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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Research in Veterinary Science, 2008, Vol.84(2), pp.286-299
    Description: Pregnancy toxaemia is a metabolic disorder with a high mortality rate and occurs in twin-bearing ewes in late gestation. Maternal hypoglycaemia is a characteristic symptom of the disease and has been attributed to an increase in glucose uptake by the twin-bearing uterus. The possibility that a reduced maternal glucose production rate might cause hypoglycaemia, has received little attention in the past. It was the aim of this study to investigate this explanation as a possible alternative. Six ewes were sequentially subjected to two types of hypoglycaemic stress, firstly by fasting for 14 h and secondly through induction of moderate hyperketonaemia. Glucose kinetics were assessed in each animal during the dry non-gestational period, during late gestation, and during early lactation. Application of these stress factors was associated with variation of plasma glucose concentration from 4.9 to 0.87 mmol L . The plasma glucose concentration was always significantly related to the glucose production rate. The greatest stress-induced reductions in glucose concentration and glucose production rate were seen during late gestation in twin-bearing ewes. The decline in the glucose production rate after an overnight fast and during induced hyperketonaemia was greater in twin-bearing ewes than in single-bearing ewes (59% and 43%, respectively, 〈 0.05). The stress conditions resulted in the lowest levels of glucose concentration and glucose turnover rates in the stressed, hyperketonaemic, late gestation twin-bearing ewes. This illustrates that the glucose homoeostatic system of ewes bearing twins is significantly more susceptible to hypoglycaemic stress than that of ewes bearing single lambs. These findings also show that the primary cause of hypoglycaemia in late gestation twin-pregnant ewes is an increased susceptibility to a stress related reduction in glucose production rate. This metabolic condition leaves the twin-pregnant ewe predisposed for the development of pregnancy toxaemia.
    Keywords: Glucose Production ; Twin-Gestation ; Twin-Pregnancy ; Accelerated Starvation ; Ketones ; Betahydroxybutyrate ; Glucose Turnover ; Isotope Dilution ; Sheep ; Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 0034-5288
    E-ISSN: 1532-2661
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Physiology & Behavior, 24 October 2011, Vol.104(5), pp.786-795
    Description: Stress is known to elevate core body temperature (CBT). We recorded CBT in a diurnal animal, the male tree shrew, during a one-week control period and a one-week period of social stress using a telemetric system. During the stress period, when animals were confronted with a dominant male for about 1 h daily, CBT was increased throughout the day. We analyzed CBT during the night when animals were left undisturbed and displayed no locomotor activity. To determine whether nocturnal hyperthermia may be related to stress-induced changes in hormonal status, we measured testosterone, noradrenalin and cortisol in the animals' morning urine. The daily social stress increased the mean nocturnal temperature by 0.37 °C. Urinary testosterone was reduced during the stress period, and there was a significant negative correlation between testosterone and the area under the curve (AUC) of the nocturnal CBT. This means that stress-induced hyperthermia was strongest in the animals with the lowest testosterone concentrations. As expected, urinary noradrenalin was elevated during the stress week but a positive correlation with the AUC data was only found for animals younger than 12 months. Cortisol was also increased during the stress week but there were no correlations with nocturnal hyperthermia. However, the stress-induced increases in noradrenalin and cortisol correlated with each other. Furthermore, there were no correlations between the stress-induced increase in nocturnal CBT and body weight reduction or locomotor activity during the light phase. Interestingly, the extent of nocturnal hyperthermia depended on the animals' ages: In animals younger than 12 months, stress increased the AUC by 48%, in animals aged between 12 and 24 months, stress increased the AUC by 36%, and older animals showed only a 7% increase. However, testosterone was not significantly reduced in the older animals. The present data reveal an interrelation between the extent of stress-induced nocturnal hyperthermia, the animals' gonadal hormone status and their ages. The negative correlation between hyperthermia and testosterone indicates that this hormone in particular plays an important role in the regulation of body temperature in male tree shrews. ► Chronic social stress induces hyperthermia in subordinate male tree shrews. ► There is a negative correlation between nocturnal hyperthermia and testosterone. ► Our results indicate that testosterone is important for body temperature in males. ► Stress-induced hyperthermia is more pronounced in young than in old adults. ► In young adults, the increase in noradrenalin correlates with the hyperthermia.
