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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 March 2012, Vol.109(13), pp.5092-7
    Description: The lung surface is an ideal pathway to the bloodstream for nanoparticle-based drug delivery. Thus far, research has focused on the lungs of adults, and little is known about nanoparticle behavior in the immature lungs of infants. Here, using nonlinear dynamical systems analysis and in vivo experimentation in developing animals, we show that nanoparticle deposition in postnatally developing lungs peaks at the end of bulk alveolation. This finding suggests a unique paradigm, consistent with the emerging theory that as alveoli form through secondary septation, alveolar flow becomes chaotic and chaotic mixing kicks in, significantly enhancing particle deposition. This finding has significant implications for the application of nanoparticle-based inhalation therapeutics in young children with immature lungs from birth to 2 y of age.
    Keywords: Drug Delivery Systems ; Lung -- Metabolism ; Nanoparticles -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Clinical Psychology, January 2013, Vol.69(1), pp.89-99
    Description: Objective: There has been a recent effort to investigate the role of individual resources in the field of mental health, but systematic research on this topic is lacking. The overall aim of the present study was the exploration of resource realization and other related variables in patients with mental disorders to provide basic knowledge on the upcoming field of psychotherapy research, which focuses on patients' strengths. Method: Current resource realization was assessed with a shortened form of the Resource Realization Questionnaire in a sample of 332 inpatients with mental disorders. To explore the association between resource realization and related variables, group differences (t tests, analyses of variance) in gender, age, marital status, educational level, and type and number of diagnoses were calculated. The relationships between resource realization, symptom severity, interpersonal behavior, and therapeutic alliance were examined, and a regression tree analysis was calculated to establish relevant predictors of resource realization. Results: There are several significant differences in current resource realization regarding marital status and number and type of diagnoses. A significant relationship between resource realization and symptom severity was found. The results regarding interpersonal behavior and therapeutic alliance were more heterogeneous. Symptom severity, gender, and chronic depression were found to be relevant predictors of resource realization. Conclusion: The close association between resource realization and symptom severity supports further investigation of the construct of resource realization within psychotherapy research. Keywords: resources; patient strengths; mental health DOI: 10.1002/jclp.21914
    Keywords: Resources ; Patient Strengths ; Mental Health
    ISSN: 0021-9762
    E-ISSN: 1097-4679
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Clinical Psychology, June 2014, Vol.70(6), pp.528-535
    Description: Objectives: To examine the relationship of meaning in life (MiL) to clinical diagnosis and psychotherapy outcome and investigate specific meaning areas. Method: This study investigated 214 inpatients with mental disorders and 856 healthy controls using self-report measures of MiL and psychopathological symptoms. Results: Patients showed lower MiL compared to controls. Diagnosis-specific differences in MiL were found for depression. MiL increased in the course of treatment and remained stable at follow-up. The most relevant meaning areas were social relationships for patients and controls. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for lower MiL in inpatients with a spectrum of mental disorders, and in particular in patients with depression, compared to controls. Furthermore, perceived meaning improves over the duration of psychotherapy. Employing aspects of the meaning framework in therapy may be useful to help patients overcome psychological problems and make life worth living. Keywords: meaning in life; psychotherapy; inpatients; depressive disorder DOI: 10.1002/jclp.22053
    Keywords: Meaning In Life ; Psychotherapy ; Inpatients ; Depressive Disorder
    ISSN: 0021-9762
    E-ISSN: 1097-4679
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  • 4
    In: PLoS ONE, 2017, Vol.12(1)
