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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 23 February 2011, Vol.59(4), pp.1400-5
    Description: Elicitation studies with salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) inducing a targeted rhizosecretion of high levels of anticarcinogenic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa ssp. rapa plants were conducted. Elicitor applications not only led to an accumulation of individual indole glucosinolates and the aromatic 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in the turnip organs but also in turnip root exudates. This indicates an extended systemic response, which comprises the phyllosphere with all aboveground plant organs and the rhizosphere including the belowground root system and also root exudates. Both elicitor applications induced a doubling in 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate in root exudates, whereas application of MJ enhanced rhizosecreted indole glucosinolates up to 4-fold. In addition, the time course study revealed that maximal elicitation was observed on the 10th day of SA and MJ treatment. This study may provide an essential contribution using these glucosinolates as bioactive additives in functional foods and nutraceuticals.
    Keywords: Acetates -- Pharmacology ; Brassica Rapa -- Metabolism ; Cyclopentanes -- Pharmacology ; Glucosinolates -- Metabolism ; Oxylipins -- Pharmacology ; Plant Roots -- Drug Effects ; Salicylic Acid -- Pharmacology
    ISSN: 00218561
    E-ISSN: 1520-5118
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(7)
    Description: Brassicales species rich in glucosinolates are used for biofumigation, a process based on releasing enzymatically toxic isothiocyanates into the soil. These hydrolysis products are volatile and often reactive compounds. Moreover, glucosinolates can be degraded also without the presence of the hydrolytic enzyme myrosinase which might contribute to bioactive effects. Thus, in the present study the stability of Brassicaceae plant-derived and pure glucosinolates hydrolysis products was studied using three different soils (model biofumigation). In addition, the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate was investigated with special regard to the formation of volatile breakdown products. Finally, the influence of pure glucosinolate degradation on the bacterial community composition was evaluated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene amplified from total community DNA. The model biofumigation study revealed that the structure of the hydrolysis products had a significant impact on their stability in the soil but not the soil type. Following the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate in the soils, the nitrile as well as the isothiocyanate can be the main degradation products, depending on the soil type. Furthermore, the degradation was shown to be both chemically as well as biologically mediated as autoclaving reduced degradation. The nitrile was the major product of the chemical degradation and its formation increased with iron content of the soil. Additionally, the bacterial community composition was significantly affected by adding pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate, the effect being more pronounced than in treatments with myrosinase added to the glucosinolate. Therefore, glucosinolates can have a greater effect on soil bacterial community composition than their hydrolysis products.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 15 April 2016, Vol.197, pp.530-538
    Description: We investigated how concentrations of sensory relevant compounds: glucosinolates (GLSs), flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sugars in kale responded to split dose and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilization, plant age and controlled frost exposure. In addition, frost effects on sensory properties combined with N supply were assessed. Seventeen week old kale plants showed decreased aliphatic GLSs at split dose N fertilization; whereas reduced N increased aliphatic and total GLSs. Ontogenetic effects were demonstrated for all compounds: sugars, aliphatic and total GLSs increased throughout plant development, whereas kaempferol and total flavonoid glycosides showed higher concentrations in 13 week old plants. Controlled frost exposure altered sugar composition slightly, but not GLSs or flavonoid glycosides. Reduced N supply resulted in less bitterness, astringency and pungent aroma, whereas frost exposure mainly influenced aroma and texture. N treatment explained most of the sensory variation. Producers should not rely on frost only to obtain altered sensory properties.
    Keywords: Glucosinolates ; Flavonoid Glycosides ; Soluble Sugars ; Field Experiment ; Controlled Frost ; Sensory Quality ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 15 August 2012, Vol.133(4), pp.1456-1465
    Description: ► Temperature and radiation influence flavonol glycosides in kale structure-dependent. ► Establishment of compound–climate relationship for flavonol aglycones and glycosides for the first time. ► Low temperature induce antioxidant relevant quercetin glycosides. The winter crop kale has a complex profile of different glycosylated and acylated flavonol glycosides which may be affected by global warming. To the best of our knowledge, compound–climate relationships for flavonol aglycones and flavonol glycosides were established for the first time. The investigated 10 major flavonol glycosides responded structure-dependent in the investigated temperature range between 0 and 12 °C and the photosynthetic active radiation range between 4 and 20 mol m d , e.g. the decrease in temperature led to an increase in sinapic acid monoacylated and diacylated quercetin glycosides, while the sinapic acid monoacylated kaempferol glycosides showed a maximum at 4.5 °C. Furthermore, the hydroxycinnamic acid residues and the different number of glucose moieties in the 7- position affected the response of kaempferol triglucosides. Consequently, global warming would result in lower concentrations of antioxidant-relevant quercetin glycosides in winter crops, suggesting a production at e.g. higher altitudes due to lower temperature.