    Keywords: Hyperthermia ; Social Stress ; Testosterone ; Sympathetic Activation ; Diurnal Rhythm ; Motor Activity ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0031-9384
    E-ISSN: 1873-507X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Behavioural Brain Research, 01 December 2012, Vol.235(2), pp.113-123
    Description: ► The NeuroLogger enables long-term recordings of sleep and activity in marmosets. ► The Remo200 system allowed for long-term measurement of core body temperature. ► Methods allow simultaneous registration of unrestrained pair-housed marmosets. ► Sleep deprivation leads to a homeostatic sleep rebound in marmosets. ► The marmoset is an interesting model for sleep and circadian research. Initial studies in the day active marmoset monkey ( ) indicate that the sleep-wake cycle of these non-human primates resembles that of humans and therefore conceivably represent an appropriate model for human sleep. The methods currently employed for sleep studies in marmosets are limited. The objective of this study was to employ and validate the use of specific remote monitoring system technologies that enable accurate long-term recordings of sleep-wake rhythms and the closely related rhythms of core body temperature (CBT) and locomotor activity in unrestrained group-housed marmosets. Additionally, a pilot sleep deprivation (SD) study was performed to test the recording systems in an applied experimental setup. Our results show that marmosets typically exhibit a monophasic sleep pattern with cyclical alternations between NREM and REM sleep. CBT displays a pronounced daily rhythm and locomotor activity is primarily restricted to the light phase. SD caused an immediate increase in NREM sleep time and EEG slow-wave activity as well as a delayed REM sleep rebound that did not fully compensate for REM sleep that had been lost during SD. In conclusion, the combination of two innovative technical approaches allows for simultaneous measurements of CBT, sleep cycles and activity in multiple subjects. The employment of these systems represents a significant refinement in terms of animal welfare and will enable many future applications and longitudinal studies of circadian rhythms in marmosets.
    Keywords: Marmoset Monkey ; Circadian Rhythm ; Sleep Homeostasis ; Core Body Temperature ; Locomotor Activity ; Remote Long-Term Recording ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0166-4328
    E-ISSN: 0166-4328
    E-ISSN: 18727549
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(8), p.e43709
    Description: Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys ( Callithrix jacchus) to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β) were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ). LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Veterinary Science ; Immunology ; Pharmacology ; Respiratory Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(10), p.e47344
    Description: The peripheral airway innervation of the lower respiratory tract of mammals is not completely functionally characterized. Recently, we have shown in rats that precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) respond to electric field stimulation (EFS) and provide a useful model to study neural airway responses in distal airways. Since airway responses are known to exhibit considerable species differences, here we examined the neural responses of PCLS prepared from mice, rats, guinea pigs, sheep, marmosets and humans. Peripheral neurons were activated either by EFS or by capsaicin. Bronchoconstriction in response to identical EFS conditions varied between species in magnitude. Frequency response curves did reveal further species-dependent differences of nerve activation in PCLS. Atropine antagonized the EFS-induced bronchoconstriction in human, guinea pig, sheep, rat and marmoset PCLS, showing cholinergic responses. Capsaicin (10 µM) caused bronchoconstriction in human (4 from 7) and guinea pig lungs only, indicating excitatory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses (eNANC). However, this effect was notably smaller in human responder (30±7.1%) than in guinea pig (79±5.1%) PCLS. The transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blockers SKF96365 and ruthenium red antagonized airway contractions after exposure to EFS or capsaicin in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the different species show distinct patterns of nerve-mediated bronchoconstriction. In the most common experimental animals, i.e. in mice and rats, these responses differ considerably from those in humans. On the other hand, guinea pig and marmoset monkey mimic human responses well and may thus serve as clinically relevant models to study neural airway responses.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Physiology ; Respiratory Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral and Brain Functions, Jan 4, 2011, Vol.7, p.1
    Description: Background Several recent studies have highlighted the important role of immunity-related molecules in synaptic plasticity processes in the developing and adult mammalian brains. It has been suggested that neuronal MHCI (major histocompatibility complex class I) genes play a role in the refinement and pruning of synapses in the developing visual system. As a fast evolutionary rate may generate distinct properties of molecules in different mammalian species, we studied the expression of MHCI molecules in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). Methods and results Analysis of expression levels of MHCI molecules in the developing visual cortex of the common marmoset monkeys revealed a distinct spatio-temporal pattern. High levels of expression were detected very early in postnatal development, at a stage when synaptogenesis takes place and ocular dominance columns are formed. To determine whether the expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by retinal activity, animals were subjected to monocular enucleation. Levels of MHCI heavy chain subunit transcripts in the visual cortex were found to be elevated in response to monocular enucleation. Furthermore, MHCI heavy chain immunoreactivity revealed a banded pattern in layer IV of the visual cortex in enucleated animals, which was not observed in control animals. This pattern of immunoreactivity indicated that higher expression levels were associated with retinal activity coming from the intact eye. Conclusions These data demonstrate that, in the nonhuman primate brain, expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by neuronal activity. Moreover, this study extends previous findings by suggesting a role for neuronal MHCI molecules during synaptogenesis in the visual cortex.
