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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2010, Vol.17(4), pp.934-947
    Description: Byline: Jan Schwarzbauer (1), Mathias Ricking (2) Keywords: Screening analysis; River water; Organic pollutants; GC/MS Abstract: Background, aim, and scope Building up a comprehensive accurate monitoring program requires the knowledge on the contamination in principal, complemented by detailed information on individual contaminants. The selection of pollutants to be considered in monitoring actions is based dominantly on the information available about their environmental relevance (e.g., persistence, bioaccumulation potential, toxicological and ecotoxicological properties) and their occurrence within the affected environmental system. Therefore, this study focused on the identification of organic contaminants in selected German and European rivers to demonstrate the usefulness of a screening approach as complementary base for the compound selection process within monitoring activities. Materials and methods Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based screening analyses were performed on five and six samples from German and European rivers, respectively. Identification of individual contaminants was based on the investigation of mass spectral and gas chromatographic properties compared with databases and reference materials. Results This study summarized the results of non-target screening analyses applied to river water samples and focused dominantly on, so far, unnoticed organic contaminants. Numerous compounds have been identified belonging to the groups of pharmaceuticals, technical additives, pesticides, personal care products, and oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing compounds of obviously anthropogenic origin. They are discussed in terms of their structural properties, their possible application or usage, and the environmental information available so far. Discussion Generally, two different groups of compounds have been differentiated that might contribute to potential monitoring programs. Firstly, more specific contaminants characterizing the individual riverine systems have been depicted (e.g., 4-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, di-iso-propylurea). The consideration of these substances in monitoring analyses to be applied to the corresponding catchment areas is recommended in order to monitor the real state of pollution. Secondly, contaminants have been introduced that appeared with higher multiplicity throughout the different river systems (e.g., TMDD, TXIB). Since these compounds tend to obviously have an elevated environmental stability accompanied by a widespread distribution, it is recommended to consider them in international high-scale monitoring programs. Conclusions For monitoring purposes, a fundamental knowledge on the diversity of pollutants is an important precondition, which can be supported by screening analyses. Obviously, numerous organic contaminants have been neglected so far in environmental studies on river water, comprising also investigation on potential harmful effects and, therefore, their implementation in monitoring activities has been hindered. Recommendations and perspectives Therefore, based on the results of this study, screening analyses should be established as principle tools to improve and complement the substance spectra for monitoring purposes. Secondly, scientific efforts should be strengthened to expand our knowledge on actually appearing organic contaminants in riverine systems. Author Affiliation: (1) Institute for Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056, Aachen, Germany (2) Department of Geosciences, Free University of Berlin, Malteserstrasse 74-100, 12249, Berlin, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 17/11/2009 Received Date: 17/07/2009 Accepted Date: 14/11/2009 Online Date: 23/12/2009 Article note: Responsible editor: Thomas Braunbeck
    Keywords: Screening analysis ; River water ; Organic pollutants ; GC/MS
    ISSN: 0944-1344
    E-ISSN: 1614-7499
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 2011, Vol.45(12), pp.3653-3664
    Description: The structural diversity of the wastewater composition was described by the use of detailed non-target screening analyses of industrial effluents from chemical production sites. Determination of the indicative organic compounds acting as potential molecular indicators for industrial emissions from chemical production industries has been possible due to (i) detailed characterisation of industrial contaminants and identification of compounds with high source specificity, (ii) quantitative determination of the organic constituents in the industrial effluents and (iii) the review of their industrial applications. The determination of potential site-specific markers and industrial molecular indicators corresponding to certain production processes (production of starting materials for manufacturing paper and printing inks, powder coatings as well as epichlorohydrin production) was performed in this work. The results of this study allowed significant contributions to the chemical characterisation of industrial contaminants and isolation of indicators that can act as representatives of industrial effluents in the aquatic environment. ► Analyses revealed a high structural diversity of industrial waste water constituents. ► Based on quantitative data and specific structural properties, numerous indicative compounds have been selected as potential indicators of industrial emissions. ► Such specific indicators can be used generally to trace industrial emissions in surface water systems.