    Keywords: Kale ; Flavonol Aglycones ; Flavonol Glycosides ; Temperature ; Radiation ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 January 2012, Vol.130(1), pp.1-8
    Description: ► Thermal breakdown of individual glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts was studied. ► The structure of the glucosinolate had great impact on the thermal stability. ► Sulphur containing aliphatic glucosinolates were unequally stable according to the oxidation state of the sulphur. ► Basic medium increased thermal breakdown. Glucosinolates are secondary plant metabolites occurring in vegetables. Food processing significantly reduces glucosinolate content, among other things due to thermal degradation. As there is only little information about thermal glucosinolate breakdown, the influence of the chemical structure as well as the influence of different pH to thermal degradation of individual glucosinolates was studied by analysing desulphoglucosinolates with HPLC-DAD. Thermal degradation was forced by heating broccoli sprouts at 130 °C in dry medium, whereas the influence of the pH was studied by cooking at 100 °C in aqueous medium Within each group of glucosinolates differences in thermal degradation were revealed. Within the sulphur containing aliphatic glucosinolates the oxidative state of the sulphur atom as well as the side chain length influenced the reactivity. Among the indole glucosinolates great differences in stability were observed. A hydroxyl function in the side chain generally seems to destabilise glucosinolates. Glucosinolates were most stable towards thermal treatment in neutral and slightly acidic medium, whereas they degraded more rapidly in basic medium.
    Keywords: Glucosinolates ; Thermal Degradation ; Ph Influence ; Structural Influence ; Roasting ; Cooking ; Broccoli Sprouts ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 August 2012, Vol.133(3), pp.875-879
    Description: ► The cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is resorbed and transported from roots to leaves in species. ► The relative systemic availability of CYN in the plant is constant over a wide concentration range. ► Field crops irrigated with CYN-containing water are an additional exposure route for humans. Toxin-producing cyanobacterial species are increasingly being found in freshwater systems. However, literature on the impact of many cyanobacterial toxins on plants is scarce. Cylindrospermosin (CYN), a secondary metabolite of cyanobacteria such as and species, is a potent hepatotoxin and protein synthesis inhibitor. Worryingly, CYN is increasingly found in surface and drinking water worldwide causing human and animal intoxications. Further, exposure of crop plants to CYN by irrigation with contaminated water has already been shown. Therefore, in this study, horticulturally important and highly consumed species were investigated to determine the level of CYN in the leaves after exposure of the roots to the toxin. Treatment of var. , , and under varying experimental conditions showed significant CYN uptake, with CYN levels ranging from 10% to 21% in the leaves compared to the CYN concentration applied to the roots (18–35 μg/l). In seedlings, CYN concentrations of up to 49 μg/g fresh weight were observed. Thus, crop plants irrigated with CYN-containing water may represent a significant source of this toxin within the food chain.
    Keywords: Cylindrospermopsin ; Plant Systemic Availability ; Cyanobacterial Toxin ; Brassicaceae ; Exposure Source ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 June 2013, Vol.138(2-3), pp.857-865
    Description: ► Three kale cultivars were subjected to thermal treatment and investigated. ► During boiling, total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity remain unchanged. ► HPLC-online-TEAC revealed distinct changes in composition and activity of the flavonols. ► Degradation products compensate the loss of the antioxidant activity of the original compounds. Generally, boiling of vegetables is assumed leading to lower nutritional values because of leaching effects and activity loss of bioactive compounds. Kale ( var. ) reveals a great diversity of flavonoids, which have been shown to be good antioxidants. As vegetables are mainly consumed cooked, the influence of boiling on kale’s flavonoids and their antioxidant activity was investigated. Therefore, three kale cultivars were cooked at 100 °C for 2 and 4 h prior to analysis. The total phenolic content (TPC) and the total antioxidant activity (TEAC assay and EPR spectrometry) of each cultivar were determined and revealed no change, independent of cooking time, although kale samples visually altered. Using the HPLC–UV/Vis-online-TEAC approach, distinct changes in composition and antioxidant activity of the flavonoids were detectable. Thus, it was observable, that the antioxidant activities of the reaction products compensated the “loss” of the antioxidant activity of the original compounds of the uncooked material.
