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  • 1
    Language: English
    Description: Nine varieties and two breeding lines of sweet Lupinus angustifolius were cultivated under organic and conventional conditions in Northern Germany in growing seasons 2010, 2011 and 2012. The alkaloid content was significantly influenced by the growing system and year and also by genotype. The variety ‘Vitabor’ and the breeding line ‘Bo 083521AR’ revealed a very low alkaloid content in all years and cropping systems, while ‘Sanabor’, ‘Borlu’ and ‘Boregine’ had a higher content. In the years 2010-2012 significantly lower alkaloid contents (475 μg g-1) were found under organic conditions than under conventional conditions (615 mikro g g-1). The mean alkaloid level of all varieties and breeding lines in organic farming was highest in 2010 (640 mikro g g-1) and lowest in 2012 (364 mikro g g-1), depending on temperature during the seed filling period. Investigations on the yield of L. angustifolius revealed significant effects of the genotype, the year and the growing system....
    Keywords: Lupinus Angustifolius ; Cultivation ; Alkaloid Content ; Yield
    ISSN: 16139216
    E-ISSN: 1439040X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Plant Pathology, 2011, Vol.130(4), pp.559-575
    Description: Breeding for resistance is an efficient strategy to manage wheat leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina f. sp. tritici . However, a prerequisite for the directed use of Lr genes in breeding and the detection of new races virulent to these Lr genes is a detailed knowledge on Lr genes present in wheat cultivars. Therefore, respective molecular markers for 18 Lr genes were tested for specificity and used to determine Lr genes in 115 wheat cultivars. Results obtained were compared to available pedigree data. Using respective molecular markers, genes Lr1 , Lr10 , Lr26 , Lr34 and Lr37 were detected, but data were not always in accordance with pedigree data. However, leaf rust scoring data of field trials confirmed the reliability of DNA markers. These reliable marker data facilitated the analyses of the development of virulent leaf rust races from 2002 to 2009 based on released cultivars. A sudden change from low infection rates to susceptibility was observed for Lr1 , Lr3, Lr10, Lr13, Lr14, Lr16, Lr26 and Lr37 since 2006. Cultivars carrying several leaf rust resistance genes showed no significant shift to susceptibility except one cultivar which revealed an increasing infection rate at a low level. In summary, it turned out that pedigree data are often not reliable and a detection of Lr genes by diagnostic markers is fundamental to combine Lr genes in cultivars for a durable resistance against leaf rust, and to conduct reliable surveys based on released cultivars, instead of ‘Thatcher’ NILs.
    Keywords: Epidemiology ; Molecular marker ; pathotypes ; Resistance ; genes
    ISSN: 0929-1873
    E-ISSN: 1573-8469
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Phytopathology, March 2014, Vol.162(3), pp.180-189
    Description: Five asparagus cultivars, three breeding lines and the wild relative were tested for natural infection by (‐1) in experimental fields at two locations over 3 and 4 years, respectively. In the first year after re‐planting the annual crowns in the field, more than 90% of tested plants of cultivars were infected by ‐1. In the third and fourth year, 100% of tested plants of cultivars were ‐1 infected. In comparison, all plants of the wild relative were completely free of ‐1, suggesting a high level of resistance. Additionally, 1‐year‐old glasshouse‐cultivated plants of and were placed in an ‐1 provocation cabin under field conditions. Seven months later, 100% of the plants showed a high virus concentration in , whereas no ‐1 was detectable in the plants. This result was confirmed by highly sensitive ‐1‐specific ‐. To exclude vector resistance, the feeding behaviour of green peach aphid was tested over 12 h using the electrical penetration graph method. Both asparagus genotypes were accepted by the aphids as potential hosts, but the feeding time was significantly longer on . A genetic distance analysis of the various cultivars of and selected wild relatives of the collection was carried out, resulting in a clear discrimination of cultivars and wild relatives, especially . The potential breeding value of the putative resistance carrier is discussed.
