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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(9), p.e0204008
    Description: PURPOSE:There is some controversy whether or not saccades change with age. This cross-sectional study aims to clarify the characteristics of reflexive saccades at various ages to establish a normative cohort in a standardized set-up. Second objective is to investigate the feasibility of saccadometry in daily ophthalmological practice. METHODS:One hundred healthy participants aged between 6 and 76 years underwent an ophthalmologic examination and saccadometry, using an infrared video-oculography device, sampling at 220 Hz. The reflexive saccades were evoked in four directions and three target displacements each (5°/15°/30° horizontally and of 5°/10°/20° vertically). Saccadic peak velocity, gain (amplitude/target displacement) and latency were measured. RESULTS:Mean peak velocity of saccades was 213°/s (± 29°/s), 352°/s (± 50°/s) and 455°/s (± 67°/s) to a target position 5°, 15°and 30° horizontally, respectively, and 208°/s (± 36°/s), 303°/s (± 50°/s) and 391°/s (± 71°/s) to a target position 5°, 10° and 20° vertically. The association between peak velocity and eccentricity proved to be present at any age in all four directions. We found no relevant effect of age on peak velocity, gain and latency in a fitted linear mixed model. However, latency becomes shorter during childhood and adolescence, while in adulthood it is relatively stable with a slight trend to increase in the elderly. Saccades are more precise when the target displacement is small. Isometric saccades are most common, followed by hypometric ones. All children and elderly were able to perform good quality saccadometry in a recording time of approximately 10 minutes. CONCLUSION:The presented data may serve as normative control for further studies using such a video-oculography device for saccadometry. The means of peak velocity and the gain can be used independently from age respecting the target displacement. Latency is susceptible to age.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2017, Vol.12(1)
    Description: Aims The tonographic effect is a phenomenon of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction following repeated tonometry. This study examines whether the tonographic effect occurs following IOP measurement performed with Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Methods Both eyes of 31 glaucoma patients and 35 healthy controls underwent nine IOP-measurements performed with GAT and ORA. The number of GAT and ORA measurements performed on each eye differed depending on the randomly allocated investigation scheme. Central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were assessed with Pentacam before and after the repeated GAT/ORA measurements. Results There was no statistically significant tonographic effect for IOP readings obtained by the ORA: corneal compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) (-0.11 ± 3.06 mmHg, p = 0.843 in patients and -0.71 ± 3.28 mmHg, p = 0.208 for controls) and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) (-0.31 ± 2.38 mmHg, p = 0.469 in patients and -0.31 ± 2.37 mmHg, p = 0.441 in controls) measured with ORA. There was a significant IOP reduction from the first to the second GAT measurement, i.e. tonographic effect (-0.55 ± 2.00 mmHg, p = 0.138 in patients and -1.15 ± 1.52 mmHg, p 〈 0.001 in controls). CCT, corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were lower in glaucoma patients. The repeated IOP measurements resulted in an increase of CCT in all subjects (but no change of ACV and ACD). The tonographic effect of GAT correlated with CCT in glaucoma patients (r = 0.37). Conclusion In contrast to GAT, repeated ORA measurements do not result in the tonographic effect. Repeated IOP measurements resulted in an increase of central corneal thickness, but did not influence the volume and depth of anterior chamber.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(7)
    Description: Introduction Despite the increasing incidence of melanoma little is known about patients' emotional distress associated with this disease. Supplemented by the problem list (PL), the distress thermometer (DT) is a recommended screening instrument to measure psychosocial distress in cancer patients. Our objective was to explore the acceptance and the feasibility of the DT and PL as a concise screening tool in an ambulatory setting for routine care and to elucidate determinants of distress in melanoma patients with regard to sociodemographic and clinical variables. Methods Consecutive melanoma outpatients were asked to complete the DT with the PL prior to their scheduled consultation. