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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2010, Vol.649(1), pp.365-373
    Description: Littoral macroinvertebrates are increasingly used for assessing the ecological status of lakes according to the EU Water Framework Directive. This requires harmonised sampling methods, but information on the appropriate spatial scale of the sampling as well as on the adequate sample sizes are mostly lacking. In this study, we compared the spatial variability of littoral (〈1.2 m water depth) macroinvertebrate community composition within habitats and within sites to test whether habitat-specific sampling can reduce their spatial variability. Furthermore, we determined the sample size necessary to obtain maximum species richness for a given habitat type. Spatial variability of macroinvertebrate community composition was significantly lower within habitats than within sampling sites, except for communities of coarse woody debris. Species–area curves revealed that a sample size of 1 m 2 per habitat was not sufficient to obtain the maximum species richness due to the dominance of rare species, which suggests that compilation of taxon inventories may require more exhaustive sampling with sampling sizes substantially larger than 1 m 2 . Separate analysis for species assigned to incidence classes showed that a mean area of 0.63 m 2 per habitat is sufficient to record all species with frequent and medium incidences, and 76% of the rare species. We conclude that habitat-specific sampling is an effective way to reduce the inherent spatial variability of littoral macroinvertebrate communities and that a sample size of 0.63 m 2 per habitat is sufficient to represent their dominant and subdominant elements. The application of this adequate sample size to other lake types than large oligotrophic lakes has to be exercised with caution, in particular if community composition and richness patterns differ. However, our results are based on data from lakes that represent the typical lake type found throughout the Central Baltic ecoregion ensuring its wider applicability in this ecoregion.
    Keywords: Coarse woody debris ; Spatial variability ; Species richness ; Species–area curves ; Water Framework Directive
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Biomechanics, 26 July 2012, Vol.45(11), pp.2046-2049
    Description: Mechanical loading is one of the determining factors for bone modulation, and is therefore frequently used to treat or prevent bone loss; however, there appears to be no data on the effects of baseline bone quantity on this response. This study aimed to verify whether baseline bone quantity affects osteoporotic trabecular bone adaptive response to mechanical stimulation. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were ovariectomized (OVX). After 3 weeks of OVX, rats were divided into a high bone quantity and a low bone quantity group, and rats in each group were then subdivided into 4 groups that were exposed to different loading strategies. In the loading groups, tibiae were stimulated through axial loading at 2000 με of strain, for 1500 cycles each of 75 s, 150 s, or 250 s. The sham treatment groups received no loading. Changes in BV/TV for trabecular bone in the tibia were measured at the baseline (before loading), and at 3 weeks and 6 weeks after loading. BV/TVs in loading groups of the low baseline bone quantity group were significantly increased at 6 weeks, compared with those in the no-loading groups ( 〈0.05), while those in the high quantity groups were not increased ( 〉0.05). A significant negative correlation was observed between baseline BV/TV and its relative variations at 3 weeks or 6 weeks ( 〈0.05). These results indicate that adaptive responses of osteoporotic trabecular bone to mechanical loading depend on baseline bone quantity.
    Keywords: High Baseline Bv/TV ; Low Baseline Bv/TV ; Mechanical Loading ; In Vivo Μct ; Osteoporosis ; Medicine ; Engineering ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0021-9290
    E-ISSN: 1873-2380
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  • 3
    Language: German
    In: Sudhoffs Archiv, 1 January 2010, Vol.94(2), pp.214-242
    Description: The article deals with the question of medicine in the time of the Nazi regime in Germany. It focuses on the question how the media in the "Third Reich" took up the subject "medicine" in general and which aspects were notably mentioned. The footing of this research is the "Westdeutscher Beobachter" and its local edition for the region and the city of Aachen. It was a newspaper published by the regional division of the NSDAP, hence a direct repetition of the Nazi ideology can be expected. During the research it became clear that medicine was not an important subject of propaganda in this newspaper. Only a few articles were about classic Nazi medical topics like "Erbgesundheit" (racial hygiene) and even less about naturopathy. The frequency of articles containing medical issues was very inconsistent, but only in 1934 there was a mentionable number of articles mostly concerning "Erbgesundheit". In this year the racial hygiene poured in law. The main consequence was the forced sterilization of over 300.000 people. Furthermore the topic "medicine" in general seems to be a marginal factor. More popular topics like economic or foreign policy dominated the report of the "Westdeutscher Beobachter". It seems to be that the emphasis was deliberately not laid on the matter "medicine" especially eugenics — which was one of the main components of the Nazi ideology — because the regime didn't want it to become a public interest.