    Keywords: Sp. ; Asparagus Virus 1 ; Dp Marker ; Electrical Penetration Graph ; Elisa ; Genetic Distance ; Myzus Persicae ; ‐ ; Virus Resistance
    ISSN: 0931-1785
    E-ISSN: 1439-0434
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 2011, Vol.123(1), pp.69-76
    Description: Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is an economically important pathogen of barley, which may become even more important due to global warming. In barley, several loci conferring tolerance to BYDV-PAV-ASL-1 are known, e.g. Ryd2 , Ryd3 and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2H. The aim of the present study was to get information whether the level of tolerance against this isolate of BYDV in barley can be improved by combining these loci. Therefore, a winter and a spring barley population of doubled haploid (DH) lines were genotyped by molecular markers for the presence of the susceptibility or the resistance encoding allele at respective loci ( Ryd2 , Ryd3 , QTL on chromosome 2H) and were tested for their level of BYDV-tolerance after inoculation with viruliferous (BYDV-PAV-ASL-1) aphids in field trials. In DH-lines carrying the combination Ryd2 and Ryd3 , a significant reduction of the virus titre was detected as compared to lines carrying only one of these genes. Furthermore, spring barley DH-lines with this allele combination also showed a significantly higher relative grain yield as compared to lines carrying only Ryd2 or Ryd3 . The QTL on chromosome 2H had only a small effect on the level of tolerance in those lines carrying only Ryd2 , or Ryd3 or a combination of both, but the effect in comparison to lines carrying no tolerance allele was significant. Overall, these results show that the combination of Ryd2 and Ryd3 leads to quantitative resistance against BYDV-PAV instead of tolerance.
    Keywords: Aphids -- Analysis ; Global Warming -- Analysis ; Crop Yields -- Analysis ; Universities And Colleges -- Analysis ; Quantitative Genetics -- Analysis ; Barley -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0040-5752
    E-ISSN: 1432-2242
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Nematology, 2014, Vol.16(10), pp.1119-1127
    Description: Root-knot nematodes cause severe damage to a great number of crops worldwide. The use of nematicides is restricted due to environmental and toxicological risks and control of the pest by crop rotation is difficult because root-knot nematodes have a very wide range of host plants. To verify the strategy of converting rapeseed from a tolerant host for Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica to a resistant catch crop, a complete set of nine disomic rapeseed-radish chromosome addition lines (lines A to I) was tested for resistance against these Meloidogyne species. Thirty plants of each addition line and the rapeseed and radish parents as control were infected with 2500 second-stage juveniles per plant. The presence of the alien radish chromosome was confirmed by chromosome-specific microsatellite markers. After cultivation of the inoculated plants for 10 weeks in a climatic chamber the root systems were washed. The egg masses were stained with Cochenille Red and counted. The radish parent A24 was found to be resistant to M. incognita (2.4 egg masses (g root)−1) and M. javanica (0.4 egg masses (g root)−1) compared to 53.3 and 33.1 egg masses (g root)−1 for the susceptible rapeseed parent cv. Madora. The radish chromosome e was shown to be the carrier of radish root-knot nematode resistance with an average number of 〈1 egg mass (g root)−1 for M. incognita and M. javanica. The disomic addition lines B, C, D, G, H and I and the parental radish line A107 were classified as highly susceptible, whereas the addition lines A and F showed significantly reduced susceptibility for M. incognita but not for M. javanica. To our knowledge this is the first study on resistance effects of individual radish chromosomes in a rapeseed background against these root-knot nematodes.