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the patients' charts. Clinical data included melanoma stage, time since diagnosis, previous treatment, current treatment, and other cancer disease. Results Out of 734 patients recruited into the study, 520 patients (71%) completed both the DT and the PL. Forty-seven percent met the ≥5 cut-off score for distress. Younger and employed patients reported higher distress than older and retired patients. A cut-off score of ≥5 was closely associated with self-reported emotional sources of distress, with practical problems, especially at work, family problems (dealing with the partner), and physical problems like pain, appearance, getting around, and nausea. Apart from higher distress under current systemic treatment, no associations were found between distress and clinical data. Conclusion The DT together with the PL seems to be an economically reasonable screening tool to measure psychosocial distress in melanoma patients. In particular, younger melanoma patients who are currently employed are prone to experience distress at some point after diagnosis, but there appears to be almost no association between clinical data and the extent of distress. To characterize the impact of distress on disease outcome and quality of life in melanoma patients, further research is needed.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine ; Social And Behavioral Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    In: Transplantation, 2011, Vol.92(12), pp.1378-1384
    Description: BACKGROUND.: The shortage of donor organs in Germany has led to the use of organs from donors with extended donor criteria (EDC). EDC have been defined on the basis of expert opinions, but their clinical relevance is controversial. This may cause loss of organs otherwise available for transplantation. We evaluated the impact of donor and recipient factors in liver transplants on patient and graft survival in a nationwide multicenter analysis, with special focus on EDC and donor risk index. METHODS.: A database was created from data on livers donated and transplanted in Germany between 2006 and 2008 as provided by Deutsche Stiftung Organtransplantation and BQS Institute. Cox regression (significance level 5%, risk ratio [95% confidence interval]) was used for calculating the impact on patient survival (n=2095) and on graft survival (n=2175). RESULTS.: Patient and graft survival were significantly affected only by donor age (1.012 and 1.011/year), recipient age (1.019 and 1.014/year), creatinine (1.248 and 1.205/mg/dL), bilirubin (1.022 and 1.023/mg/dL), and high urgency status (1.783 and 1.809). Inferior organ quality resulted in lower graft survival (1.243) and donor history of smoking in lower patient survival (1.249). CONCLUSION.: Multiple Cox regression revealed no significant impact of EDC or donor risk index on patient and graft survival except for donor age after donor selection at recovery. Among recipient variables, only age, creatinine and bilirubin, and high urgency status were associated with poorer outcome.
    Keywords: Smoking ; Databases ; Age ; Donors ; Data Processing ; Creatinine ; Survival ; Bilirubin ; Joints ; Liver Transplantation ; Age ; Bilirubin ; Creatinine ; Data Processing ; Databases ; Donors ; Joints ; Liver Transplantation ; Smoking ; Survival ; Transplantation;
    ISSN: 0041-1337
    E-ISSN: 15346080
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(1), p.e0168698
    Description: To investigate an influence of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS)- and Morbus Fabry-associated corneal opacities on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements and to evaluate the concordance of the different tonometry methods.25 MPS patients with or without corneal clouding, 25 Fabry patients with cornea verticillata ≥ grade 2 and 25 healthy age matched controls were prospectively included into this study. Outcome measures: Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT); palpatory assessment of IOP; Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), corneal resistance factor (CRF) and corneal hysteresis (CH) assessed by Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA); central corneal thickness (CCT) and density assessed with Pentacam. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed effect models and Spearman correlation coefficients. The concordance between tonometry methods was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis.There was no relevant difference between study groups regarding median GAT, IOPg, IOPcc and CCT measurements. The limits of agreement between GAT and IOPcc/IOPg/palpatory IOP in MPS were: [-11.7 to 12.1mmHg], [-8.6 to 15.5 mmHg] and [- 5.4 to 10.1 mmHg] respectively. Limits of agreement were less wide in healthy subjects and Fabry patients. Palpatory IOP was higher in MPS than in healthy controls and Fabry patients. Corneal opacity correlated more strongly with GAT, IOPg, CH, CRF, CCT and corneal density in MPS (r = 0.4, 0.5, 0.5, 0.7, 0.6, 0.6 respectively) than in Fabry patients (r = 0.3, 0.2, -0.03, 0.1, 0.3, -0.2 respectively). In contrast, IOPcc revealed less correlation with corneal opacity than GAT in MPS (r = 0.2 vs. 0.4).ORA and GAT render less comparable IOP-values in patients suffering from MPS-associated corneal opacity in comparison to Fabry and healthy controls. The IOP seems to be overestimated in opaque MPS-affected corneas. GAT, IOPg and biomechanical parameters of the cornea correlate more strongly with the corneal clouding than IOPcc in MPS patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01695161.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Gait & Posture, September 2017, Vol.57, pp.345-346
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.06.458
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0966-6362
