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  • 1
    In: Journal of Flood Risk Management, December 2019, Vol.12(4), pp.n/a-n/a
    Description: Convective precipitation is intensifying in many regions, but potential implications of shifts in precipitation types on impacts have not been quantified. Furthermore, risk assessments often focus on rare extremes, but also more frequent hydro‐meteorological events burden private and public budgets....
    Keywords: Convective Precipitation ; Extreme Events ; Natural Hazard ; Nuisance Events ; Vulnerability ; Weather Types
    ISSN: 1753-318X
    E-ISSN: 1753-318X
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  • 2
    In: Geophysical Research Letters, 28 August 2018, Vol.45(16), pp.8253-8263
    Description: Extreme convective precipitation on subhourly scales is notoriously misrepresented in rain gauge‐based observations, but uncertainties are weakly quantified at the 1 to 30 km scale. We employ a unique observing network, the high‐density WegenerNet and surrounding operational rain gauge network in southeastern Austria, to sample convective precipitation extremes at these scales. By systematically constructing lower‐density networks, we explore how estimated maximum area precipitation depends on observing station density. Using subhourly to hourly temporal resolution, we find a power law decay of the event maximum area precipitation over distances from 1 to 30 km, showing that operational gauge networks underrate extreme convective precipitation falling over small areas. Furthermore, extremes at point scale are found underestimated by operational networks by about 20%. We consider the dependencies representative for short‐duration convective events over similar regions at midlatitudes and the results valuable for high‐resolution climate model evaluation. Precipitation is commonly measured using rain gauge networks. For many applications it is relevant how much precipitation fell over a given area, which is often approximated from point‐scale gauge observations. In operational networks, gauges are usually 10 km or more apart. This spacing is not sufficient to observe extreme rain intensities in summer convective events, which occur on subhourly time scales and over small areas. Sparse gauge observations lead to high uncertainty in the estimated area precipitation from such events, hampering, for example, damage risk assessments. The WegenerNet Feldbach region in southeastern Austria is one of the densest networks worldwide, with 150 rain gauges within an area of just 300 km. We use this as core network to explore how maximum area precipitation in convective events depends on the density of the gauge network. We find strong spatial dependence showing that maximum area precipitation observed at 5–6 km gauge separation distance is less than 50% of the maximum intensity observed at point scale. We demonstrate that extreme convective precipitation is underestimated in operational networks. The derived spatial dependence curves illustrate the concentrated nature of convective extremes and are valuable for evaluating climate models and interpreting rain gauge‐derived precipitation data sets. A dense 1‐km‐scale rain gauge network is used to quantify maximum area precipitation from convective storms on subhourly scales Point‐scale extreme precipitation is underestimated by approximately 20% by less resolving 10‐km‐scale operational networks Extreme convective rainfall intensity decays over distance d [km] by a d−0.5 power law, that is, by ∼50% from 1 to 5 km
    Keywords: Convective Precipitation ; High‐Density Gauge Network ; Spatial Dependence ; Extreme Events
    ISSN: 0094-8276
    E-ISSN: 1944-8007
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  • 3
    In: International Journal of Urology, June 2013, Vol.20(6), pp.585-592
    Description: Byline: Sandra Steffens, Kristina I Ringe, Katharina Schroeer, Rieke Lehmann, Julia Rustemeier, Gerd Wegener, Mark Schrader, Rainer Hofmann, Markus A Kuczyk, Andres J Schrader, Keywords: body mass index; body surface area; obesity; prognosis; renal cell carcinoma; risk factors; visceral fat Objectives To assess the impact of overweight on prognosis of renal cell carcinoma patients. Patients And Methods A total of 2030 patients who underwent surgery for renal cell carcinoma from 1990 to 2011 in three University Medical Centers were included in this retrospective analysis. For all patients, height and weight measurements at the time of diagnosis were available for review. The median (mean) follow up was 56.6 months (66.0 months). Results A low body mass index was significantly associated with poor tumor differentiation, histology, microscopic vascular invasion and metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A lower-than-average body surface area - stratified according to the European average for men (1.98m.sub.2) and women (1.74m.sub.2) - was significantly related to older age, poor tumor differentiation, the histological subtype and microscopic vascular invasion. In addition, a low visceral fat area calculated in a subgroup of 133 evaluable patients was associated with a higher risk of advanced disease (pT3-4 and/or N/M+) at diagnosis. The tumor-specific 5-year survival rate was 71.3, 78.7 and 80.1%, for patients with a body mass index of, 〈25, 25-30 and a[yen]30. Multivariate analysis confirmed body mass index as an independent prognostic factor. Conclusion Our findings suggest that overweight represents an independent prognostic factor in renal cell carcinoma patients. Further research should address the question of why obese people have a higher incidence of renal cell carcinoma, but at the same time a significantly better prognosis than other patients, particularly in the case of localized disease. Author Affiliation:
    Keywords: Body Mass Index ; Body Surface Area ; Obesity ; Prognosis ; Renal Cell Carcinoma ; Risk Factors ; Visceral Fat
    ISSN: 0919-8172
    E-ISSN: 1442-2042
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, February 2019, Vol.156, pp.153-163
    Description: Climate change, along with socio-economic development, will increase the economic impacts of floods. While the factors that influence flood risk to private property have been extensively studied, the risk that natural disasters pose to public infrastructure and the resulting implications on public sector budgets, have received less attention. We address this gap by developing a two-staged model framework, which first assesses the flood risk to public infrastructure in Austria. Combining exposure and vulnerability information at the building level with inundation maps, we project an increase in riverine flood damage, which progressively burdens public budgets. Second, the risk estimates are integrated into an insurance model, which analyzes three different compensation arrangements in terms of the monetary burden they place on future governments' budgets and the respective volatility of payments. Formalized insurance compensation arrangements offer incentives for risk reduction measures, which lower the burden on public budgets by reducing the vulnerability of buildings that are exposed to flooding. They also significantly reduce the volatility of payments and thereby improve the predictability of flood damage expenditures. These features indicate that more formalized insurance arrangements are an improvement over the purely public compensation arrangement currently in place in Austria.