    Keywords: Agriculture ; History & Archaeology ; Zoology
    ISSN: 1388-5545
    E-ISSN: 1568-5411
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality, 01 November 2013, Vol.86
    Description: In Germany, the first six-rowed waxy winter barley cultivar (cv.) `Waxyma` was registered in 2008. Besides changes in starch composition, waxy barley is rich in ß-glucans offering new applications in the food industry as ß-glucans reduce the blood cholesterol level. To investigate the stability of the ß-glucan content, cv. `Waxyma`, three waxy breeding lines and the non-waxy cv. `Lomerit` were grown in field trials, shelter-, green house- and growth chamber experiments. Besides this, `Waxyma` was grown in field trials at varying nitrogen levels and different seed rates, both with and without fungicide treatment. Waxyma showed a significant increase of the ß-glucan content under optimal nitrogen fertilization and fungicide treatment, but the influence of the seed density was not significant. Under shelter and greenhouse conditions the influence of drought stress during grain filling was analyzed. The increase of the ß-glucan content under drought stress in the shelter and under rising temperatures in growth chambers was only significant for the non waxy cv. `Lomerit` while no influence of drought stress was  observed under green house conditions.  In summary the high ß-glucan content of cv. `Waxyma` seems to be relatively stable with respect to growing conditions making it a suitable raw material for human nutrition.
    Keywords: N-Fertilization ; Stress ; ß-Glucan ; Barley ; Botany
    ISSN: 1613-9216
    E-ISSN: 1439-040X
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  • 7
    In: International Journal of Agronomy, 2012, Vol.2012, 5 pages
    Description: Field studies were conducted in growing seasons 2004, 2005, and 2010 to investigate the effect of different soil pH values on the alkaloid content in seeds of . Two-year experiments with eleven cultivars were carried out in acid soils with an average of (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) and on calcareous soils with an average pH of 7.1 (Bavaria), respectively. In addition, in 2010, eight cultivars were grown in field experiments in soils with pH values varying between and . In all experiments conducted on soils with a higher pH ( and ), a significantly lower alkaloid content was detected in all cultivars than on soils with a lower pH ( and ). Results clearly show that the alkaloid content is significantly influenced by the soil pH but genotypic differences regarding the reaction to different pH values in the soil were observed.
    Keywords: Agriculture;
    ISSN: 1687-8159
    E-ISSN: 1687-8167
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Pest Science, 2016, Vol.89(2), p.359(15)
    Description: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10340-015-0710-y Byline: Jasmin Philippi (1), Edgar Schliephake (1), Hans-Ulrich Jurgens (2), Gisela Jansen (2), Frank Ordon (1) Keywords: Lupinus angustifolius L.; Susceptibility; Aphids; Alkaloid Abstract: Breeding of narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) with a low alkaloid content, so called sweet lupins, increased the use for food and feed. Coincidentally, the reduced alkaloid content increased the susceptibility for aphid infestation. Hence, breeding of resistant cultivars is needed to prevent yield losses and reduce the application of insecticides. As a prerequisite for this, the evaluation of a diverse collection of narrow-leafed lupin genotypes is needed. Therefore, the multiplication of different aphid species, i.e., Macrosiphum albifrons, Aphis fabae, Aphis craccivora, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and Myzus persicae (all Hemiptera: Aphididae) was investigated on 46 narrow-leafed lupin genotypes under controlled conditions. Furthermore, the alkaloid composition and total content of these genotypes was analyzed, in order to get information on their influence on the susceptibility to different aphid species. Results indicated that the multiplication of the well-adapted lupin aphid (M. albifrons) is not affected by the alkaloid content. In contrast, A. fabae, A. pisum, M. persicae, and A. craccivora showed a negative correlation between aphid multiplication and alkaloid content (r = -0.493 to -0.350). However, several genotypes with a low total alkaloid content, e.g., Kalya, Bora, and Borlu, were detected on which no or only a very limited aphid multiplication was observed, indicating that not only the total content, but also the alkaloid composition is influencing aphid development. By multiple linear regression analysis, it turned out that especially 13-hydroxylupanine and 13-tigloyloxylupanine are involved in the reduced aphid multiplication rate. Respective genotypes may be the starting point for diminishing aphid susceptibility in sweet lupins. Author Affiliation: (1) Julius Kuhn-Institute, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Resistance Research and Stress Tolerance, Erwin-Baur-Stra[sz]e 27, 06484, Quedlinburg, Germany (2) Julius Kuhn-Institute, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Resistance Research and Stress Tolerance, Rudolf-Schick-Platz 3a, 18190, Sanitz - Gross Luesewitz, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 28/11/2015 Received Date: 28/06/2015 Accepted Date: 27/10/2015 Online Date: 15/12/2015 Article note: Communicated by J. Gross.