    Keywords: Sciences (General);
    ISSN: 00394564
    Source: Archival Journals (JSTOR)
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  • 4
    Language: German
    In: Sudhoffs Archiv, 2010, Vol.94(2), pp.214-42
    Description: The article deals with the question of medicine in the time of the Nazi regime in Germany. It focuses on the question how the media in the "Third Reich" took up the subject "medicine" in general and which aspects were notably mentioned. The footing of this research is the "Westdeutscher Beobachter" and its local edition for the region and the city of Aachen. It was a newspaper published by the regional division of the NSDAP, hence a direct repetition of the Nazi ideology can be expected. During the research it became clear that medicine was not an important subject of propaganda in this newspaper. Only a few articles were about classic Nazi medical topics like "Erbgesundheit" (racial hygiene) and even less about naturopathy. The frequency of articles containing medical issues was very inconsistent, but only in 1934 there was a mentionable number of articles mostly concerning "Erbgesundheit". In this year the racial hygiene poured in law. The main consequence was the forced sterilization of over 300,000 people. Furthermore the topic "medicine" in general seems to be a marginal factor. More popular topics like economic or foreign policy dominated the report of the "Westdeutscher Beobachter". It seems to be that the emphasis was deliberately not laid on the matter "medicine" especially eugenics--which was one of the main components of the Nazi ideology--because the regime didn't want it to become a public interest.
    Keywords: Eugenics -- History ; Health Policy -- History ; Jews -- History ; National Socialism -- History ; Newspapers As Topic -- History
    ISSN: 0039-4564
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 5
    Language: German
    In: Materials Testing, 02/2012, Vol.54(2), pp.80-84
    Description: The Laser Speckle Photometry is a newly developed non-contact non-destructive testing method which is based on the detection and analysis of thermal or mechanical activated characteristically speckle dynamics. The determination of the material damaged state is based on the understanding of structural changes on different scaling levels given by the physical mesomechanics. The hierarchical behavior of the mesomechanical structures (meso-structures) leads to the hypothesis of the fractal nature of the deformation structure. The fractal dimension DF is a suitable parameter to characterize the fatigued material state. In the case of the laser speckle photometry method the modified auto-correlation function from the pixel intensity changes of the speckles images was used for the computation of Parameter DF. The hardness or porosity of materials is defined by microstructural variation and is combined with several thermal properties of the material. Therefore the speckle thermal diffusivity parameter K was determined using thermal conduction equation from the pixel intensity of speckle images changes during thermal activation. Afterwards correlation between the norm K and hardness and porosity, respectively was found. Results of this research will be presented in the present contribution.
    Keywords: Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung ; Speckle-Interferometer ; Photometrie ; Härte ; Porosität ; Materialermüdung ; Berührungsloses Messverfahren ; Engineering;
    ISSN: 0025-5300
    E-ISSN: 2195-8572
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Medical Engineering and Physics, July 2013, Vol.35(7), pp.1015-1019
    Description: This study tested the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in preventing and/or treating osteoporotic trabecular bone. Mice were ovariectomized (OVX) to induce osteoporotic bone loss. The tibiae of eight OVX mice were treated for 5 days each week for 2 weeks by LLLT (660 nm, 3 J) using a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) which is designed to minimize loss of laser energy before reaching bone (LASER group). Another eight mice received a sham treatment (SHAM group). Structural parameters of trabecular bone were measured with micro-computed tomography images before and after laser treatment. After LLLT for 2 weeks, the percentage reduction (% ) was significantly lower in BV/TV (bone volume fraction) and Tb.N (trabecular number, 〈 0.05 and 〈 0.05) and significant higher in Tb.Sp (trabecular separation) and SMI (structure model index, 〈 0.05 and 〈 0.05) than in the SHAM group. The % in BV/TV at sites directly treated by LLLT was significantly lower in the LASER group than the SHAM group ( 〈 0.05, 〈 0.05). These results indicated that LLLT using MILNS may be effective for preventing and/or treating trabecular bone loss and the effect may be site-dependent in the same bone.
    Keywords: Low-Level Laser Therapy ; Minimally Invasive Laser Needle System ; Osteoporosis ; Spatial Distribution ; Medicine ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 1350-4533
    E-ISSN: 1873-4030
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Surface Science, 2003, Vol.524(1), pp.191-198
    Description: Evolution of surface morphology of Au conductor lines under high-density electric current is studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. The loss of conductivity of thin Au films is found to occur through formation of voids resulted from electromigration followed by the depletion of the material. It is shown that the density of electric current passing through thin conducting films greatly affects their lifetime. Fractal analysis is employed to estimate numerically changes of surface topography of Au films. The fractal dimension is shown to be an optimum prefracture criterion for thin metal films under applying electric current.
    Keywords: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy ; Electrical Transport (Conductivity, Resistivity, Mobility, Etc.) ; Surface Roughening ; Gold ; Polycrystalline Thin Films ; Chemistry ; Physics
    ISSN: 0039-6028
    E-ISSN: 1879-2758
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  • 8
    Language: English
    Source: Dawsonera
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: 27 July 2012, Vol.8413, pp.841315-841315-5
    Description: The damage and stress conditions of large industrial components have to be tested continuously. Especially welding processes in the field of coal production demand a nondestructive monitoring of internal stresses under an external load. In a first step, a new optical method, Laser Speckle Photometry was used during laboratory welding experiments under tensile and bending loads at high strength construction steels. Laser Speckle Photometry is a fast and contactless method for measuring spatial-temporal dynamics of speckle field with high temporal resolution after local heat excitation. The thermally induced change in the material structure causes changes in the speckle-field, which is formed by a probing laser. The shift of the speckle-field is analyzed by statistical methods, using correlation functions. The result of processing is the two-dimensional distribution of thermal diffusivity coefficient correlated to porosity, materials strain or hardness [1-3]. Here, the results of the welding experiments under load are presented. It is shown, that the Laser Speckle Photometry is a suitable technique for nondestructive monitoring and characterization of internal material stresses under external load.