    Description: Background Patients’ causal beliefs about their mental disorders are important for treatment because they affect illness-related behaviours. However, there are few studies exploring patients’ causal beliefs about their mental disorder. Objectives (a) To qualitatively explore patients’ causal beliefs of their mental disorder, (b) to explore frequencies of patients stating causal beliefs, and (c) to investigate differences of causal beliefs according to patients’ primary diagnoses. Method Inpatients in psychosomatic rehabilitation were asked an open-ended question about their three most important causal beliefs about their mental illness. Answers were obtained from 678 patients, with primary diagnoses of depression (N = 341), adjustment disorder (N = 75), reaction to severe stress (N = 57) and anxiety disorders (N = 40). Two researchers developed a category system inductively and categorised the reported causal beliefs. Qualitative analysis has been supplemented by logistic regression analyses. Results The causal beliefs were organized into twelve content-related categories. Causal beliefs referring to “problems at work” (47%) and “problems in social environment” (46%) were most frequently mentioned by patients with mental disorders. 35% of patients indicate causal beliefs related to “self/internal states”. Patients with depression and patients with anxiety disorders stated similar causal beliefs, whereas patients with reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders stated different causal beliefs in comparison to patients with depression. Limitations There was no opportunity for further exploration, because we analysed written documents. Conclusions These results add a detailed insight to mentally ill patients’ causal beliefs to illness perception literature. Additionally, evidence about differences in frequencies of causal beliefs between different illness groups complement previous findings. For future research it is important to clarify the relation between patients’ causal beliefs and the chosen treatment.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Physical Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Social Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, September 2012, Vol.50(9), pp.580-587
    Description: We investigated the comparative effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) under clinically representative conditions as a subtrial of a prior study ( , ). A consecutive sample of 147 patients with common mental disorders was randomised to either CBT or PDT in routine mental health care. In a primary per-protocol analysis patients randomised to CBT had a significantly better longer term outcome in the primary outcome symptom severity (General Severity Index of the SCL-14; = .001; partial = 0.073) as well as in health related quality of life (Mental Component Summary of the SF-8; = .013; partial = .041) and concerning interpersonal issues (Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, IIP-C; = .001; partial = .070) 6 months after treatment than patients randomised to PDT. These results could be confirmed in intention-to-treat analyses ( = 180) suggesting that there was no substantial attrition bias due to drop outs at the follow-up assessment. Thus, the so called equivalence outcome paradox was not replicated in this study. ► We compared the outcome of cognitive-behavioural (CBT) and psychodynamic (PDT) therapy. ► Patients of a real world setting were included in the randomised controlled trial. ► Six months after treatment CBT patients showed a better outcome than PDT patients. ► The results do not replicate the so called equivalence outcome paradox.
    Keywords: Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy ; Psychodynamic Therapy ; Effectiveness ; Treatment Outcome ; Evidence-Based Practice ; Randomised Controlled Trial ; Medicine ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0005-7967
    E-ISSN: 1873-622X
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  • 6
    In: Freshwater Biology, June 2013, Vol.58(6), pp.1116-1125
    Description: 1. Most European crayfish species are strongly threatened, mainly as a result of the introduced pathogen, , transmitted by invasive North American crayfish. Long‐term coexistence of American and European crayfish species is therefore regarded as almost impossible, even though some coexisting populations have been observed. 2. In this study, crayfish were collected from presently coexisting populations of the introduced spiny‐cheek crayfish () and the native noble crayfish () from nine standing waters in central Europe. Our aim was to resolve whether the coexistence resulted from reduced virulence in local strains of , increased immunity in the native crayfish or an absence of the pathogen in these populations. We used highly sensitive ‐specific real‐time PCR to evaluate the crayfish latent carrier status, combined with transmission experiments to further validate the molecular results. 3. From the total of 523 crayfish tested (490 spiny‐cheek crayfish, 33 noble crayfish), none positive for was detected. Transmission experiments confirmed these results: No abnormal mortality or behavioural changes were seen in noble crayfish kept together with American crayfish from the coexisting populations. If we assume a very low prevalence of of 10% in a carrier population, there is a 98% probability of disease being absent in five of the nine coexisting populations tested. Hence, a consistent absence, or an extremely low prevalence, of seems to allow the coexistence of European and American crayfish in these central European populations. 4. The results are important for native crayfish conservation and management and demonstrate that disease transmission risk may vary substantially between the different populations of spiny‐cheek crayfish in central Europe.