    Keywords: Genes -- Physiological Aspects ; Genes -- Research ; Major Histocompatibility Complex -- Physiological Aspects ; Major Histocompatibility Complex -- Research ; Major Histocompatibility Complex -- Genetic Aspects ; Visual Cortex -- Physiological Aspects ; Visual Cortex -- Research
    ISSN: 1744-9081
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral and Brain Functions, Jan 4, 2011, Vol.7, p.1
    Description: Background Several recent studies have highlighted the important role of immunity-related molecules in synaptic plasticity processes in the developing and adult mammalian brains. It has been suggested that neuronal MHCI (major histocompatibility complex class I) genes play a role in the refinement and pruning of synapses in the developing visual system. As a fast evolutionary rate may generate distinct properties of molecules in different mammalian species, we studied the expression of MHCI molecules in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). Methods and results Analysis of expression levels of MHCI molecules in the developing visual cortex of the common marmoset monkeys revealed a distinct spatio-temporal pattern. High levels of expression were detected very early in postnatal development, at a stage when synaptogenesis takes place and ocular dominance columns are formed. To determine whether the expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by retinal activity, animals were subjected to monocular enucleation. Levels of MHCI heavy chain subunit transcripts in the visual cortex were found to be elevated in response to monocular enucleation. Furthermore, MHCI heavy chain immunoreactivity revealed a banded pattern in layer IV of the visual cortex in enucleated animals, which was not observed in control animals. This pattern of immunoreactivity indicated that higher expression levels were associated with retinal activity coming from the intact eye. Conclusions These data demonstrate that, in the nonhuman primate brain, expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by neuronal activity. Moreover, this study extends previous findings by suggesting a role for neuronal MHCI molecules during synaptogenesis in the visual cortex.
    Keywords: Genes -- Physiological Aspects ; Genes -- Research ; Major Histocompatibility Complex -- Physiological Aspects ; Major Histocompatibility Complex -- Research ; Major Histocompatibility Complex -- Genetic Aspects ; Visual Cortex -- Physiological Aspects ; Visual Cortex -- Research
    ISSN: 1744-9081
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(2)
    Description: Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) belongs to a newly discovered family of evolutionarily conserved neurotrophic factors. We demonstrate for the first time a therapeutic effect of CDNF in a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model of Parkinson’s disease in marmoset monkeys. Furthermore, we tested the impact of high chronic doses of human recombinant CDNF on unlesioned monkeys and analyzed the amino acid sequence of marmoset CDNF. The severity of 6-OHDA lesions and treatment effects were monitored in vivo using 123 I-FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) SPECT. Quantitative analysis of 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT showed a significant increase of dopamine transporter binding activity in lesioned animals treated with CDNF. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a well-characterized and potent neurotrophic factor for dopamine neurons, served as a control in a parallel comparison with CDNF. By contrast with CDNF, only single animals responded to the treatment with GDNF, but no statistical difference was observed in the GDNF group. However, increased numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons, observed within the lesioned caudate nucleus of GDNF-treated animals, indicate a strong bioactive potential of GDNF.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral and Brain Functions, 01 January 2011, Vol.7(1), p.1
    Description: Abstract Background Several recent studies have highlighted the important role of immunity-related molecules in synaptic plasticity processes in the developing and adult mammalian brains. It has been suggested that neuronal MHCI (major histocompatibility complex class I) genes play a role in the refinement and pruning of synapses in the developing visual system. As a fast evolutionary rate may generate distinct properties of molecules in different mammalian species, we studied the expression of MHCI molecules in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). Methods and results Analysis of expression levels of MHCI molecules in the developing visual cortex of the common marmoset monkeys revealed a distinct spatio-temporal pattern. High levels of expression were detected very early in postnatal development, at a stage when synaptogenesis takes place and ocular dominance columns are formed. To determine whether the expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by retinal activity, animals were subjected to monocular enucleation. Levels of MHCI heavy chain subunit transcripts in the visual cortex were found to be elevated in response to monocular enucleation. Furthermore, MHCI heavy chain immunoreactivity revealed a banded pattern in layer IV of the visual cortex in enucleated animals, which was not observed in control animals. This pattern of immunoreactivity indicated that higher expression levels were associated with retinal activity coming from the intact eye. Conclusions These data demonstrate that, in the nonhuman primate brain, expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by neuronal activity. Moreover, this study extends previous findings by suggesting a role for neuronal MHCI molecules during synaptogenesis in the visual cortex.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 1744-9081
    E-ISSN: 1744-9081
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  • 10
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