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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 2011, Vol.11(1), pp.1-10
    Description: Varicella–zoster virus (VZV, ), a world-wide distributed pathogen, is the causative agent of varicella (chickenpox) and zoster (shingles). Both diseases result in significant morbidity and economic burden. The implementation of routine varicella vaccination programs in many countries may reduce significantly the incidence of varicella disease. Furthermore, vaccination against zoster can diminish the burden of zoster considerably. Although many epidemiological, clinical and laboratory studies were performed in the past decades to reveal the clinical burden as well as epidemiological features and changes of the two diseases caused by VZV, a comparatively low number of molecular epidemiological studies have been performed to investigate and monitor the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationship of VZV strains throughout the world. To date, it is well established that VZV can be divided into five major clades confirmed by full-genome sequencing and two provisional clades that have to be confirmed. Additionally, several studies have demonstrated a regional dominance of specific VZV clades, most likely in dependence on environmental factors, evolutionary conditions and host–virus interactions and/or importation of viral strains. However, there are many open questions such as the alteration of genotype distribution through immigration or travel, the introduction of the varicella vaccine strain into population and the emergence of wild-type vaccine recombinant viruses. To increase our knowledge in this field by further innovative approaches, the new common nomenclature of VZV clades established recently will be very useful. In this review, the currently available data concerning the geographic distribution and evolution of VZV clades are summarized. Different models of VZV evolution and recombination are discussed and recent changes in VZV clade distribution addressed.
    Keywords: Clade ; Varicella–Zoster Virus ; Epidemiology ; Vaccine ; Recombination ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1567-1348
    E-ISSN: 1567-7257
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, 01 October 2012, Vol.18(10), pp.1698-1700
    Description: To the Editor: West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae that is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. Approximately 80% of WNV infections in humans are asymptomatic, whereas ≈20% of infected persons experience fever, often accompanied by a rash. Less than 1% of infections are manifested as neuroinvasive disease, such as meningoencephalitis, polyradiculoneuritis, and polio-like flaccid paralysis (1). WNV is endemic in Africa, southern Asia, and northern Australia, and only sporadic cases or small epidemics are seen in Europe (2). In 1999, WNV emerged in North America. By 2010, ≈1.8 million persons had become infected, with 12,852 reported cases of meningoencephalitis and 1,308 deaths (2). In Europe, the last notable outbreak of WNV infection occurred in Greece in 2010; 197 persons were infected, and 33 died (3). The Czech Republic, Denmark, France, and the Netherlands reported laboratory-confirmed WNV infections in travelers returning from North America (1).
    Keywords: West Nile Virus ; Arbovirus ; Germany ; Serology ; Viruses ; Vector-Borne Infections ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1080-6040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, 01 April 2012, Vol.18(4), pp.695-696
    Description: To the Editor: We report the case of a 27-year-old male Swiss tourist who spent 3.5 weeks (July 6–30, 2011) vacationing in the vicinity of Tarapoto, a small city located in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin in northern Peru. An acute febrile illness developed in the man during the second week of his stay. Signs and symptoms of illness were chills, malaise, frontal headache, generalized myalgia, a self-limiting painful cervical and inguinal lymphadenopathy (lasting ≈1 week), slowly progressive and pronounced polyarthralgic pains of the peripheral joints, and a transient nonpruritic maculopapular rash (starting at the forearms ≈1 week after onset of fever and spreading to the trunk and later to the neck and face before fading after 3 days).
    Keywords: Mayaro Virus ; Mayaro Virus Infection ; Traveler ; Viral Polyarthritis ; Viral Polyarthralgia ; Alphavirus Infection ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1080-6040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, 01 June 2010, Vol.16(6), pp.1034-1036
    Description: To the Editor: Toscana virus (TOSV) is a serotype of Sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV) within the family Bunyaviridae and the genus Phlebovirus. TOSV is transmitted to humans by sandflies (Phlebotomus spp.) and is a prominent cause of aseptic meningitis in Mediterranean countries (1). In Italy, for populations living in rural areas and persons engaging in outdoor activities, the highest risk for acquiring TOSV is from August through October (1). TOSV infections should therefore be considered in travelers returning from the Mediterranean area who have fever and signs of meningitis. Laboratory diagnosis of TOSV infections is often limited to the detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG because of the short period of viremia and the low amount of virus in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during the acute phase (2). We report a reverse transcription–PCR (RT-PCR)–confirmed TOSV infection acquired on the island of Elba that was then imported into Switzerland.