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISBN: 9780819490919
    ISBN: 0819490911
    ISSN: 0277786X
    E-ISSN: 1996756X
    Source: SPIE Digital Library - Proceedings
    Source: SPIE Digital Library - Journals
    Source: SPIE Digital Library - eBooks
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  • 10
    Language: German
    Description: "Den vielfältig gelagerten Forschungsinteressen Rolf Walters folgend, präsentiert die vorliegende Festschrift zu seinen Ehren einen chronologisch vom 16. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart reichenden Querschnitt durch die Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte als Brückendisziplin zwischen Wirtschafts- und Geschichtswissenschaft. Dabei finden insbesondere die Bereiche Business History, Bankengeschichte, History Marketing, allgemeine Historiographie und Geschichte der Weltwirtschaft Berücksichtigung. Die Beiträger nutzen dabei verschiedene methodische Zugriffe, folgen aber alle der Lehr- und Forschungsmaxime des Jubilars, Perspektiven durch Retrospektiven zu gewinnen." (Verlagsangabe). Inhaltsverzeichnis: Jeanette Granda, Jürgen Schreiber: 'Perspektive(n) durch Retrospektive(n)'. Einleitende Worte zur Festschrift für Rolf Walter (11-18); Maximilian Kalus: Kutsche und Bettstatt - Leben wie ein Faktor (19-36); Ekkehard Westermann: Der Brief des Valentim Fernandes des Moravia vom 6. Juni 1510. Aus Lissabon an Stefan Gabler in Nürnberg. Eine Edition (37-46); Reinhard Haupt: Der 'ehrbare Kaufmann'. Erinnerungen in der Unternehmensethik an vergessene Wirtschaftstraditionen (47-59); Michael North: Nürnberg und Antwerpen - Kunst und Ökonomie (61-72); Angelika Westermann: Montangeschichte der Frühen Neuzeit und die Symbolphilosophie Ernst Cassirer. Ein Beitrag zur Wirtschafts-, Sozial und Kulturgeschichte (73-85); Albert Fischer: Landesbanken und Bankenkrise. Der frühe Fall der Provinzialbank Oberschlesien (87-100); Hartmut Kiehling: Ein fein austariertes System - Die lange Inkubationszeit Kerneuropas vor dem Sprung ins Industriezeitalter (101-137); Betina Meißner: Erfolg kann man säen. Die Zuckerrübenzüchtung und ihre wirtschaftliche und gesellschaftliche Bedeutung im 19. Jahrhundert (139-146); Uwe Cantner, Kristina von Rhein: Location matters? Die französische und die deutsche Automobilindustrie im Vergleich (147-168); Torsten Oppelland: Geschichtspolitik und History Marketing. Betreiben Parteien und Wirtschaftsunternehmen dasselbe Geschäft? (169-183); Tilde Bayer: Tempel der Unternehmenskultur. Unternehmensmuseen in Deutschland im 21. Jahrhundert (185-192); Christopher Lloyd: Evolution Theory and Economic History - A Partnership of Mutual Necessity? (193-210); Rainer Metz: Zeitreihen und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (211-237); André Sonntag: Die Entstehung von Neuheit und deren Auswirkungen (239-250); Hans-Werner Hahn: Wirtschaftsgeschichte in politischer Absicht. Karl Brauns Beiträge zur Wirtschaftsgeschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts (251-266); Thomas Kroll: Die Anfänger der microstoria. Methodenwechsel, Erfahrungswandel und transnationale Rezeption in der europäischen Historiographie der 1970er und 1980er Jahre (267-287); Helmut Braun: Rohstoffgüter- bzw. Ressourcengeschichte (289-301); Jeanette Granda: Über den Wissenschaftsstandort der Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte (303-318); Andreas Freytag: Fiskalpolitik und Inflation. Lehren aus der Wirtschaftsgeschichte für Europa (319-331); Bernd Hüfner, Juliane Witter: 'Perspektive durch Retrospektive' oder 'Perspektive durch Prospektive'? Erkenntnisgewinne aus der Analyse zweier Rechnungslegungssysteme (333-367).
    Keywords: Wirtschaftsgeschichte ; Sozialgeschichte ; Unternehmen ; Bankgewerbe ; Unternehmer ; Mittelalter ; Historische Entwicklung ; Wirtschaftsethik ; Kaufmann ; Ethik ; Ehre ; Deutschland ; Niederlande ; Kunst ; Ökonomie ; Cassirer, Ernst ; Strukturwandel ; Frankreich ; Kraftfahrzeugindustrie ; Marketing ; Vergleichende Forschung ; Economics;
    ISBN: 978-3-412-21086-1
    Source: Walter de Gruyter GmbH
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