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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 04 March 2008, Vol.105(9), pp.3473-8
    Description: Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of infectious childhood mortality worldwide. Most research efforts have hitherto focused on disease isolates belonging to only a few hypervirulent clonal lineages. However, up to 10% of the healthy human population is temporarily colonized by genetically diverse strains mostly with little or no pathogenic potential. Currently, little is known about the biology of carriage strains and their evolutionary relationship with disease isolates. The expression of a polysaccharide capsule is the only trait that has been convincingly linked to the pathogenic potential of N. meningitidis. To gain insight into the evolution of virulence traits in this species, whole-genome sequences of three meningococcal carriage isolates were obtained. Gene content comparisons with the available genome sequences from three disease isolates indicate that there is no core pathogenome in N. meningitidis. A comparison of the chromosome structure suggests that a filamentous prophage has mediated large chromosomal rearrangements and the translocation of some candidate virulence genes. Interspecific comparison of the available Neisseria genome sequences and dot blot hybridizations further indicate that the insertion sequence IS1655 is restricted only to N. meningitidis; its low sequence diversity is an indicator of an evolutionarily recent population bottleneck. A genome-based phylogenetic reconstruction provides evidence that N. meningitidis has emerged as an unencapsulated human commensal from a common ancestor with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria lactamica and consecutively acquired the genes responsible for capsule synthesis via horizontal gene transfer.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Genome, Bacterial ; Neisseria Meningitidis -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, April, 2011, Vol.193(7-8), p.2064(2)
    Description: Serogroup A meningococci are a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults worldwide. However, the genetic basis of serogroup A strains' virulence and their epidemiological properties remain poorly understood. Therefore, we sequenced the complete genome of the transformable Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strain WUE2594. doi: 10.1128/JB.00084-11
    Keywords: Genomics -- Research ; Bacterial Genetics -- Research ; Neisseria Meningitidis -- Genetic Aspects
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, December 2012, Vol.194(23), pp.6594-603
    Description: Zinc is a bivalent cation essential for bacterial growth and metabolism. The human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses a homologue of the Zinc uptake regulator Zur, which has been postulated to repress the putative zinc uptake protein ZnuD. In this study, we elucidated the transcriptome of meningococci in response to zinc by microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We identified 15 genes that were repressed and two genes that were activated upon zinc addition. All transcription units (genes and operons) harbored a putative Zur binding motif in their promoter regions. A meningococcal Zur binding consensus motif (Zur box) was deduced in silico, which harbors a conserved central palindrome consisting of hexameric inverted repeats separated by three nucleotides (TGTTATDNHATAACA). In vitro binding of recombinant meningococcal Zur to this Zur box was shown for the first time using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Zur binding to DNA depended specifically on the presence of zinc and was sensitive to mutations in the palindromic sequence. The Zur regulon among genes of unknown function comprised genes involved in zinc uptake, tRNA modification, and ribosomal assembly. In summary, this is the first study of the transcriptional response to zinc in meningococci.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Regulon ; Neisseria Meningitidis -- Genetics ; Zinc -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, Sept, 2012, Vol.194(17-18), p.5144(2)
    Description: Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal and accidental pathogen exclusively of humans. Although the production of polysaccharide capsules is considered to be essential for meningococcal virulence, there have been reports of constitutively unencapsulated strains causing invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). Here we report the genome sequence of a capsule null locus (cnl) strain of sequence type 198 (ST-198), which is found in half of the reported cases of IMD caused by cnl meningococcal strains.
    Keywords: Meningococcal Infections -- Causes Of ; Neisseria Meningitidis -- Health Aspects ; Virulence (Microbiology) -- Research ; Host-bacteria Relationships
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, February 2011, Vol.17(2), pp.251-4
    Description: Visceral pentastomiasis caused by Armillifer armillatus larvae was diagnosed in 2 dogs in The Gambia. Parasites were subjected to PCR; phylogenetic analysis confirmed relatedness with branchiurans/crustaceans. Our investigation highlights transmission of infective A. armillatus ova to dogs and, by serologic evidence, also to 1 human, demonstrating a public health concern.
