic forces. The propagation of in-plane waves is predicted by applying Bloch theorem to lattice unit cells with linearized interactions. Elastic wave dispersion in these lattices before and after topological changes is compared, and large differences are highlighted.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 06 January 2015, Vol.112(1), pp.60-4
    Description: We measured the superconducting transition temperature of (6)Li between 16 and 26 GPa, and report the lightest system to exhibit superconductivity to date. The superconducting phase diagram of (6)Li is compared with that of (7)Li through simultaneous measurement in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Below 21 GPa, Li exhibits a direct (the superconducting coefficient, α, T(c) proportional M(-α), is positive), but unusually large isotope effect, whereas between 21 and 26 GPa, lithium shows an inverse superconducting isotope effect. The unusual dependence of the superconducting phase diagram of lithium on its atomic mass opens up the question of whether the lattice quantum dynamic effects dominate the low-temperature properties of dense lithium.
    Keywords: Isotope ; Lithium ; Pressure ; Quantum Effects ; Superconductivity
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, December 2015, Vol.194(6), pp.1642-1642
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.09.011 Byline: Edward M. Schaeffer
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, July 2015, Vol.194(1), pp.136-136
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.04.057 Byline: Edward M. Schaeffer
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, July 2015, Vol.194(1), pp.136-136
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.04.056 Byline: Edward M. Schaeffer
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, July 2015, Vol.194(1), pp.14-15
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.04.070 Byline: Anthony J. Schaeffer Author Affiliation: Department of Urology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, November 2015, Vol.194(5), pp.1301-1301
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.08.049 Byline: Edward M. Schaeffer
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, August 2015, Vol.194(2), pp.410-411
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2015.05.027 Byline: Edward M. Schaeffer
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
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