    Keywords: Chemical Production Plants ; Industrial Effluents ; Gc/MS ; Non-Target Screening ; Industrial Molecular Indicators ; Site-Specific Markers ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 30 December 2015, Vol.300, pp.254-262
    Description: The paper industry is one of the most significant industrial branches that contributes to water pollution. Recent studies regarding the chemical composition of wastewaters from modern paper production sites are sparse, and organic contaminants originating from this source may remain undetected and uncontrolled. Therefore, for this study, non-target screening analyses of wastewaters from five different paper production sites were performed, including an extended analysis of one facility, for the identification of volatile non-polar to semi-polar organic contaminants. The identified contaminants were also traced in the adjacent river. Several specific agents related to paper production, including photoinitiators, ink and thermal paper constituents, were present in most wastewaters and were therefore considered to be characteristic paper industry contaminants. A couple of contaminants identified in this study are being reported for the first time and might be toxic, but have been neglected in previous studies. Bisphenol A and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol were found in untreated wastewaters, treated wastewater and in river water. Bisphenol A was present in river water downstream from where the paper industry discharges at a concentration that was reported to affect the reproduction of gastropods. Thus, our findings imply that paper industry discharges pose a risk to the populations of sensitive macroinvertebrates.
    Keywords: Industrial Pollution ; Paper Industry ; Non-Target Screening ; Industrial Indicators ; Thermal Paper ; Engineering ; Law
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    E-ISSN: 1873-3336
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, July 1, 2014, Vol.485-486, p.348(15)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.034 Byline: Larissa Dsikowitzky, Inga Nordhaus, C.H. Sujatha, P.S. Akhil, Kunjupilai Soman, Jan Schwarzbauer Abstract: The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate associated risks for bottom dwelling consumers regarding sediment quality guidelines, and to observe related adverse effects on the benthic community directly in the field. Article History: Received 24 January 2014; Revised 10 March 2014; Accepted 10 March 2014 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: D. Barcelo
    Keywords: Chlorinated Solvents -- Analysis ; Metabolites -- Analysis ; Estuarine Ecosystems -- Analysis ; Estuaries -- Analysis ; Sediments (Geology) -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, 2010, Vol.81(4), pp.500-508
    Description: Groundwater samples contaminated by an industrial point source were analysed in order to reveal the structural diversity of halogenated organic contaminants. Particular focus was laid on the metabolites and derivatives related to the pesticides DDT (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichlorethane) and lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane). Additionally, a wide range of chlorinated and brominated xenobiotics were identified. These results represent a high degree of contamination with organochlorine compounds illustrating a considerable structural diversity in groundwater in the vicinity of the industrial plant. The polar DDT-metabolite DDA (2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)acetic acid), which has been neglected in water studies widely, represents the main DDT metabolite analysed in the water samples. Besides DDA, some unknown substances with structural relation to DDA and DDT were detected and identified, in detail 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid N-methyl amide (DDAMA) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid -butyl ester (DDABE). As an overall implication of this study it has to be demanded that analysis of industrially affected ground waters have to be based on screening analysis for a comprehensive view on the state of pollution.