    Keywords: Viruses ; Toscana Virus ; Vector-Borne Infections ; Elba ; Switzerland ; Meningitis ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1080-6040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 5
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2015, Vol.373(2), pp.154-162
    Description: Between 2011 and 2013, three breeders of variegated squirrels ( Sciurus variegatoides ) had encephalitis with similar clinical signs and died 2 to 4 months after onset of the clinical symptoms. With the use of a metagenomic approach that incorporated next-generation sequencing and real-time reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the presence of a previously unknown bornavirus was detected in a contact squirrel and in brain samples from the three patients. Phylogenetic analyses showed that this virus, tentatively named variegated squirrel 1 bornavirus (VSBV-1), forms a lineage separate from that of the known bornavirus species. (Funded by the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture [Germany] and others.) Three squirrel breeders had encephalitis and died. A careful examination with the use of metagenomic approaches and next-generation sequencing suggested a previously unknown bornavirus, which may have come from the squirrels, as the culprit. Beginning in late 2011, three men in succession (63, 62, and 72 years of age) from the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, had a progressive encephalitis or meningoencephalitis that led to death within 2 to 4 months after the onset of clinical symptoms. The clinical course was characterized by fever, shivers, or both; progressive psychomotor slowing; confusion; unsteady gait; myoclonus, ocular paresis, or both; and finally, coma. All three patients had preexisting medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, or obesity). In all three patients, the disease was also accompanied, at some point during the course of the illness, by bilateral crural-vein thrombosis, which . . .
    Keywords: Bornaviridae -- Genetics ; Brain -- Pathology ; Encephalitis, Viral -- Virology ; Mononegavirales Infections -- Virology ; Sciuridae -- Virology;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Deutsches Arzteblatt international, April 2013, Vol.110(15), pp.269
    Keywords: Travel ; Tropical Climate ; Primary Health Care -- Methods ; Travel Medicine -- Methods ; Virus Diseases -- Diagnosis
    E-ISSN: 1866-0452
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    Language: German
    In: Deutsches Aerzteblatt Online, 2013
    Keywords: Heart Diseases -- Epidemiology ; Sports -- Physiology;
    ISSN: Deutsches Aerzteblatt Online
    E-ISSN: 1866-0452
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, 01 August 2014, Vol.20(8), pp.1412-1414
    Description: To the Editor: Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, is a mosquito-borne virus that is endemic to Africa and Southeast Asia. ZIKV causes illness that is similar to dengue fever, characterized by joint pain, myalgia, headache, and rash (1). ZIKV has caused several recent outbreaks, including one in Micronesia in 2007 (2) and one in French Polynesia (≈30,000 cases) ongoing since October 2013 (3) and spreading to New Caledonia and Easter Island (4). We report the clinical and laboratory findings for a patient with ZIKV infection imported from Tahiti, French Polynesia.
    Keywords: Zika Virus ; Febrile Syndrome ; Travel ; French Polynesia ; Tahiti ; Mosquito ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1080-6040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, 01 July 2014, Vol.20(7), pp.1255-1257
    Description: To the Editor: Mayaro virus (MAYV), a mosquito-borne New World alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, causes a febrile arthralgia syndrome resembling dengue and chikungunya fever. The virus is maintained in a natural cycle involving nonhuman primates and Haemagogus spp. mosquitoes in tropical rainforest areas of South America (1). After an incubation time of 7–12 days following an infectious mosquito bite, rash, fever, headache, and arthralgia develop in patients, followed by restoration to their original conditions after several weeks (1).
    Keywords: Mayaro Virus ; Viruses ; Genome Analysis ; Travel ; Germany ; French Guiana ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1080-6040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, Dec 19, 2015, Vol.386(10012), p.2478(3)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01244-1 Byline: Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Andreas F Widmer, Petra Emmerich, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Manuel Battegay Author Affiliation: (a) Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland (b) Bernard-Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine and WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus and Haemorrhagic Fever Reference and Research National Reference Centre for Tropical Infectious Diseases, Hamburg, Germany (c) German Centre for Infection Research, Hamburg-Lubeck-Borstel, Hamburg, Germany
    Keywords: Vaccination
    ISSN: 0140-6736
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