    E-ISSN: 1879-2219
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  • 7
    In: Critical Care Medicine, 2014, Vol.42(6), pp.e410-e419
    Description: OBJECTIVES:: Despite advances in cardiac arrest treatment, high mortality and morbidity rates after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation are still a major clinical relevant problem. The post cardiac arrest syndrome subsumes myocardial dysfunction, impaired microcirculation, systemic inflammatory response, and neurological impairment. The calcium-sensitizer levosimendan was able to improve myocardial function and initial resuscitation success after experimental cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We hypothesized that levosimendan exerts beneficial effects on cerebral blood flow, neuronal injury, neurological outcome, and inflammation 24 hours after experimental cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation. DESIGN:: Laboratory animal study. SETTING:: University animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS:: Sixty-one male Sprague-Dawley rats. INTERVENTIONS:: Animals underwent asphyxial cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation, randomized to groups with levosimendan treatment (bolus 12 µg/kg and infusion for 3 hr [0.3 µg/min/kg]) or vehicle (saline 0.9% bolus and infusion for 3 hr [equivalent fluid volume]). Cardiac index, local cerebral blood flow, and hemodynamic variables were measured for 180 minutes after cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Behavioral and neurological evaluations were conducted 24 hours after cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Furthermore, neuronal injury, expressed as Fluoro-Jade B–positive cells in the hippocampal formation, cortical and hippocampal inflammatory cytokine gene expression, and blood plasma interleukin-6 values were assessed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Treatment with levosimendan reduced neuronal injury and improved neurological outcome after 24 hours of reperfusion and resulted in elevated cardiac index and local cerebral blood flow compared with vehicle after cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced during the early reperfusion period in the levosimendan group. Cortical and hippocampal inflammatory cytokine gene expression and blood plasma interleukin-6 levels were not influenced. CONCLUSIONS:: Levosimendan increased cerebral blood flow after experimental cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This effect coincided with reduced neuronal injury and improved neurologic outcome. Findings seem to be independent of inflammatory effects because no effects by levosimendan on cerebral or systemic inflammation could be detected. In summary, levosimendan is a promising agent to improve neurological outcome after cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
    Keywords: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation -- Adverse Effects ; Cardiotonic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Cerebrovascular Circulation -- Drug Effects ; Heart Arrest -- Drug Therapy ; Hemodynamics -- Drug Effects ; Hydrazones -- Pharmacology ; Neurons -- Pathology ; Pyridazines -- Pharmacology;
    ISSN: 0090-3493
    E-ISSN: 15300293
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Molecular and clinical oncology, March 2015, Vol.3(2), pp.347-352
    Description: Smoking is one of the main risk factors for the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Smoking may affect single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenic activity. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the published VEGF-SNP genotype data of OSCC patients and healthy individuals and performed a meta-analysis comparing the VEGF-SNP genotypes of smoking and non-smoking patients in association with OSCC incidence. Prospective and retrospective studies on the clinical comparison of OSCC patients with different VEGF-SNP genotypes were reviewed. The meta-analysis re-pooled studies of smoking and non-smoking OSCC patients with different VEGF-SNPs between 2006 and 2014. The identified articles were reviewed and those reporting pertinent information, assignment to smoking and non-smoking patient groups and sufficient data for estimation of an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were selected for the meta-analysis. Pooled ORs and CIs for the comparison of SNP distribution in the smoking and non-smoking subgroups were calculated and compared using the random-effects model. A total of 7 studies were included in the systematic review, which was followed by a meta-analysis using 3 pertinent studies. The reviewed studies reported discrepant findings, with differences between Asian and European patients. The meta-analysis demonstrated marginal but not statistically significant differences, suggesting that specific VEGF-SNPs may be OSCC risk modifiers for smokers, depending on the ethnic background. The performed meta-analysis suggested an increased OSCC risk for smokers carrying specific VEGF-genotypes, although the calculated data did not reach the level of significance. However, data have to be interpreted with caution due to the limited sample size. Therefore, further studies, including larger patient samples, are mandatory.