    Keywords: Ddt Metabolites ; Dda ; Hch ; Halogenated Pollutants ; Industrially Affected Groundwater ; Screening Analyses ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Coal Geology, March 1, 2013, Vol.107, p.127(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2012.10.001 Byline: Jan Schwarzbauer, Ralf Littke, Ralf Meier, Harald Strauss Keywords: Coal; Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA); Late Palaeozoic; Biomarker; Carbon isotopes Abstract: Stable carbon isotope ratios for aliphatic biomarkers were measured on 34 Late Palaeozoic coals. Compound specific isotope analysis allowed the determination of [delta].sup.13C values of individual organic compounds such as chlorophyll side-chain derived substances (pristane and phytane), leaf wax constituents (n-alkanes), or bacteria related compounds (hopanoids). Pristane and phytane can be regarded as excellent isotopic tracer molecules to ascertain isotope fractionation during primary production of organic matter by land plants in the Late Palaeozoic. Compared to the organic carbon isotope values for total terrestrial organic carbon, partly different isotope shifts and temporal trends are discernible for these isoprenoids. Such differences in carbon isotope ratios of total terrestrial organic matter and isoprenoids indicate that both isotope data sets record different bio-geochemical information. Since phytol-derived isoprenoids are directly linked to the primary production of organic matter, their carbon isotopic properties seem to be most appropriate for the reconstruction of ecological systems and climate in the Palaeozoic. Interestingly, isotopic values of isoprenoids and hopanoids were not significantly affected by maturity and maceral composition of the coals. However, differences between the isotopic composition of total organic matter and of phytane ([DELTA][delta].sup.13C values) and differences between the isotopic composition of total organic matter and of hopane seem to correlate with provenance of the samples, i.e. samples from different basins show different values. Hence, variations in different types of organic biomass might be successfully traced by the isotopic properties of characteristic molecular fossils in Palaeozoic coals. This might become an appropriate approach for future palaeoenvironmental, palaeoclimatic and palaeogeographical studies. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates that molecular and carbon isotopic analyses of terrestrial organic matter, range in resolution from bulk to compound specific analyses, and it allows for the reconstruction of ecological and climatic conditions in the Late Palaeozoic. Article History: Received 24 May 2012; Revised 2 October 2012; Accepted 3 October 2012
    Keywords: Fossils -- Analysis ; Plant Biochemistry -- Analysis ; Chlorophyll -- Analysis ; Tracers (Biology) -- Analysis ; Coal Industry -- Analysis ; Biological Markers -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0166-5162
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Water research, November 2005, Vol.39(19), pp.4735-48
    Description: Detailed gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses applied to eight Rhine river water samples constituted a comprehensive characterization of the low molecular weight organic contamination. Within the group of predominant anthropogenic contaminants, only a few compounds were characterized as frequently detected or priority pollutants. Numerous compounds exhibiting physiological or ecotoxicological properties are only rarely reported or still unnoticed riverine contaminants. Information on environmental behaviour or ecotoxicological effects is still limited for most of these substances. In particular, several brominated compounds (mono- and dibrominated (methoxyphenyl)propionic acids and hydroxymethylacetophenones) were identified for the first time as environmental contaminants. Quantitative analyses differentiated five groups of pollutants with respect to their concentration profiles. The spatial distribution and the intensity of emission sources on the one hand and the environmental stability as well as the tendency to adsorb on the particulate matter on the other hand determined the quantitative occurrence of individual compounds.
    Keywords: Organic Chemicals -- Analysis ; Rivers -- Chemistry ; Water Pollutants, Chemical -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0043-1354
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, August 2017, Vol.76(3-4), pp.832-846
    Description: There is a lack of knowledge in environmental pollution of the anthropogenic contaminants in wastewater and surface water. Several organic compounds merit special attention, because of their potential risk to the aquatic environment. Therefore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based screening analyses were performed in order to identify anthropogenic organic contaminants and to reveal information on the structural diversity of individual compounds and to characterize their environmental behavior. Wastewater samples from wastewater treatment plants in Germany, representing various capacities, and surface water samples from corresponding receiving waters were analyzed. Numerous substances were identified in the samples. Several compounds were treated inadequately during wastewater treatment, and their identification in surface waters highlights their potential impact on the aquatic environment. Contaminants were selected according to available information about their environmental relevance (e.g. persistence, bioaccumulation potential), their possible application or usage and their occurrence within the environment. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that non-target screening analyses be undertaken to identify the structural diversity of anthropogenic organic contaminants and that further investigations of specific anthropogenic compounds be undertaken as a high priority.