    Keywords: Curly Kale ; Flavonol Glycosides ; Thermal Stability ; Epr Spectrometry ; Online-Teac ; Folin-Ciocalteu Assay ; Degradation Reaction ; Boiling ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.372(1), pp.361-374
    Description: Issue Title: In Memory of Horst Marschner This study aimed to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and phosphorus (P) supply levels on [beta]-carotene concentrations in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) tubers. Two commercial AM fungal isolates of Glomus intraradices (IFP Glintra) and Glomus mosseae (IFP Glm) which differ in their life cycles were used. Sweet potato plants were grown in a horizontal split-root system that consisted of two root compartments. A root-free fungal compartment that allowed the quantification of mycelial development was inserted into each root compartment. The two root compartments were inoculated either with the same or with different AM isolates, or remained free of mycorrhizal propagules. Each fungal treatment was carried out in two P supply levels. In the low P supply level, mycorrhizal colonization significantly increased [beta]-carotene concentrations in sweet potato tubers compared with the non-mycorrhizal plants. Glomus intraradices appeared to be more efficient in increasing [beta]-carotene concentrations than G. mosseae. Dual inoculation of the root system with the two mycorrhizal fungi did not result in a higher increase in tuber [beta]-carotene concentrations than inoculation with the single isolates. Improved P nutrition led to higher plant tuber biomass but was not associated with increased [beta]-carotene concentrations. The results indicate a remarkable potential of mycorrhizal fungi to improve [beta]-carotene concentrations in sweet potato tubers in low P fertilized soils. These results also suggest that [beta]-carotene metabolism in sweet potato tubers might be specifically activated by root mycorrhizal colonization.[PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: β-carotene ; Glomus intraradices ; Glomus mosseae ; Phosphorus ; Sweet potato
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(11), p.e48661
    Description: Little is known about how drought stress influences plant secondary metabolite accumulation and how this affects plant defense against different aphids. We therefore cultivated Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants under well-watered, drought, and water-logged conditions. Two aphid species were selected for this study: the generalist Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and the crucifer specialist Brevicoryne brassicae (L.). Metabolite concentrations in the phloem sap, which influence aphid growth, changed particularly under drought stress. Levels of sucrose and several amino acids, such as glutamic acid, proline, isoleucine, and lysine increased, while concentrations of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate decreased. M. persicae population growth was highest on plants under drought stress conditions. However, B. brassicae did not profit from improved phloem sap quality under drought stress and performed equally in all water treatments. Water stress and aphids generally had an opposite effect on the accumulation of secondary metabolites in the plant rosettes. Drought stress and water-logging led to increased aliphatic glucosinolate and flavonoid levels. Conversely, aphid feeding, especially of M. persicae , reduced levels of flavonoids and glucosinolates in the plants. Correspondingly, transcript levels of aliphatic biosynthetic genes decreased after feeding of both aphid species. Contrary to M. persicae , drought stress did not promote population growth of B. brassicae on these plants. The specialist aphid induced expression of CYP79B2 , CYP79B3 , and PAD3 with corresponding accumulation of indolyl glucosinolates and camalexin. This was distinct from M. persicae , which did not elicit similarly strong camalexin accumulation, which led to the hypothesis of a specific defense adaptations against the specialist aphid.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Genetics And Genomics ; Chemistry ; Plant Biology ; Biotechnology ; Cell Biology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, July 17, 2015, Vol.10(7)
    Description: Brassicales species rich in glucosinolates are used for biofumigation, a process based on releasing enzymatically toxic isothiocyanates into the soil. These hydrolysis products are volatile and often reactive compounds. Moreover, glucosinolates can be degraded also without the presence of the hydrolytic enzyme myrosinase which might contribute to bioactive effects. Thus, in the present study the stability of Brassicaceae plant-derived and pure glucosinolates hydrolysis products was studied using three different soils (model biofumigation). In addition, the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate was investigated with special regard to the formation of volatile breakdown products. Finally, the influence of pure glucosinolate degradation on the bacterial community composition was evaluated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene amplified from total community DNA. The model biofumigation study revealed that the structure of the hydrolysis products had a significant impact on their stability in the soil but not the soil type. Following the degradation of pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate in the soils, the nitrile as well as the isothiocyanate can be the main degradation products, depending on the soil type. Furthermore, the degradation was shown to be both chemically as well as biologically mediated as autoclaving reduced degradation. The nitrile was the major product of the chemical degradation and its formation increased with iron content of the soil. Additionally, the bacterial community composition was significantly affected by adding pure 2-propenyl glucosinolate, the effect being more pronounced than in treatments with myrosinase added to the glucosinolate. Therefore, glucosinolates can have a greater effect on soil bacterial community composition than their hydrolysis products.
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology ; Nucleotidases ; Hydrolysis ; RNA
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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