    Keywords: Climate Change ; Adaptation ; Flood Risk ; Insurance ; Public Sector ; Risk Reduction ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology ; Economics
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    E-ISSN: 1873-6106
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, 2019, Vol.156, pp.153-8009
    Description: Climate change, along with socio-economic development, will increase the economic impacts of floods. While the factors that influence flood risk to private property have been extensively studied, the risk that natural disasters pose to public infrastructure and the resulting implications on public sector budgets, have received less attention. We address this gap by developing a two-staged model framework, which first assesses the flood risk to public infrastructure in Austria. Combining exposure and vulnerability information at the building level with inundation maps, we project an increase in riverine flood damage, which progressively burdens public budgets. Second, the risk estimates are integrated into an insurance model, which analyzes three different compensation arrangements in terms of the monetary burden they place on future governments’ budgets and the respective volatility of payments. Formalized insurance compensation arrangements offer incentives for risk reduction measures, which lower the burden on public budgets by reducing the vulnerability of buildings that are exposed to flooding. They also significantly reduce the volatility of payments and thereby improve the predictability of flood damage expenditures. These features indicate that more formalized insurance arrangements are an improvement over the purely public compensation arrangement currently in place in Austria.
    Keywords: Adaptation ; Climate Change ; Flood Risk ; Insurance ; Public Sector ; Risk Reduction ; Environmental Science(All) ; Economics And Econometrics ; A Journal
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    Source: NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, December 2011, Vol.30(4), pp.289-298
    Description: Objective: To elaborate the antenatal sonographic findings of fetuses with the suspicion of fetal akinesia, thereby focusing on the accuracy of prenatal differentiation between subtypes of fetal akinesia, namely Pena-Shokeir phenotype (PSP) and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). Methods: We herein present our experience of 21 patients with PSP and AMC diagnosed antenatally at a tertiary prenatal referral center. During the study period 30,485 consecutive high- and low-risk pregnancies were examined. The prenatal sonograms, pediatric charts and autopsy data of affected individuals were reviewed. Our findings were analyzed together with findings retrieved from the literature. Results: The diagnosis of AMC has been established between 12+0 and 30+1 gestational weeks, whereas cases found to have PSP were all diagnosed in advanced pregnancy. In accordance to previous findings, our data suggest that pulmonary hypoplasia is obligatory in PSP and cannot be found in AMC. Therefore, all pregnancies (9/9) affected by PSP were terminated on parental request. Of those fetuses with AMC, 3/12 were liveborn, 2 of which have neuromotoric disabilities. Conclusions: Establishing the correct prenatal diagnosis of PSP and AMC at an early stage and its diligent prognostic evaluation play a crucial role in order to provide adequate advice to the afflicted parents and to enable appropriate intervention at an early stage.