    Keywords: Germany ; Mass Spectrometry ; Surface Water ; Wastewater Treatment Plants ; Environmental Science ; Bioaccumulation ; Anthropogenic Factors ; Water Treatment ; Pollutants ; Organic Compounds ; Water Pollution ; Mass Spectrometry ; Aluminum ; Water Analysis ; Aquatic Environment ; Surface Water ; Scientific Imaging ; Chromatography ; Contaminants ; Human Influences ; Water Pollution ; Environmental Impact ; Wastewater Analysis ; Surface Water ; Mass Spectrometry ; Pollutants ; Contaminants ; Creeks & Streams ; Gas Chromatography ; Environmental Impact ; Hydrochloric Acid ; Gas Chromatography ; Wastewater Facilities ; Chemical Industry ; Flame Retardants ; Organic Compounds ; Receiving Waters ; Bioaccumulation ; Ecological Risk Assessment ; Aquatic Environment ; Screening ; Wastewater Treatment ; Water Sampling ; Pollution ; Organic Contaminants ; Gas Chromatography ; Contaminants ; Organic Compounds ; Bioaccumulation ; Samples ; Mass Spectroscopy ; Wastewater Treatment ; Pollutants ; Persistence ; Surface Water ; Screening ; Aquatic Environment ; Wastewater Treatment ; Mass Spectroscopy ; Risks ; Pollution ; Waste Water ; Gas Chromatography ; Pollutants ; Water Samples ; Anthropogenic Factors ; Organic Compounds ; Aquatic Environment ; Bioaccumulation ; Surface Water ; American Chemical Society ; Anthropogenic Organic Contaminants ; Gas Chromatography ; Mass Spectrometry ; Non-Target Screening ; Structural Diversity ; Wastewater Analyses;
    ISSN: 0273-1223
    E-ISSN: 19969732
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2011, Vol.221(1), pp.77-98
    Description: The detailed characterization of the organic composition of industrial effluents discharged from various industrial branches and the distribution of the emitted pollutants in the surface waters in North Rhine-Westphalia have been done with the use of non-target screening analyses. Based on the characterization of molecular structures of wastewater constituents, their quantification as well as the available information on their origin and industrial applications, the identification of typical organic representatives for petrochemical and food effluents has been performed. Among a wide range of hydrocarbons detected in the petrochemical effluents, several novel organic wastewater constituents have been found for the first time. In the effluents from paper production plant, potential industrial indicators were distinguished, such as resin acids (abietic and dehydroabietic acids) and photoinitiators (Irgacure 184). The monitoring of the behaviour of certain environmentally relevant and newly described pollutants in the contaminated river systems allowed the identification of several industrial site-specific markers. Particularly, 2-(chloromethyl)-1,3-dioxolane, an unknown contaminant, exclusively found in the effluents from a chemical production complex, was present in the river under discharge at high concentrations downstream the contamination source. The comprehensive and detailed evaluation of the anthropogenic markers in the industrial effluents is a promising tool for the environmental assessment of industrial emissions, especially if accompanied with toxicological and ecotoxicological investigations of novel environmental contaminants.
    Keywords: Industrial effluents ; GC/MS ; Non-target screening ; Organic contaminants ; Anthropogenic industrial markers ; River water
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Earth Sciences, 2014, Vol.71(7), pp.3211-3222
    Description: Coaly material enters various environmental compartments from different emission sources and on diverse pathways. The complexity of both the emission processes and the quality of contamination in the Ostrava region avoids a simple source correlation for coal-derived pollution. Hence, this study focused on the application of different geochemical approaches for source apportionment using bulk parameters, aliphatic biomarkers and source-specific PAH ratios. Major aim was to prove the effectiveness of the applied methods for characterizing the impact of coal-derived contamination in complex emission systems such as in the Ostrava region. Individual emission sources were discriminated sufficiently by TOC vs. TEH relationship and two-dimensional correlations of PAH ratios. Additionally, aliphatic biomarkers revealed individual signatures for all classes of samples and pointed to a widespread distribution of fossil material also in the hydrosphere. On the contrary, indicative PAH ratios documented a dominance of pyrogenic over petrogenic-derived organic matter in the lake sediments investigated. These contradictory descriptions demonstrate clearly that only a comprehensive application of different marker systems allows a detailed view on the quality and quantity of coal-derived pollution. Lastly, it remains unclear whether coaly material in aquatic sediments acts as sink or source for PAHs. A proposed indicative marker, the ratio of phenanthrene over retene, failed.
    Keywords: Coal-derived contamination ; Emission sources ; PAHs ; Biomarker ; Sediments
    ISSN: 1866-6280
    E-ISSN: 1866-6299
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