    Keywords: Dog Diseases -- Transmission ; Parasitic Diseases -- Transmission ; Parasitic Diseases, Animal -- Transmission ; Pentastomida -- Physiology ; Snakes -- Parasitology ; Zoonoses -- Transmission
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Vaccine, June 24, 2009, Vol.27, p.B103-B111
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.064 Byline: Christoph Schoen (a), Herve Tettelin (b), Julian Parkhill (c), Matthias Frosch (a) Keywords: Genomic flexibility; Meningococcus; Adaptation Abstract: Neisseria meningitidis usually lives as a commensal bacterium in the upper airways of humans. However, occasionally some strains can also cause life-threatening diseases such as sepsis and bacterial meningitis. Comparative genomics demonstrates that only very subtle genetic differences between carriage and disease strains might be responsible for the observed virulence differences and that N. meningitidis is, evolutionarily, a very recent species. Comparative genome sequencing also revealed a panoply of genetic mechanisms underlying its enormous genomic flexibility which also might affect the virulence of particular strains. From these studies, N. meningitidis emerges as a paradigm for organisms that use genome variability as an adaptation to changing and thus challenging environments. Author Affiliation: (a) Institut fur Hygiene und Mikrobiologie, der Universitat Wurzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, Bau E1, 97877 Wurzburg, Germany (b) Institute for Genome Sciences, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland Biopark, 801 West Baltimore Street, Room 629, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA (c) Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK
    Keywords: Meningitis ; Genetic Research ; Genomics ; Genomes
    ISSN: 0264-410X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, 02 June 2017, Vol.45(10), pp.6147-6167
    Description: Neisseria meningitidis is a human commensal that can also cause life-threatening meningitis and septicemia. Despite growing evidence for RNA-based regulation in meningococci, their transcriptome structure and output of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) are incompletely understood. Using dRNA-seq, we have mapped at single-nucleotide resolution the primary transcriptome of N. meningitidis strain 8013. Annotation of 1625 transcriptional start sites defines transcription units for most protein-coding genes but also reveals a paucity of classical σ70-type promoters, suggesting the existence of activators that compensate for the lack of -35 consensus sequences in N. meningitidis. The transcriptome maps also reveal 65 candidate sRNAs, a third of which were validated by northern blot analysis. Immunoprecipitation with the RNA chaperone Hfq drafts an unexpectedly large post-transcriptional regulatory network in this organism, comprising 23 sRNAs and hundreds of potential mRNA targets. Based on this data, using a newly developed gfp reporter system we validate an Hfq-dependent mRNA repression of the putative colonization factor PrpB by the two trans-acting sRNAs RcoF1/2. Our genome-wide RNA compendium will allow for a better understanding of meningococcal transcriptome organization and riboregulation with implications for colonization of the human nasopharynx.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Transcriptome ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Host Factor 1 Protein -- Metabolism ; Micrornas -- Genetics ; Molecular Chaperones -- Metabolism ; Neisseria Meningitidis -- Genetics ; RNA, Bacterial -- Genetics ; RNA, Messenger -- Genetics
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2011, Vol. 193(8), p.2064
    Description: Serogroup A meningococci are a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults worldwide. However, the genetic basis of serogroup A strains' virulence and their epidemiological properties remain poorly understood. Therefore, we sequenced the complete genome of the transformable Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strain WUE2594. [PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: Genomes ; Gram-Negative Bacteria ; Meningitis ; Genetics ; Children & Youth ; Young Adults;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, September 2012, Vol.194(18), pp.5144-5
    Description: Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal and accidental pathogen exclusively of humans. Although the production of polysaccharide capsules is considered to be essential for meningococcal virulence, there have been reports of constitutively unencapsulated strains causing invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). Here we report the genome sequence of a capsule null locus (cnl) strain of sequence type 198 (ST-198), which is found in half of the reported cases of IMD caused by cnl meningococcal strains.
    Keywords: Genome, Bacterial ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; DNA, Bacterial -- Chemistry ; Neisseria Meningitidis -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(4), p.e18441
    Description: Neisseria meningitidis is a naturally transformable, facultative pathogen colonizing the human nasopharynx. Here, we analyze on a genome-wide level the impact of recombination on gene-complement diversity and virulence evolution in N. meningitidis . We combined comparative genome hybridization using microarrays (mCGH) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of 29 meningococcal isolates with computational comparison of a subset of seven meningococcal genome sequences. ; We found that lateral gene transfer of minimal mobile elements as well as prophages are major forces shaping meningococcal population structure. Extensive gene content comparison revealed novel associations of virulence with genetic elements besides the recently discovered meningococcal disease associated (MDA) island. In particular, we identified an association of virulence with a recently described canonical genomic island termed IHT-E and a differential distribution of genes encoding RTX toxin- and two-partner secretion systems among hyperinvasive and non-hyperinvasive lineages. By computationally screening also the core genome for signs of recombination, we provided evidence that about 40% of the meningococcal core genes are affected by recombination primarily within metabolic genes as well as genes involved in DNA replication and repair. By comparison with the results of previous mCGH studies, our data indicated that genetic structuring as revealed by mCGH is stable over time and highly similar for isolates from different geographic origins. ; Recombination comprising lateral transfer of entire genes as well as homologous intragenic recombination has a profound impact on meningococcal population structure and genome composition. Our data support the hypothesis that meningococcal virulence is polygenic in nature and that differences in metabolism might contribute to virulence.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Genetics And Genomics ; Microbiology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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