    Keywords: Coexistence ; Crayfish Plague ; Invasive Species ; Real‐Time Pcr ; Transmission Experiment
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 7
    In: Freshwater Biology, April 2014, Vol.59(4), pp.761-776
    Description: Reconstructing the phylogeographic history of a species can aid in defining areas of conservation priority. For freshwater species, historical river structure plays a significant role in explaining genetic differentiation and population structure. However, human‐induced translocations can erase the natural genetic structure, especially for species of commercial interest such as the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus). Our aim was to reconstruct the current genetic structure of the endangered noble crayfish in central Europe to identify refugial areas that are hotspots of genetic diversity. We analysed a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the 16S rRNA from 540 noble crayfish specimens from 156 sampling sites distributed around five European sea basins. Additionally, we conducted a microsatellite analysis of 289 individuals from 22 sites. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed genetically relatively homogenous populations in central Europe that had been influenced by anthropogenic translocations. However, some areas (Eider catchment in northern Germany and Rhineland‐Palatinate in south‐western Germany) show a distinct genetic structure with endemic haplotypes and private alleles indicating (i) that these areas were refugia for A. astacus in central Europe and (ii) that these populations have not been subject to anthropogenic translocations. Further, we found the highest genetic diversity in the Black Sea basin and particularly high differentiation between populations from the western Balkans and the remaining Black Sea populations. The split between Western Balkan and the remaining European populations is estimated to have occurred approximately 700 k years before present, whereas remaining differentiations occurred within the last 450 k years. Using migration modelling, we detected that the North Sea basin and the Baltic Sea basin were colonised independently via different colonisation paths from the eastern Black Sea basin, while the western Balkans did not contribute to this colonisation. Our results suggest the existence of at least two refugial areas in south‐eastern Europe. To conserve maximum genetic diversity, conservation priorities for noble crayfish should focus on the south‐eastern European genetic hotspots and on populations in central Europe that hold an autochthonous genetic structure (e.g. Langsee in the Eider catchment area). We further propose that each river catchment should form a separate management unit to reduce anthropogenic genetic homogenisation.
    Keywords: Human‐Mediated Translocation ; Microsatellite Analysis ; Migration Model ; Mitochondrial ; Refugial Areas
    ISSN: 0046-5070
    E-ISSN: 1365-2427
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(5), p.e0176730
    Description: Psychological models can help to understand why many people suffering from major depression do not seek help. Using the 'Behavioral Model of Health Services Use', this study systematically reviewed the literature on the characteristics associated with help-seeking behaviour in adults with major depression. Articles were identified by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycInfo databases and relevant reference lists. Observational studies investigating the associations between individual or contextual characteristics and professional help-seeking behaviour for emotional problems in adults formally diagnosed with major depression were included. The quality of the included studies was assessed, and factors associated with help-seeking behaviour were qualitatively synthesized. In total, 40 studies based on 26 datasets were included. Several studies investigated predisposing (age (N = 17), gender (N = 16), ethnicity (N = 9), education (N = 11), marital status (N = 12)), enabling (income (N = 12)), need (severity (N = 14), duration (N = 9), number of depressive episodes (N = 6), psychiatric comorbidity (N = 10)) and contextual factors (area (N = 8)). Socio-demographic and need factors appeared to influence help-seeking behaviour. Although existing studies provide insight into the characteristics associated with help seeking for major depression, cohort studies and research on beliefs about, barriers to and perceived need for treatment are lacking. Based on this review, interventions to increase help-seeking behaviour can be designed.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Disability and Rehabilitation, 30 January 2015, Vol.37(3), pp.259-267
    Description: Purpose: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) conceptualizes the bio-psycho-social model of health and illness, but cannot be used as an assessment instrument in routine care. The objective of this study was to psychometrically test a self-report instrument...
    Keywords: Activities and Participation ; Icf ; Mental Disorders ; Social Welfare & Social Work ; Occupational Therapy & Rehabilitation ; Physical Therapy
    ISSN: 0963-8288
    E-ISSN: 1464-5165
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Rehabilitation, August 2013, Vol.27(8), pp.758-767
    Description: Objective: To use data and patient involvement to identify categories within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) component activities and participation relevant for patients with affective, somatoform, anxiety and adjustment disorders. Design: The first step was to identify systematically, outcome instruments used in randomized controlled trials, to relate item content to the ICF. Then four patient focus group discussions (n = 21 participants) were conducted, and finally an expert panel (n = 11 participants) was used to identify the most relevant categories in therapy settings. Participants: Focus groups: inpatient psychotherapy patients. Expert panel: clinicians, stakeholders, patient representative. Results: In the literature search, 313 measures were identified, which included 1562 meaningful concepts (separate content units). These were allocated to ICF categories that were validated and complemented in focus groups and by an expert panel. The resulting core set includes 27 categories related to the nine chapters of the ICF component activities and participation. Conclusions: A core set of items, set within the World Health Organization ICF and relevant to the treatment of people with affective, somatoform, anxiety and adjustment disorders, has been developed based on existing evidence.
    Keywords: Mental Disorders ; International Classification of Functioning ; Disability and Health Activities and Participation ; Life Areas ; Activity Limitation ; Participation ; World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning ; Disability and Health ; Occupational Therapy & Rehabilitation ; Physical Therapy
    ISSN: 0269-2155
    E-ISSN: 1477-0873
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