    Keywords: Original Paper ; Arthrogryposis ; Pena-Shokeir Phenotype ; Ultrasound ; Limb Anomalies ; Joint Contractures ; Lung Hypoplasia ; Polyhydramnios ; Medicine
    ISSN: 1015-3837
    E-ISSN: 1421-9964
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  • 7
    Language: German
    In: Pflege Zeitschrift, July 2011, Vol.64(7), pp.422-5
    Keywords: Clinical Competence -- Standards ; Education, Nursing, Graduate -- Standards ; Educational Measurement -- Standards ; Geriatric Nursing -- Education
    ISSN: 0945-1129
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 8
    Book chapter
    Book chapter
    Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften
    Language: German
    In: Organisation und Führung: Beiträge der Kommission Organisationspädagogik, pp.177-186
    Description: Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der Bedeutung der Führung für den Fortbestand zivilgesellschaftlicher Organisationen, konkret von Kinderläden. Dabei wird der Begriff der Führung in engem Zusammenhang mit dem der Entscheidung gesehen. Führung einer Organisation besteht in diesem Verständnis im Treffen von Entscheidungen, die für die gesamte Organisation Gültigkeit beanspruchen. Das kann von einer einzelnen Person oder einem Gremium aus mehreren FunktionsträgerInnen geleistet werden. Diese Personen könnten also auf den ersten Blick als EntscheiderInnen bezeichnet werden. Darin läge jedoch eine Verkürzung des komplexen Prozesses, in dem Entscheidungen entstehen. Genau diese Verkürzung wird im ersten Abschnitt dieses Beitrags betrachtet. Das impliziert ein kritisches Hinterfragen des Konzepts von Leadership, welches bisher vorrangig in Bezug auf einzelne Führungspersonen erarbeitet wird (vgl. Eurich/Brink 2009) und damit die Komplexität von Entscheidungsprozessen reduziert.
    Keywords: Education ; Education (General) ; Education
    ISBN: 9783531181035
    ISBN: 3531181033
    Source: SpringerLink Books
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  • 9
    Language: German
    Description: Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Einfluss von Übergewicht auf die Prognose von Patienten untersucht, die in den Jahren 1990 - 2010 in den urologischen Universitätskliniken in Hannover, Marburg und Ulm aufgrund eines Nierenzellkarzinoms operiert wurden. Übergewicht bzw. Adipositas wurde in den Maßeinheiten Body Mass Index (BMI) bzw. die Body Surface Area (BSA) abgebildet. Dabei erfolgte die Klassifizierung in drei BMI-Gruppen (BMI 30 kg/m²) entsprechend der Klassifikation der World Health Organization und in einem weiteren Schritt in zwei BSA-Gruppen, berechnet nach Mosteller, bezogen auf den europäischen Mittelwert. Die Ergebnisse dieser multizentrischen retrospektiven Analyse von 2030 Patienten zeigen insgesamt, dass Übergewicht mit einem statistisch signifikant längeren tumorspezifischen Gesamtüberleben bei Patienten mit Nierenzellkarzinom einhergeht. Die höchste 5-Jahresüberlebensrate fand sich hierbei in der Gruppe der adipösen Patienten (BMI 〉 30 kg/m²) mit 80,1 %. In der Multivariatanalyse konnten wir den BMI als signifikant unabhängiges Prognosekriterium für den Krankheitsverlauf des Nierenzellkarzinoms nach Primärtumorresektion identifizieren. Wie unsere Subgruppenanalyse von Patienten mit lokal begrenztem und fortgeschrittenem bzw. metastasiertem Tumorleiden weiterhin zeigt, gilt dieser Überlebensvorteil von übergewichtigen Patienten insbesondere bei Patienten mit organbegrenztem Tumor; bei bereits fortgeschrittenem Tumorleiden konnte kein statistisch signifikanter Zusammenhang dargestellt werden. Gerade dieses Ergebnis zeigt, dass der positive Einfluss von Adipositas...
    Keywords: Nierenzellkarzinom ; Ddc 610 / Medicine & Health ; Carcinoma, Renal Cell ; Overweight ; Hypernephrom ; Prognose ; Übergewicht
    Source: DataCite
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Seismological Research Letters, 06/05/2019
    Description: In December 2018, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission deployed a seismometer on the surface of Mars. In preparation for the data analysis, in July 2017, the marsquake service initiated a blind test in which participants were asked to detect and characterize seismicity embedded in a one Earth year long synthetic data set of continuous waveforms. Synthetic data were computed for a single station, mimicking the streams that will be available from InSight as well as the expected tectonic and impact seismicity, and noise conditions on Mars (Clinton et al., 2017). In total, 84 teams from 20 countries registered for the blind test and 11 of them submitted their results in early 2018. The collection of documentations, methods, ideas, and codes submitted by the participants exceeds 100 pages. The teams proposed well established as well as novel methods to tackle the challenging target of building a global seismicity catalog using a single station. This article summarizes the performance of the teams and highlights the most successful contributions.
    Keywords: Seismology ; Extraterrestrial Geology ; Body Waves ; Earthquakes ; Elastic Waves ; Geodesy ; Guided Waves ; Insight Mission ; Magnitude ; Mars ; Marsquakes ; Noise ; P-Waves ; Planets ; Rayleigh Waves ; Seismic Waves ; Surface Waves ; Terrestrial Planets ; Waveforms;
    ISSN: 0895-0695
    E-ISSN: 1938-2057
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