    Keywords: Alkaloids – Health Aspects ; Lupines – Diseases and Pests ; Aphids – Health Aspects ; Insect-Plant Relationships – Observations
    ISSN: 1612-4758
    E-ISSN: 16124766
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  • 9
    In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, July 2015, Vol.156(1), pp.37-51
    Description: Since the beginning of breeding narrow‐leafed lupins [. (abaceae)] with a low alkaloid content, susceptibility to several aphid species has increased. Therefore, the probing and feeding behavior of copoli, och, (arris), (ulzer), and the well‐adapted ssig (all emiptera: phididae) was studied over 12 h on narrow‐leafed lupin genotypes containing varying amounts and compositions of alkaloids. We used the electrical penetration graph () technique to obtain information on the influence of alkaloid content and composition on the susceptibility to various aphid species. Results indicated that the total time of probing of ,,, and increased with a reduced alkaloid content, whereas the alkaloid content had no influence on . Almost all of the individuals (〉93%) conducted sieve element phases on the highly susceptible genotype Bo083521AR (low alkaloid content). A reduced occurrence of phloem phases was observed during the 12‐h recording on the alkaloid‐rich cultivar Azuro, especially for (37.5%) and (55.0%). Furthermore, aphids feeding on genotypes with low alkaloid content had in most cases significantly longer sieve element phases than when feeding on resistant genotypes (Kalya: low alkaloid content, yet resistant; Azuro: high alkaloid content, resistant), whereas showed the longest phloem phase on the alkaloid‐rich cultivar Azuro. As most significant differences were found in phloem‐related parameters, it is likely that the most important plant factors influencing aphid probing and feeding behavior are localized in the sieve elements. The aphids’ feeding behavior on the cultivar Kalya, with a low alkaloid content but reduced susceptibility, indicates that not only the total alkaloid content influences the feeding behavior but additional plant factors have an impact.
    Keywords: F Abaceae ; Resistance ; Electrical Penetration Graph ; Epg ; A Phis Fabae ; A Phis Craccivora ; A Cyrthosiphon Pisum ; M Yzus Persicae ; M Acrosiphum Albifrons ; H Emiptera ; A Phididae
    ISSN: 0013-8703
    E-ISSN: 1570-7458
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 2017, Vol.64(8), pp.1873-1887
    Description: Forty-four Asparagus officinalis cultivars, gene bank accessions and breeding lines as well as thirty-four accessions of wild relatives of Asparagus were evaluated for resistance to Asparagus virus 1 . Three different test strategies were developed for the assessment of individual plants: (1) natural infection under field conditions, or two vector-mediated infection assays using the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (2) in an insect-proof gauze cage or (3) in a climate chamber. The AV-1 infections were verified by DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR approaches. All tested 660 individual plants of A. officinalis germplasm were susceptible to AV-1 infection. In contrast, in 276 plants of 29 Asparagus wild accessions no virus infection could be detected. These resistant accessions comprised of nineteen diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid species of both the Eurasian clade and the African clade of the asparagus germplasm. Data of the AV-1 resistance evaluation are discussed in relation to the genetic distance of the resistance carrier and potential application in breeding.
    Keywords: spp. ; Asparagus virus 1 ; ELISA ; Genetic diversity ; Myzus persicae ; RT-PCR ; SSR marker ; Virus resistance ; Wild relatives
    ISSN: 0925-9864
    E-ISSN: 1573-5109
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