    Keywords: Meta-Analysis ; Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma ; Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms ; Smoking ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
    ISSN: 2049-9450
    E-ISSN: 20499469
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics/Fortschritte der Kieferorthopadie, March, 2011, Vol.72(1), p.13(8)
    Description: Byline: Christina Erbe (1,1), Sandra Hornikel (1,1), Irene Schmidtmann (2,1), Heiner Wehrbein (1,1) Keywords: Biofilm; Plaque; Molar bands; Dental hygiene; Orthodontics; Biofilm; Bakterielle Adhasion; Dentale Plaque; Molarenbander; Mundhygiene; Kieferorthopadie Abstract: Objective The placement of orthodontic bands usually increases plaque accumulation due to numerous mechanical retention sites. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the amount and distribution pattern of biofilm in the oral (palatal and lingual) and interproximal regions surrounding orthodontic bands. Materials and Methods We evaluated the formation of biofilm on 32 orthodontic bands which had been placed intraorally for 6--37 months. Two parameters were measured: the percentage of surface covered by biofilm (quantity) and the biofilm distribution pattern of accumulation. We measured these two parameters in four regions of interest: the mesial and distal interproximal regions, as well as the mesial and distal regions of the oral attachment. Results The quantity of biofilm formation was similar in all four regions of interest, ranging from 13.3% to 16.8%. In contrast to biofilm quantity, distribution patterns differed in the four regions. In the mesial and distal interproximal regions it appeared as extensive insular areas in 87.5% and 71.9%, respectively, whereas it appeared more often supragingival and linear in nature in regions adjacent to the oral attachment, i.e. in 65.6% and 68.8%, respectively. Conclusion Our results indicate that firstly, oral hygiene in the palatal and lingual regions of orthodontic bands seems as difficult as it is in the interproximal areas, thus requiring thorough hygiene in both areas. Secondly, orthodontic patients with a history of periodontal disease require special attention regarding the use of orthodontic bands. Abstract (German): Zielsetzung Der Einsatz orthodontischer Bander verstarkt in der Regel die Plaqueakkumulation aufgrund der vermehrten mechanischen Retentionsmoglichkeiten. Ziel der Studie war die Evaluierung von Menge und Verteilung des Biofilms in den oralen bzw. den lingualen und palatinalen sowie den interdentalen Bereichen von Molarenbandern. Material und Methodik Auf den adharenten Biofilm hin untersucht wurden 32 orthodontische Bander nach einer Verweildauer im Mund des Patienten zwischen 6 und 37 Monaten. Bestimmt wurden zwei Parameter: die Quantitat, also der mit Plaque besiedelte Anteil der Oberflache, und die Verteilung des Biofilms auf dem Band. Diese wurden in jeweils vier Bereichen uberpruft: an der mesialen und distalen Interdentalflache sowie an den Flachen direkt mesial und distal des oralen Attachments. Ergebnisse Die Quantitat der Plaqueanhaftung, zwischen 13,3 und 16,8%, war in allen vier Bereichen vergleichbar, die Verteilung der Plaque dagegen unterschiedlich. Auf der mesialen und distalen Interdentalflache war die Plaquebesiedlung in 87,5 bzw. 71,9% grossflachig inselformig, wahrend die Flachen direkt mesial und distal des oralen Attachments zu 65,6 bzw. 68,8% eine strichformige, supragingivale Plaqueansammlung zeigten. Schlussfolgerung Zum einen ist die Hygiene der palatinalen und lingualen Flachen eines Bandes ahnlich erschwert wie die der interdentalen Flachen dies sollte bei der kieferorthopadischen Hygieneeinweisung Berucksichtigung finden. Ausserdem ist der Einsatz von orthodontischen Bandern bei Patienten mit einer parodontalen Grunderkrankung kritisch zu betrachten. Author Affiliation: (11) Department of Orthodontics, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Augustusplatz 2, 55131, Mainz, Germany (21) Department of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 02/12/2010 Received Date: 30/06/2010 Accepted Date: 03/11/2010 Online Date: 11/03/2011
    Keywords: Musical Groups ; Orthodontics
    ISSN: 1434-5293
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Hearing Research, 2015, Vol.326, p.40(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2015.03.010 Byline: Ulf-Rudiger Heinrich, Irene Schmidtmann, Sebastian Strieth, Kai Helling Abstract: Intratympanic gentamicin therapy has become a popular treatment modality for Meniere's disease (MD) through controlled elimination of vertigo spells caused by the balance organ. However, the known ototoxic properties of aminoglycosides lead to cochlear damage. In order to gain more information about cellular preferences for aminoglycoside accumulation within the cochlea, gentamicin was immuno histochemically localized by light microscopy in male guinea pigs 1 and 7 days after intratympanic application (n = 8 ears/incubation time). Differences in the gentamicin-specific cellular storage capacities were quantified by determination of the local immuno staining intensities. Gentamicin was detected in every cochlear cell type, but with spatiotemporal variability. One day after application, an intense staining reaction was found in all cell types except the spiral ganglion cells and the stria vascularis. Six days later, gentamicin staining intensities were additionally reduced in the nerve fibers and the spiral ligament. Statistic analysis revealed strong cellular associations in respect to aminoglycoside accumulation. Furthermore, associations with recorded hearing losses were identified comparing the cellular gentamicin content in the organ of Corti, in the stria vascularis, in the spiral ganglion cells and in fibrocytes of the Limbus. In the lateral wall, clear differences in cellular gentamicin accumulation were found between type I fibrocytes of the spiral ligament compared with basal and intermediate cells of the stria vascularis. This finding was unexpected as these three cell types belong to a well-developed gap-junction system which normally enables unhampered cell communication. Cellular differences in local gentamicin storage capacities, transport processes and inherent diffusion barriers are discussed. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany (b) Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany Article History: Received 28 January 2015; Revised 19 March 2015; Accepted 20 March 2015
    Keywords: Aminoglycosides – Analysis
    ISSN: 0378-5955
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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