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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, November 2010, Vol.126(5), pp.879-86
    Description: To describe sexual behaviors, sexual violence, and sexual identity among a population-based sample of adolescents according to the sex of their sex partners, considering separately those with partners of both sexes. From the 2005-2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 3805 male and 3456 female adolescents reported having had sex and the sex of their sexual contacts. Subgroups were constructed: only opposite-sex partners; only same-sex partners; and partners of both sexes (both-sex partners). Weighted prevalence, risk behaviors (eg, using drugs/alcohol with sex), and sexual identity among subgroups were described. Similar numbers of sexually active male (3.2%) and female adolescents (3.2%) reported only same-sex behavior, but fewer male than female adolescents reported both-sex partners (3.7% vs 8.7%; P 〈 .001). Male adolescents with both-sex partners reported a higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors than male adolescents with only opposite-sex or only same-sex partners. Female adolescents with both-sex or only same-sex partners reported a higher prevalence of risk behaviors than female adolescents with only opposite-sex partners. Adolescents with both-sex partners reported a marked prevalence of dating violence and forced sex. Many adolescents with only same- or both-sex partners (38.9%) self-identified as straight. Of sexually active adolescents, 9.3% reported a same-sex partner, a higher estimate than other published rates. Those who reported both male and female partners reported behaviors that placed them at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Pediatricians and school health providers must inquire about behaviors, not identity, to determine STI risk, and STI education should be appropriate for youth with same-sex partners.
    Keywords: Sexual Behavior ; Bisexuality -- Psychology ; Heterosexuality -- Psychology ; Homosexuality -- Psychology ; Violence -- Psychology
    ISSN: 00314005
    E-ISSN: 1098-4275
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, March 2011, Vol.54(6), p.403
    Description: In 2006, a secondary English and feminist studies teacher created a course and designed a study around a reading exchange for eighth-grade girls from two vastly different communities. Girls from a school in a northeastern state read young adult...
    Keywords: Adolescent Literature ; Females ; Background ; Differences ; Young Adults ; Novels ; Comparative Analysis ; Reader Response ; Reader Text Relationship ; Collaborative Writing ; Electronic Publishing ; Individual Development ; Reflection ; Context Effect ; Attitudes ; Feminism ; Intercultural Communication ; Perspective Taking ; Technology Uses in Education ; Computer Mediated Communication
    ISSN: 1081-3004
    E-ISSN: 1936-2706
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: JAMA, 18 April 2017, Vol.317(15), pp.1531-1532
    Description: Schillinger narrates his experience of having a 75 year-old patient who donated $ 1 million to endow a chair for him. But after his appointment with the patient, he then concluded that the donation was delusional as the patient suffered from late-onset mania due to pancreatic cancer.
    Keywords: Clinical Competence ; Financial Management ; Gift Giving ; Weight Loss ; Bipolar Disorder -- Etiology ; Pancreatic Neoplasms -- Complications
    ISSN: 00987484
    E-ISSN: 1538-3598
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  • 4
    In: Circulation, 2012, Vol.126(20), pp.2433-2440
    Description: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is a minimally invasive therapy for the treatment of patients with peripheral artery disease who suffer from intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia. The main advantages of the endovascular approach are a low complication rate ranging between 0.5% and 4%, a high technical success rate approaching 90% even in long occlusions, and an acceptable clinical outcome.1,2 Traditionally, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) has been the standard for revascularization in aortoiliac, femoropopliteal, and below-the-knee arteries,1 and in many interventional centers, PTA still is the first and most frequently used methodology. However, high rates of failure resulting from an unacceptable incidence of restenosis, particularly in long and complex disease, are the main limitations of PTA.3 Modern bare metal stents (BMS), nitinol self-expanding stents, and cobalt-chromium balloon-expanding stents improved the durability of endovascular interventions, particularly in certain lower-limb indications. Advantages of self-expanding nitinol stents include acceptable radial strength combined with shape-memory characteristics, crush recoverability, and reduced foreshortening, which allows precise placement. Self-expanding nitinol stents are used mainly for external iliac and femoropopliteal indications but have its limitation in ostial common iliac artery lesions. Advantages of cobalt-chromium balloon-expanding stents are high radial strength, specifically for ostial iliac lesions with reduced strut thickness, allowing smaller introducer sizes. These properties of both stents types were expected to improve patency rates compared with PTA and earlier types of stents.4,5 However, the main obstacle of these BMS remains exaggerated neointimal hyperplasia, leading to in-stent restenosis in 25% to 50% within 12 to 24 months, depending on the location of implantation.6,7 New developments over the last several years include drug-eluting balloons (DEBs), new types of stents such as drug-eluting stents (DES) and covered stent grafts, and novel atherectomy systems. These are designed to reduce restenosis and …
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0009-7322
    E-ISSN: 15244539
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Patient Education and Counseling, November 2011, Vol.85(2), pp.131-132
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0738-3991
    E-ISSN: 1873-5134
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Evolution and Human Behavior, November 2015, Vol.36(6), pp.446-455
    Description: Cultural evolutionary approaches highlight that different social learning processes may be involved in the maintenance of cultural traditions. Inevitably, for traditions to be maintained, they must be transmitted with reasonably fidelity. It has been proposed that ‘imitation’ (i.e., the direct copying of actions of others displayed in tasks such as toolmaking) generates relatively low rates of copying error. As such, imitation has often been ascribed an important role in the maintenance of traditions and in the ‘ratcheting’ of technological complexity over time. Conversely, ‘emulation’ (i.e., the copying of a result but not the behaviors that have led to that result) is allegedly associated with the production of relatively higher rates of copying error. However, to what extent these different social learning mechanisms generate distinct patterns of variation during the manufacture of material traditions remains largely unexplored empirically. Here, a controlled experiment was implemented using 60 participants who copied the shape of a 3D ‘target handaxe form’ from a standardized foam block. In an ‘imitation condition’, 30 participants were shown manufacturing techniques employed in the production of the target form the target form itself. Conversely, in an ‘emulation condition’, 30 participants were shown only the (target) form. Copying error rates were statistically different, being significantly lower in the ‘imitation’ condition compared to the ‘emulation’ condition. Moreover, participants in the imitation condition matched the demonstrated behaviors with significantly higher copying fidelity than the alternative condition. These results illustrate that imitation may be imperative for the long-term perpetuation of visibly distinct archaeological traditions, especially in the case of lithic (reductive) traditions, where copying error rates can be expected to be relatively high. These findings, therefore, provide evidence that imitation may be required to explain the prolonged continuity of broad shape fidelity such as that seen in traditions of ‘handaxe’ manufacture during the Pleistocene.
    Keywords: Imitation ; Emulation ; Copying Error ; Cultural Evolution ; Biology ; Zoology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 1090-5138
    E-ISSN: 1879-0607
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: JAMA, 20 March 2018, Vol.319(11), pp.1076-1078
    Keywords: Medicine in Literature ; Music ; Poetry As Topic ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 -- Ethnology ; Health Education -- Methods
    ISSN: 00987484
    E-ISSN: 1538-3598
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 22 June 2011, Vol.133(24), pp.9220-3
    Description: Treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is plagued by a lack of practical and reliable methods allowing early diagnosis of the disease. We here demonstrate that robust receptors prepared by molecular imprinting successfully address current limitations of biologically derived receptors in displaying affinity for hydrophobic peptide biomarkers for AD under denaturing conditions. C-terminal epitope-imprinted polymers showing enhanced binding affinity for Aβ1-42 were first identified from a 96-polymer combinatorial library. This information was then used to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymers for both of the β-amyloid (Aβ) isoforms and a corresponding nonimprinted polymer. A solid-phase extraction method was developed to be compatible with sample loading under conditions of complete protein denaturation. This resulted in a method capable of quantitatively and selectively enriching a shorter C-terminal peptide corresponding to the sequences Aβ33-40 and Aβ33-42 as well as the full-length sequence Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 from a 4 M guanidinum chloride solution. Application of the method to serum allowed selective, high-recovery extraction of both biomarkers at spiking levels marginally higher than clinically relevant concentrations found in cerebrospinal fluid.
    Keywords: Alzheimer Disease ; Molecular Imprinting ; Protein Denaturation ; Amyloid Beta-Peptides -- Blood ; Blood Chemical Analysis -- Methods ; Polymers -- Chemical Synthesis
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Social Science & Medicine, 2011, Vol.73(11), pp.1635-1643
    Description: In many high-income countries, indigenous populations bear a higher burden of obesity and diabetes than non-indigenous populations. Less is known about these patterns in lower- and middle-income countries. We assessed the hypothesis that obesity and diabetes were less prevalent among indigenous than non-indigenous adults in Mexico, home to the largest indigenous population in Latin America. We investigated socioeconomic explanations for differences. In a related line of inquiry, we examine whether adults in communities with higher versus lower percentages of indigenous residents were buffered against these conditions. We assessed whether differences were partially explained by lower development in higher-indigenous communities. Obesity was based on measured height and weight, and diabetes on a diagnosis from a healthcare professional. The analysis for obesity included 19 577 adults aged 20 and older from the , a nationally representative survey of Mexican households and communities; for diabetes, we restricted analysis to adults with health insurance. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate the odds of obesity and diabetes by indigenous status and community percent indigenous. Results suggest that indigenous adults had significantly lower odds of obesity and diabetes than non-indigenous adults. This advantage was not explained by the lower socioeconomic status of indigenous individuals. A higher percentage of indigenous individuals in communities provided protection against obesity, although not for diabetes. Differences for obesity were not accounted for by community development. Findings suggest that an opportunity may exist to prevent disparities in obesity and diabetes from developing by indigenous characteristics in Mexico. Identifying the sources of protective effects of individual and community indigenous characteristics relative to these health conditions should be a priority, given global implications for prevention. ► Few large-scale studies have examined risk of obesity or diabetes by indigenous status in lower- and middle-income countries. ► There has been no examination of the association between community indigenous makeup and obesity or diabetes in lower- and middle-income countries. ► The current study found that obesity was less prevalent among indigenous than non-indigenous adults in Mexico. ► Among adults with health insurance, diagnosed diabetes was less prevalent among indigenous than non-indigenous adults. ► Lower likelihood of obesity was found among adults living in communities with a higher percentage of indigenous residents.
    Keywords: Mexico ; Obesity ; Diabetes Mellitus ; Indigenous Status ; Ethnicity ; Socioeconomic Status ; Community Development ; Medicine ; Social Sciences (General) ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0277-9536
    E-ISSN: 1873-5347
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  • 10
    In: Nature, 2004, Vol.428(6982), p.453
    Description: A Nature magazine survey has found that scientists in poorer countries pay up to 70% more than wealthier collegues for identical supplies. According to suppliers, the discrepancies are explained by market conditions -- in particular, the higher costs of doing business in smaller, less-established markets.
    Keywords: Commerce–Economics ; Research–Economics ; Research–Instrumentation ; Polls & Surveys ; Global Economy ; Laboratories ; Equipment ; Costs ; Developing Countries ; Ldcs;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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